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Fourier Transform

Solutions to

Recommended Problems

S8.1

(a)

x(t)

t

Tj Tj

2 2

Figure S8.1-1

**Note that the total width is T,.
**

(b)

i(t)

t

3T 1 -- T1 To T1 T1 To Tl 3

T 1 =O

2 2 2 2 2 2

Figure S8.1-2

(c) Using the definition of the Fourier transform, we have

X(w) = ox(t)e -j dt =

Ti/2 le-j" dt since x(t) = 0 for ItI>

**Til 12 sin wTi
**

2

= e - (e -jwTI1/2 _ eT1/ ) = 2

JW -T1/2 (e

See Figure S8.1-3.

S8-1

_ 1 ak -T f -T To12 (t)e -jk(2w/T)t dt = TO f -T T1 /2 1 /2 e -jk(2/T O)t dt 1 To sin kr(T1 /T 0 ) _ sin . eikir1/TO) = TO . (e) Substituting (21rk)/To for o.r(2k/3) ak = (e jkirToT 0 -. where we integrate over any period. at w = 2irk/To and then scale by 1/To to get ak.rk (f) From the result of part (e). we obtain 1 2 sin(7rkT1 /T 0 ) sin rk(T 1 /T 0 ) T_1X( =2)T = ak TO I"=(21rk)/ To To 2.rk/To . Note that ak = 0 whenever (27rk)/3 = irm for m a nonzero integer. .Signals and Systems S8-2 (d) Using the analysis formula. X(w).rk 7rk -jk 2. we sample the Fourier transform of x( t). we have ak = T f X(t)e ~jk 0 t dt.

(a+jw)t dt -1 e.1) = a + jw a +jw 2 1 IX(W)I = [X(W)X*(w)]l/ = 2 +o2 a +ja -jw)] \/ > X(w) + X*(O) a Re{X(w)} = 2 a + 2 (2 i = X(W) . (a+jo)t a+jw o Since Re{a} > 0. <tX(w) = tan-' LIM{X(xc)} Re{X(co)} tan -sin5wo) cos 5w = -5w (b) X(w) = e -a t u(t)e -i"' dt = e -ate -j't dt 0 .2 (a) X(w) = fx(t)e -j4t dt = (t . Continuous-Time Fourier Transform / Solutions S8-3 S8.X*(W) -W Im{X(W)} 2 a2 + w 2 '> Im{X(W)) _ w -X(O) = tan.2-2. j sin 5w. e -at goes to zero as t goes to infinity. by the sifting property of the unit impulse. Therefore. 5)e -j' dt = e ~j = cos 5w . = -tan a The magnitude and angle of X(w) are shown in Figure S8. . -1 1 X(W) = 1(0 . IX(w)| = |ej 5wI = 1 for all w.

2) 1 IX(wO)| = [X(x)X*(W)]11 2 = + (ow- 2 \/1 2) X(w) + X*(W) 1 Re{X()} = 2 1 + (w .2-2 (c) X(o) = e 1+12)tU(t )e -''' dt = e(-1+ 2)te -jct dt 1 0 [ 1-+j(2-)t 1 + j(2 .2-3. 2)2 X(w) . 1 1 + j(o . . lim.w)} < 0.2) Im{X(W)} = + ((A -2)2 2 1 X() = tan-' ImX(W) -tan-'(w .1+j(2-w) = 0. )0 Since Re{-1 + j(2 . X*(co) -(o . Therefore. e[.Signals and Systems S8-4 IX(w)I -a a 4X(W) 2 Tro -aa 2T Figure S8.2) LRe{X(w)} The magnitude and angle of X(w) are shown in Figure S8.

wo)ej-' do = 2rewot .2-3 Note that there is no symmetry about w = 0 since x(t) is not real.' dt = aX1 (w) + bX 2 (w) (b) Recall the sifting property of the unit impulse function: f h(t)b(t .to) dt = h(t o) Therefore. S8. 21rb(w .3 (a) X3(w) = X3(t)e -' dt Substituting for x 3(t). Continuous-Time Fourier Transform / Solutions S8-5 X(w)I 1 1 2 3 4X(W) Figure S8. we obtain X 3(() = J [ax 1 (t) + bx 2(t0)e 1-'dt =f ax 1(t)e -wt dt + bx 2 (t)e -jwt dt = af x 1(t)e -j dt + b f x 2(t)e -.

5T {eik( 2.3 S8.4 (a) We see that the new transform is Xa(f) = X(w) W=2. -21rk) 5{eik(2.wo).Signals and Systems S8-6 Thus. f X(w)e'j t do . 2 1.irb ( W Therefore. X(w)ej. we have X(M) = 7{x(t )} = 51 1 ake 2r j = T.r -"oo Note that the integral relating 2-7rS(w . (c) Using the result of part (a). where x(t) = e jot and X(w) = 2-7rb(co . a.wo) and e-o' is exactly of the form x(t) = .rs/t From part (b). Thus.rT)t = 2. Z(w) = 27rab (W k = -00 (d) X(w) 2 sin 3 2 sin 2 To 3 3 Figure S8.t dw. wo)ei-' dw = ei-o' 2. 27rb(o .wo). 7rb(w . we can think of ei-o' as the inverse Fourier transform of 2 7rb(w .wo) is the Fourier transform of eiwo'. Therefore.wf We know that x(t) =.

Figure S8. S8. there is no factor of 21r in the inverse relation. To = 6. Then dw = 21rdf. IXa(f)I TI 2 1 1 2 TI TI TF T. Continuous-Time Fourier Transform / Solutions S8-7 Let w = 2irf.5 (a) By inspection. the factor of 1/2-x has been distributed among the forward and inverse transforms. + c 6 J- = 1 +l 1 + 'je (1 -Jlk6. Thus.4 (b) Comparing Xb(V) = -1 x(t)e jv' dt and X(w) = x(t -j~" dt. Cos 2k . X(w)e dw = 1 X2r(w)ej. where we have substituted v for w. 2 (b) ak = 1 TO )e -k( /To)t dt TO J T0 We integrate from -3 to 3: 1 1 1 ak= 2 (ti + 1)+ 6(t) + -6(t 2 ..dw =1 Xb(v)e jvt dv."f df 27 f= -o Thus. we see that Xb(V) = X(W) or X(w) = X(w) V2_ 7r -V The inverse transform relation for X(w) is 1 *0 j x(t) . and 1 x(t) = X(21rf)ej 2"2ir df = Xa(f )ei2 .

5)]e . we get t(t). we can periodically repeat x 2(t) to get 1(t).1) + -3(t .6) 0 5 6 7 xl(t + 6) 2 -7 t -6 -5 t |tt) 0 t x(t) -7 -6 -5 -1 0 1 5 6 7 Figure S8. [6(t + 1) + b(t) + -1(t .1)]e -j't dt .Signals and Systems S8-8 (t) = 6( + Cos 27rk eik(2 / 6 )t (c) (i) X 1(w) = x 1 (t)e -"' dt . .5-1. ie * + 1 + ie -"1 + cos w (ii) X 2(w) = x 2(t)e -''' dt = [3( t) + it(t . Thus T2 = 6. as shown in Figure S8.5-1 Similarly.5-2. See Figure S8. dt = 1 + ie -j + le -i5 w (d) We see that by periodically repeating x 1 ( t) with period Ti = 6. x 1 (t) 2 t -1 0 1 x 1 (t .

= a. Evaluate X 1 ( 0 ) at w= 21rk/6. Then 6 co-= k*k2rk 1 (27rk\ Similarly. A X6 Although X. the Fourier series coefficients of t(t) should be expressible as scaled samples of X. 1 5e + j2k/6 e X1(x) =irk1 +2o =6.(w) # X 2(w). we can get ak as a scaled sample of X 2(w). Consider X 2(21rk/6): X2 .5-2 (e) Since I(t) is a periodic repetition of x 1 (t) or X 2 (0). Continuous-Time Fourier Transform / Solutions S8-9 x 2 (t) tilt t 01 X2 (t -6) 2 t t 0 t2~ x 2 (t ± 6) 6 1 7 1 2 t -6-5 0 7 X(t) IL -6 -5 -1 0 t2 1 t It 5 6 7 t Figure S8. Thus.rk n X x 62 2 2 6 But e = e j(lOrk/62rk) njlOrk6 e rkI . . they are equal for w =27rk/6.(co). 6 X2 = 1 + cos .

2 6 (d) Xa(w)Xb(W) = Xa(w)[26(o + 7) + 26(w . 1 1 7 1 -e -" l or . ej_ ' ir7-j7 xr7+j7 Note that =_ 1=( .7 6(o + 7) + 27r-. 7I 1 e. 1 . note that ax(t) aX(w) since ax(t)e -j" dt = a x(t)e -jw dt = aX(w) Thus. 7). 2 [6(w + 7) + 6(w .7tu(t) 1 7 + jw Direct inversion using the inverse Fourier transform formula is very difficult. e 7' + . 7 1 e -atu(t) 9 .e -31t 2a a2 + (02 9 + . 7 -37 7 +j7 1 1 . Xb(w)ej do = . 1 -jr/4 1 +jir/4 7 +j7 7 2 7 -j7 7 2 Thus = . cos 7t .6 (a) By inspection. a + jw Thus. 7)] = 2X(-7)(co + 7) + 2Xa(7)6(w . 1 1 .7)]ei-' dw 1 1 . we see that 37 2a e alti 9 _2a a 2 + W2 However. .Signals and Systems S8-10 S8.7) ej" do xaOt = f. -/4) 2 77r 4 . 2 e- It + e = cos 7t (c) From Example 4. (b) Xb(w) = 26(w + 7) + 26(o . Xb(t) = .j7 7 +j7 1f*[2 ±7+ 2 b(co . (w +7) + b(o7) 7 .8 of the text (page 191).7) 2 2 XdCO)= . XA(t) = . [e -j(7t + ei( 7 t-/4)] = -.-) r7 - XA(t) .

3)2 + (t .1)e -j"' dr dt (b) Let r t .3)w . 0 5 w < 1. -1 ! (O 0.1) I 0 0 egj(t - (j(t . we obtain x(t) = - 21r 1 L( (j(t j(t . Then Y(w) = TT=.1 sin (t . the Fourier transform can be calculated from ak as X(w) = 21 ak w-T k=-00 . we obtain 1 rT/2_ 1 Ilk = I T/ e(t)e -jk(21r/T) t dt-T T -T/2 T Thus all the Fourier series coefficients are equal to 1/T.fro x(r)h(r)e -jw( r-+*T) dr dr = x(r)e -' d-r {r=-0 h(r)e ~'j dr = X(w)H(w) S8. we ~i3-ejwl dw Note that e ax f dx xe" = .3)) (j(t . elsewhere.7 (a) Y(w) = y(t)e -j dt x(r)h( t . 3)w . T and integrate for all r and r. -(ax ax -1) Substituting a = j(t . x(t) = f X(w)e-' dw = i [J' we -jamei' do . 3 (e) Xe(w) = we -j w. (b) For periodic signals. . Continuous-Time Fourier Transform / Solutions S8-11 we ~j3 w. 3)_ Solutions to Optional Problems S8.1) 0 J which can be simplified to yield 1 [ cos (t .r)h(t .8 (a) Using the analysis equation.3)w .3) x(t) = 7r (t . t0.3) . -) dr e -j'' dt S ft x(.3) into the integrals.3)) 2 3)w (j )) (j(t .

we have X(w) = X()P(x) 27rk = X(-) . X . . (d) From Problem P8. kT)] k= -o From the sifting property of b(t). it follows that x(t)* pX)O x(t .kT) =t(t) k= Thus. 21 2rk PM=T 6 T P(wj) 21Tr T _47 _ 2n 0 2_ 4 T T T T Figure S8. Ti T which is consistent with our previous discussions. we obtain x(t) * p(t) = T. -T k= 2xk =jI -.X(w)5(c Since each summation term is nonzero only at w = 27rk/T. we have x(t)* p(t) = xt * kT) k Ot Using the associative property of convolution. x(t) * p(t) is a periodic repetition of x(t) with period T. [x(t) * b(t . *0 27r 2rk 2xk i = y=) T X( T B From this expression we see that the Fourier series coefficients of t(t) are ak = .7.Signals and Systems S8-12 In this case.8 (c) We are required to show that 2(t) = x(t )* p(t) Substituting for p(t).

but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource.mit.edu Resource: Signals and Systems Professor Alan V.edu/terms.MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw. . visit: http://ocw. For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use. Oppenheim The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare.mit.

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