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# Normal Stress

Force
Stress =
Area
sz y

Normal
tzy
tzx tyz force on =
face
txz sy
txy
tyx Normal Stress
x
sx

3D 2D

Shear Stress
0, 0
y
sz
Rotational
Equilibrium
tzy
tzx tyz =
sy y
txz
txy
tyx x
sx x

3D 2D

1
Equilibrium Equations

= =0 +

+ =0
Force balance in x direction

+ + + . . . + + =

+ + . . .

sz

tzy
+ + + =0 tzx tyz
sy
txz
txy
+ + + =0
tyx

+ + + =0 sx

## 3 equations, 6 unknown functions

2
Hookes Law in 1D

L = Normal Strain

p p
= Normal Stress

= : Youngs Modulus
L

Elastic Range

## Hookes Law: Extension to 2D

y
=
=
Poissons
Ratio
=

x =

=

3
Now Pull in Both x and y Directions

Isotropic material

## = + Engineering shear strain

= : Shear modulus

=
2(1 + )

4
2D Hookes Law
+
= =
(1 )

+
= =
(1 )

2(1 + ) =
= 2(1 + )

## 2D Hookes Law: Matrix Form

+
= 0
(1 ) (1 ) (1 )
=
0
+ (1 ) (1 )
= 0 0
(1 )

=
2(1 + )

5
3D Hookes Law: Matrix Form
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
= 0 12 0 0
(1 + )(1 2 ) 0 0
0 0 0 0 12 0
0 0 0 0 0 12
sz

tzy
tzx tyz
txz sy
txy
tyx
sx

## Strain-Displacement Relations: Normal Strain

u x x
u+u + = + + + . . .
2

x u Similarly: = =

= 0

6
Strain-Displacement Relations: Shear Strain
0
v x v+v
=
1+
v
1 1
x+ u

=
+

=

1+

u
v = +

y = +

= +