Baiq Arasya Wulandari



A Voyage of Discovery The topics determine what we measure, how the
measurement are made, and the geographic areas
Ocean environment is unique. We often heard of of interest. Some processes are local, such as
ocean and its role on weather and climate and waves on a beach, some are regional, such as the
being discussed in the news. Ocean plays a big weather, and some are global, such as the
role to earth and human’s life without us being influence of the ocean on changing climate and
aware of its huge impact. However, there is still global warming.
much we don’t know about the ocean.
This book aims to make us become aware of
"Put into a larger context, more than 1,500 some of the major theories that form the
people have climbed Mount Everest, more than foundation of physical oceanography and be
300 have journeyed into space, and 12 have able to describe physical processes influencing
walked on the moon, but only 5 percent of the the ocean and coastal region.
ocean floor has been investigated and only 2
people have descended and returned in a single Before beginning a voyage or a journey, we
dive to the deepest part of the ocean. On the usually try to learn about the places we will
other hand, no part of the ocean remains visit. Same like this book, we will learn step by
unaffected by human activities, such as climate step and begin with a brief overview of what is
change, eutrophication, fishing, habitat known about the ocean, and then the influences,
destruction, hypoxia, pollution, and species the physical process, theory and observations,
introductions. Therefore, the scientific study of and also the numerical models in describing the
the ocean should be an international priority." ocean.
― Valdes, L., L. Fonseca, and K. Tedesco, 2010. The ocean is one part of the earth system.
"Looking into the future of ocean sciences: An Hence, an understanding of the ocean is
IOC perspective." Oceanography, 23(3): 160– important for understanding the earth as a
175. system, especially for understanding important
problems such as global change or global
What is exactly the role of the ocean? Why do warming.
we need to care about it? Why study the physics
of the ocean? We use theory, observations, and numerical
models to describe ocean dynamics.
Few of important broad themes of the ocean that
involve earth and human’s life are: 1. Ocean processes are nonlinear and
turbulent. Theories used to describe the
1. We got food from the ocean. ocean are much simplified approximations
to reality.
2. We use the ocean.
2. Observations are sparse in time and space.
Many processes of the time-averaged flow
3. The ocean influence the atmospheric
in many region are poorly observed.
weather and climate.
3. Numerical models include much more
realistic theoretical ideas, they can help

Sensitivity to other variable of interest role in the observation of the ocean. At first glance. Era of Deep-Sea Exploration: 1873-1914. The basic biological. too simplified and often misleading. when fed into Important Concepts numerical models allows the study of earth as a system. Franklin. including climate change or the The exploration of the sea can be divided into response of fisheries to over fishing. Era of Earth System Science: 1995 – Samaveda of The Indian Vedic. describing the time averaged mean circulation of the ocean. Pytheas. The Christopher Columbus (1492-1494). and land. Era of International Cooperation: 1957- Our knowledge of oceanic currents. hydrography. For the first time. collect data to test the theory. . change. waves. and so on. 5. Designing Oceanic Experiments In the 19 and 20 century. satellites. Era of New Methods: 1947-1956. led to the development of various. Era of Surface Oceanography: Earliest theory. The ultimate goal is to know the ocean well enough to predict the future changes in the Eras of Oceanographic Exploration environment. various eras. and they are used to forecast climate emphasis on its character as an environment. . geophysical fluid dynamics. currents. Lack of observations has led to include: oceanography. we can study how The ocean is not well known. Polynesian navigators. understanding of the ocean is often too simple to Charles Darwin (1809-1882). with space. the results. Vasco da result are indeed impressive. interpolate oceanic observations in time and Oceanography is the study of the ocean. Our discovery led by James Cook (1728-1779). and publish times to 1873. we might think that the The knowledge of ocean began with voyages of numerous expeditions mounted since 1873 discovery by Bartholomew Dias (1487-1488). Era of Satellites: 1978-1995. 6. the task have become so 2. Precision. While. Explorers expedition have extended into all ocean. Arabic trades. and recent work is beginning to The long history of the study of the ocean has describe the variability. and tides goes back thousands of year. Hundreds of Gama (1497-1499). Physical Oceanography is the study of physical properties and dynamics of the ocean. physical conceptual pictures of oceanic processes that are oceanography. drifters. and waves. air. Now. Benjamin be right. Era of National Systematic Surveys: 1925- 1940. were soon followed by scientific voyage of much of the ocean is poorly explored. Yet. and many more have started the exploration of the ocean as the The Role of Observations in Oceanography oceanographers. 7. In the past. would give a good description of the ocean. and physical system description of the ocean is sufficient for interact to influence our environment. 1978. 3. Accuracy. The more important disciplines ocean. and earth-system science. . and many more. The Historical Setting 4. an oceanographer would devise a 1. Selecting Oceanic Data Set th th . specialized disciplines each with its own interest and Observations are essential for understanding the vocabulary. specialized that few can do it all. geophysics. and Linearity and autonomous instruments appeared and took . winds. Data from these systems. chemical.

drifters. Fewer and fewer observations come from ships at sea. and autonomous the largest source of error in oceanography.Oceanographers rely more and more on large Almost all our observations of the ocean now data sets produces by others. . instruments. Sampling errors are come from satellites.