Annual Report Joint

2014 Research
Centre
The European Commission’s
in-house science service
Report EUR 26867 EN

Joint
Research
Centre

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Message by Tibor Navracsics, Commissioner for Education, Culture,
Youth and Sport, responsible for the JRC................................................................. 3

Message by Vladimír Šucha, JRC Director-General............................................ 4

Observations from the Board of Governors............................................................ 5

Economic and Monetary Union...................................................................................... 6

Innovation, growth and jobs............................................................................................ 8

Digital Agenda......................................................................................................................... 10

Energy and transport........................................................................................................... 12

Environment and climate change................................................................................. 14

Agriculture and global food security........................................................................... 16

Security and disaster risk reduction............................................................................ 18

Health and consumer protection................................................................................... 20

Nuclear safety and security............................................................................................. 22

Partnerships and international co-operation.......................................................... 24

Mapping the excellence of JRC scientific publications...................................... 26

Facts and figures.................................................................................................................... 28

JRC Board of Governors..................................................................................................... 30

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develops its capacity to It has solid experience in continue the good work. stronger Europe. and credit you deserve. President Jean-Claude Commissioner very clearly areas. CULTURE. cooperating across portfolios provide scientific advice transforming scientific sition.both to ciplinary scientific advice lenges before they happen. transversal service like the and more important in policy provides me with the perfect bringing it closer to citizens. The Commis- and job creation and making I believe that having a Science has become more sion’s new way of working the EU more democratic . I Juncker Commission took initiatives that have clear nearly all policies. But I am way. Joint Research Centre in my making. of change – and it to produce integrated. to identify innova. Commissioner Tibor Navracsics addressing JRC staff during his first visit to the Ispra site (December 2014). different opportunity to support this choices. The new Commission is portfolio gives me a unique cians to make sound policy We have five challenging working in a new. well. so is why our political priorities talities by working together Joint Research Centre and to that this important capacity include vital aims such as on the areas where we can ensure you get the visibility is fully used to the benefit boosting economic growth really make a difference. And be my pleasure to be the tise and make the Joint Re- to tackle the big challenges he called on all Commission best ambassador for the search Centre the “scientific that Europe is facing. excellent work you do in the brain” of the Commission. RESPONSIBLE FOR THE JRC 2014 was a year of tran. It can help politi. of EU citizens. years ahead of us. It will want to build on this exper- office with a clear mandate benefits for EU citizens. My mandate as works in almost all policy potential of science to them. The Joint Research silo-breaking approach by tive solutions and to become confident that we can find Centre is in a particularly channelling its multidis. from financial stability improve the policy initiatives Juncker has called on all requires me to ensure that to energy and climate poli. 3 . we will employ to build a Commissioners to work the Joint Research Centre cies. aware of impending chal. answers to the pressing strategic position . Let’s together as a strong team. questions Europe is facing promote these new working into a wide range of EU The Joint Research Centre and I firmly believe in the methods and to benefit from policy areas. YOUTH AND SPORT. opportunity to do this. That staff to overcome silo men. to all Commissioners and research into evidence to marked a new start: the grounded and well-explained their services and input into support policy making. to safety and security. MESSAGE BY TIBOR NAVRACSICS COMMISSIONER FOR EDUCATION.

but also for the to continue to provide best 2020 associated countries citizens. mission services and DG nity. 2014 there was a grow. We embrace the excellent work done by DG tential of DG JRC. into knowledge for policy nating and rewarding year. In and DG JRC shall continue to opportunity to show how took office as Director-Gen. tious goals for the coming EU. Horizon creating better policies for for DG JRC. and global scientific commu. today in order to come out I hope that you will enjoy I am more than ever tion as one of the leading of the economic and social reading the highlights of the convinced about the po. 4 . To achieve Commission has brought international links and this. as well as with partners making can contribute to a year of changes not only JRC will step up its efforts in Member States. We take this as an Commissioner Tibor Navracsics with JRC Director-General and Directors. We have set ambi- Commission and for the available scientific support and strategic third countries. and we remain committed policies which Europe needs political priorities. nourish its well-established robust science and DG JRC eral of DG JRC. strong policy making. organisations in feeding crisis. to maintaining its reputa. MESSAGE BY VLADIMÍR ŠUCHA JRC DIRECTOR-GENERAL A year has passed since I dedicated colleagues. built on scientific knowledge into challenges that this new JRC in the following pages. One year into my term. co-operation is crucial. We are confident that DG years to make our scientific brings new momentum to The new setting brings about JRC can play a key role in advice yet more relevant our work and provides new new opportunities for DG JRC delivering the results and and more focused on the opportunities. It has been ing demand for scientific networks with the European experience in translating it an intensive but also fasci. The new Commission for EU policies. scientific excellence. support from other Com. about.

The Board on a broad range of strategic 2016. the JRC in strategic plan. in a few areas even better. including the a new quality of strategic supporting all Commis. Commission is seeking to The dual role of the JRC – Unfortunately. The JRC. Tibor Navracsics. to meet these challenging between Vladimír Šucha and and Sports. progressively both the scientific and the priorities and new ways and working methods of develop its role as a service strategic role of the JRC. The The JRC continues to be a 2020. The Board supports organisations worldwide. Culture. in November. without excluding the Thomson-Reuters. it scores Board endorses the present highly appreciated partner in option for JRC researchers to in many scientific areas simi. Beyond this. policy fields. and evaluation of Horizon performance of the JRC by during her term in office. portfolio of the Commissioner JRC and other parts of the convinced that the JRC is able Moreover. content has called for. JRC operating under the programmes of Horizon adviser on the other – will The Board wishes to record leadership of a new Director. and trusted interactions with in close contact with the 2020 Indirect Actions and view of the activities of him. 5 . The report also of the Board. A number of discus. newly defined define the scope. by the public still does not able changes: we saw the ning of the biannual work and as a scientific policy adequately reflect this. extending much beyond management of the JRC and one on the preparation of the the JRC along the main EU the three regular meetings continued to provide advice JRC Work Programme 2015. the Board has started off The Board of Governors working groups. Director-General has taken with a new distribution of took place with the aim to should. The Board is JRC’s visibility and impact. be even more challenging in its appreciation of Vladimír General. one on the The Annual Report 2014 very well. as President Juncker important steps to strengthen responsibilities. management and staff. and the excellent work of the JRC disciplines. According to an Máire Geoghegan-Quinn Horizon 2020 programme the strategic implementation evaluation of the research for her support of the JRC was of particular importance. The rationale behind is underlines the considerable of Governors would like to and thematic issues. and. Youth Commission. a sions between the JRC and the future. We had fruitful followed these developments role of the JRC in Horizon gives an impressive over. with its Šucha who in his first year as new Commission took office policy Directorate-Generals knowledge and its expertise. that the JRC should engage value of the JRC’s scientific thank former Commissioner The successful start of the itself to a greater extent in output. annual report and expresses its research and development participate in Horizon 2020 larly to the top 15 research its support and gratitude for projects covering different projects. the reputa- better exploit the potential of as a European research tion of the JRC as perceived JRC Board of Governors meeting in Vienna (June 2014). organisation on the one hand. 2020. The Board set up two ad hoc demands. This will help to enhance the assignment of the JRC to the co-operation between the sion services. the co-operation for Education. of operating. the this strategic approach. OBSERVATIONS FROM THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS 2014 was a year of remark.

based of the European Commission’s priorities throughout 2014. The JRC. management. rather than puting the contributions. the Single adjust contributions taking into and potential growth capital requirements (Capital Resolution Mechanism (SRM) account banks’ risk profile. the financial sector. methodology to compute a risk model. This review The new proposal aims to included contributions from ensure that banks do not the JRC. the European fiscal policies in the Economic their effectiveness in reducing resolution funds will be pooled Commission adopted a pro. society. To support this ap. structural reform of the bank. tions in line with a special treatment for small banks (green dots). with significant on their size and investment progress on stabilising financial markets and introducing elements of banking trading activities. to quantitative assessment of safeguard against taxpayer certain legislation adopted Comparison of contributions solely based on the size (blue dots) to contribu. Originated Losses (SYMBOL) While bank recovery and res. potential growth and the probability of future crises and oped quantitative assessment The JRC’s quantitative analysis output gap (the distance of place the burden on sharehold. on how contributions from earlier reforms as part of the maintains an estimation including increased quality banks should be defined and comprehensive overhaul of platform currently used by and level of capital to absorb computed. banks expect government and for Financial Stability. ing bank regulation may lead lished the Economic Review of to unintended incentives to Financial Regulation Agenda. and their impact on (SRF). them money at favourable rates. based on the supervision. The support was developed into various streams of AND MONETARY UNION research. to potential future crashes. implements resolution rules for The Stability and Growth Pact CRDIV) and resolution tools the Eurozone. The bailouts in case of need and JRC also continued to monitor fiscal imbalances for the Stability and Growth are therefore ready to lend Pact. which will reduce the extensive analysis and devel. the probability of future into a Single Resolution Fund posal for a new regulation on established to safeguard crises. The JRC study estimates that this funding advantage Assessing the amounted to €65-95 billion Commission’s banking per year in 2011 and 2012. in the Banking Union. It complements The JRC has developed and set up a number of tools. of EU countries Requirements Directive IV . and facilitate in the EU. including a statisti- cal study to set quantitative thresholds that would help identify the banks to be The development of the Economic and Monetary Union continued to be one considered for reforms. Financial Services and Capital Markets Union. the JRC has conducted ensure stability and resilience the EU countries to calculate bail-in. of alternative options for com. and proach. JRC also proposed and tested a of banks. engage more in trading activi- which assesses the impact ties than in traditional banking of the banking regulatory activities. and Monetary Union (EMU). A reform agenda third study showed that exist- In 2014. The extensively the impact The output gap serves to 6 . and resolution Systemic Model of Banking on the citizen. regulation. and scientific inputs supported actual GDP to its potential). using its JRC research also showed expertise in modelling and analytical tools. estimated the bene. for which the Commis. as well as any Towards safer (SGP) is an EU framework for for banks (Bank Recovery and other countries participating and simpler banks the coordination of national Resolution Directive . which developed a become too big to fail.BRRD). contributed to the comprehensive that EU banks have enjoyed an implicit subsidy from the review of the Commission’s financial regulation agenda and to the preparation State in recent years: cred- of the proposal for restructuring the EU banking sector in close collaboration itors of large and complex with the Commission’s Directorate-Generals for Economic and Financial Affairs. in order to both the Commission and shocks. JRC analysis.sound public finances. including lending framework put in place by the to firms and households. ers and creditors. National Early in 2014. ECONOMIC assessment of this proposal. EU in recent years. reform to move the burden of cost away from the citizen. resolution funds. the Commission pub. with a methodological upgrade utilising information on unit labour costs. These two directives sion has also adopted rules ing sector. olution mechanisms operate indicator that will be applied to Estimating the real fits of introducing increased at national level. bailouts.

223.5 JRC’s econometric and statistical >= 404. human capital to monitor the Member States comparison between urban and R&D.294.5294.3 .5 Source: JRC 158.404. by2012 region.4 .4 . including the creation Mayotte Réunion Mayotte Réunion highlights challenges faced by of inner-city density profiles Açores Açores Madeira Madeira national.4.5 Source: JRC The European settlements map developed with satellite imagery by the JRC’s Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) 2.eu/!YB73tn REGIOgis REGIOgis Built up Built area per up area headper by head region.2. tion of the regional impact of assess the cyclically adjusted and economic crises. bottom left panel zooms on small banks. social person in urban areas is four eration.0 ing regulation . When it came to analys- ing the vulnerability of cities to heat waves and river floods.5158.6 .6 2. 2012 Sixth report on economic.3 Source: JRC 3. rate-General for Regional and rate-General for Regional and In 2014. 2012 Canarias Financial Regulation Agenda – Guadeloupe Martinique Guyane Percentage < 2. Road amount of built-up land per congestion.5 0 500 Km 0 500 Km © EuroGeographics Association for the administrative boundaries © EuroGeographics Association for the administrative boundaries .3.km per million inhabitants < 2.0 0 500 Km © EuroGeographics Association for the administrative boundaries tions of banks to resolution funds – COM(2014) 710 final.2 . 2012 Share of built-up area in total area by region. 4.5 .a coherent overview of the Guadeloupe Guyane estimates in a majority of EU tion compared to rural areas.5 .that are particularly lacking in mission to measure banks’ trading levels.eu/!Jk64MP substantiated this analysis.eu/!Bc43Pk Martinique 2.europa.223.4.4 reform: 96.0 >= 7.294.5 .6 96.2 . patterns.7.9 .eu/jrc/en/eemc Share of built up area in total area by region.0 >= 404.0 < 96.9 . as well as in sus- compliance with the Pact in and rural development in tainable growth for the period order to prevent excessive Europe carried out by the 2014-2020. May 2014: http://europa.5 96.5 Source: JRC Source: JRC 223. 2012 Built-up area per head by region. According to the report. which offer Canarias can improve the output gap land and resource consump.3 3.9223. production-based and and territorial cohesion times lower than that in rural consumption-based emissions. The 6th report on economic.9 294.research showed that cities nomic and bio-physical mod- tion of unit labour costs data are more efficient in terms of els and databases.5 .km per million < 96.5 . Canarias Canarias was released in July 2014.5 software: 0 0 500 Km 500 Km REGIO gis © EuroGeographics © Association EuroGeographics for theAssociation administrative for the boundaries REGIOgis administrative boundaries https://ec.404.294.0 .2 223.5 http://europa.4 .eu/!gm76Tr 158. JRC work identified regions The results of the clustering exercise for the metric chosen by the Com.9 .km inhabitants per million inhabitants < 96. regional and local and impact assessments of authorities in overcoming different spatial planning Read more the impact of the financial options on future urbanisation Commission staff working docu- REGIO gis ment – Economic Review of the Canarias Share of built up area in total area by region. Top panel presents all banks.2 Proposal for a Council implement- Mayotte Réunion Mayotte Réunion 4.4 territorial cohesion: 2. pollution. the development in the EU.404. cohesion policy investments in budget balance which is used JRC analyses fed into the vast infrastructure.4 sq.9 294. JRC Urban Policy.0 .6 .5 http://europa. The use of renewa- ble energies was covered as well. in close public debt levels which can Commission’s Directo.2. adaptation capacity. social and Percentage sq.0 Guadeloupe Guyane SWD(2014) 158 final.158.3 . options for regional and urban Martinique Member States. research at the JRC Urban Policy.5 .158. collaboration with the Directo- put economies at risk. 2012 Built up area per head by region.7.158.Rules on contribu- Açores Madeira Açores Madeira >= 7. provided eco- has shown that the incorpora. bottom right panel identifies When supporting the estima- banks close to the thresholds. It has shown that vast areas within the EU – besides the southern regions – have the potential to produce electricity using solar radia- tion.3. November 2014: http://europa.5 >= 404. For instance. agglom- Mayotte Réunion Açores Madeira Analysing economic. and the use of resources are social and territorial cohesion A land-use efficiency analysis among the topics considered.223. the JRC. or peripheral areas. 2012 Proposal on banking structural sq. allowed urban growth to be Guadeloupe Martinique Guadeloupe Guyane Martinique Guyane It examines the state of studied since the mid-20th cohesion of the EU and century.

ogy hardware and equipment In 2014 the JRC measured investment in research and development of (-5. growth rate of 2. and ‘de-risking’. The EU and energy neutrality. and profits evolution. In 2014.9%) and technol- productivity and the creation of more jobs. tion are key components of companies worldwide. regional policies. JRC-managed smart speciali. the total R&D investment solutions and ensure protection 8 . sation to more than 150. and identifies five priority enhanced competiveness of regions such as the Danube The 633 EU companies areas: integration. tech sectors such as pharma- late innovation and knowledge. These efforts are essential for the growth of ceuticals (0. narrow the innovation gap. R&D investment growth accelerate and rely on an helping regions specialise and focusing policy action on by EU companies below integrated strategy. and Country Peer Review Region Peer Review sation to fulfil their objectives is below the world average. Inter-regional The 2014 edition is based sion Directorate-Generals such strategies for smart speciali. with many of them returning to growth. focuses on a 2025 scenario economic development and on supporting EU macro nesses (2013 data). In support of a more sustainable economy. Assistance to regional economic development average R&D increase of the EU sample. There were 153 regions. In fact addressed. quality launched by the JRC and based carmaker Volkswagen and performance. JRC to standards in 2025 experts produced a foresight study on standards in 2025. multidimensional poverty in function of the degree of urbanisation. and annually by the JRC and fostering competition. expertise and development investment ments and societal challenges. reflecting mainly the good performance of automobiles companies based in Germany. participation of other Commis- research and innovation (R&I) methodology. environmen- priorities across borders. To explore how Foresight: forward-looking standardisation will facilitate new production systems in a decade. RIS3. conducted with the assisted in creating their around the concept and Research and Innovation.6% respectively. with efforts focusing on measures that stimu. a bioeconomy observatory was set up to monitor the health of the sector. focused on In October. the Stairway to decreased by 1. which tal sustainability. 31 are based in the EU. However. recovery companies in relevant high- remains uneven and fragile. Sustained policy efforts at all levels put European economies on firmer The low R&D growth of EU ground in 2014. Only in this the smart way a limited number of priorities. has continued through smart specialisation. as compared with 39 in the US a better understanding of poverty and its distribution is key to sensible and 17 in Japan. based on and the Baltic Sea in using between them show an at having standards that can their research and innovation annual R&D investment cope with converging technol- EU Countries Registered in S3P EU Regions Registered in S3P Non EU Regions Registered in S3P strategies for smart speciali. of the EU-633 Scoreboard companies. uct package will need to be EU since 2004 with the aim ling €11. Its R&D invest- ment continued to increase GROWTH AND JOBS in 2013 (6. which aims European regions. and transnational collabora. eight EU regions The JRC provides information. ses R&I strategies for the put a particular emphasis expenditure on R&D by busi.2%). the total number of regions fosters academic debates the Directorate-General for The study.7billion. the Commission’s Directo.9% and resource efficiency. JRC researchers have studied nies. This ogies and infrastructures. 15 countries of helping them catch up to the EU’s automobile sector with standards that provide and 2 non-EU regions registered in the more developed regions and accounts for one quarter of confidence towards innovative smart specialisation platform in 2014. INNOVATION. with a 23% increase services as part of any prod- the countries that joined the of R&D investment total.6%. zero waste Excellence (S2E) project was 6. assure interoperability and and in connecting related but still above net sales interconnectivity. A new JRC foresight study suggests that the European standardisation system should S3 Platform: their potential and strengths. The EU industrial research with technological develop- and one country joined the methodologies.4%) weight down the total the EU’s private companies. which Entrepreneurship and SMEs or Smart specialisation addres. world average way will it be able to keep pace In 2014. services. Industry. on a sample of the top 2500 as DG Internal Market. the platform represents 90% of the total DG Research and Innovation. leads the world R&D ranking meaning that consumers’ rate-General for Regional for the second consecutive demand for high-quality and Urban Policy to support year. bringing regional policy makers. which supports research Out of the top 100 compa- and innovation strategies across the EU. and advice to national and scoreboard is published stimulating innovation and sation platform (S3P).

and mensional perspective ones – poverty is relatively socio-economic analysis. which represent 90% of R&D company investment worldwide). as well as the monitoring of (12. the poverty in the regions of the European Union: and innovation policies. safety and privacy. In order to meas. Finland. the JRC set Area (ERA). mapping of policy initiatives such as cities.e.ec.eu/!hJ84qT value chains. provides data and analysis at poverty ranges from 0. level of poverty (between 2% bioeconomy and R&I tion of the European Research and 5%) is observed in the During 2014. innovation and skills. In contrast at EU and national levels.eu/score- biological resources. The observatory UK. Romania having the largest more systematic way. Bulgaria and be addressed earlier and in a in the European Semester. comparison of progress is observed in sparsely popu- nomy observatory includes towards the implementation lated areas. education. i. countries – the most affluent countries and regions. It level of non-income related http://europa. A moderate Monitoring progress on initiative and of the comple.1% and 15. Croatia and Estonia. statistics on investments in of the European Research while the best situation occurs research.eu/!UX74rB . Area across EU countries. The research and into account. JRC’s work on smart specialisation: assessment of bio-based has built a composite index http://europa. from potential risks to health. up two observatories in is also designing and building Malta. innovation (R&I) observatory Results show that in the Monitoring multidimensional monitors national research 24 EU countries studied.europa. which will level.europa.2%. Greece. 13. in densely populated areas. populated areas. rural areas. information and for Regional and Urban Policy. 2014 industrial R&D investment scoreboard: production and exploitation of ure poverty at the regional http://iri.eu/ This observatory was foreseen conditions.5% to security.5%) isation needs so that they can innovation recommendations and Latvia. material deprivation and living https://biobs. country and regional levels to 13-15%. for example an interac.with the Directorate-General areas compared with less Read more ability data. the worst situation Innovation. country-specific research and share of poor people (0. in close collaboration higher in densely populated well as environmental sustain. as The JRC. tools. with the ‘degree of by the European Bioeconomy urbanisation’ also being taken Bioeconomy strategy: http://europa. The new bioeco.eu/ on the progress and impact by studying three dimensions: home of the bioeconomy in Europe.Regional distribution of R&D private investments (data from the 2500 top investors. In close collaboration with user-friendly dissemination the most disadvantaged and the Commission’s Directo. An online tool (MPI-reg) that measures allows for regular assessment non-income related poverty Smart specialisation platform: http://s3platform.5% the Innovation Union flagship respectively). in the top scoring bioeconomy profiles of EU poverty from a multidi. this information is board14.eu/!QC99Vu Strategy. including waste. health and living understood as the sustainable standards.europa.jrc. Slovakia.jrc.jrc.ec. moderately disadvantaged rate-General for Research and tive dashboard which allows countries.html allow the production of more combined with both data on Bioeconomy observatory: from less. Looking at regional however. with Denmark and The study also provides a support the development of Sweden having the lowest template to identify standard.ec.

a new prototype application to fight cybercrime to improve the teaching of and a study focused on e-health in European hospitals. located the Commission’s Directo. five years (see graph). (USA). the report states that integrating ICT into teacher education and The Digital Agenda for Europe aims to reboot the EU’s economy and help addressing students’ low business and citizens make the most out of digital technologies. This effect is also observed sion’s Directorate-General for in places like Silicon Valley Communication Networks. Conclusions rate-General for Education data (2006-2011). open educa- tional resources and the rise Educational and digital of data-driven learning and challenges in EU schools assessment. Regarding the challenges. Other results include a study on the evolution challenges include the need of R&D in the ICT sector. the JRC Slight increase in ICT and research partners looked sector employment at the challenges. sector and its R&D invest- Most ICT activity takes place in 34 EU regions (out the 1303 analysed) opments that are likely to ments – both private and located in 12 countries. have an impact on European public – in the European Union school education systems for and beyond. education and culture. trends JRC research analyses the ICT and technological devel. complex thinking and ensur- ing students are ‘co-design- ers’ of learning. as well as few areas. the 34 ICT hotspots in Europe were identified. Working in close collaboration with an expert panel. will be more and Communication Technology (ICT) analysis. Key ingre- conducted a study which dients to success also include unveiled that ICT excellence access to top universities and is highly concentrated in a research centres. the 1303 European regions. In difficult to implement in the 2014. The JRC. R&D and innovation and developments over the next their intensity. followed by other ment activities. closely clustered funding opportunities such as together (see map). The JRC and the Commis. and to building Germany. The 2014 report. based networks. Mapping ICT excellence in only 34 of them. and Leuven in Belgium. content and technology. Cambridge in the an intense business activ- UK. and blending formal and non-for- through its research on cybersecurity. Creating ‘authentic’ innovation. Out of venture capital. based on the latest official in Europe in 12 countries. amongst other areas. ity around this innovation. gathering 42 specific areas The study also outlines the and looking at business activ. DIGITAL AGENDA and Culture. Performance was measured “Horizon report Europe: 2014 schools edition” outlines key trends. of social media. the ability to small-size regions such as take knowledge to market Karlsruhe or Darmstadt in (innovation). supports the Digital Agenda for Europe on real-life experience. London to research and develop- and Paris.trends and technological ity. found that The top three ICT hotspots in show that excellence is linked Europe are Munich. Bangalore (India) or Content and Technology Changzhou (China). It isation and networking. The concludes action is urgently study provides the full list of needed to promote innova- the 34 top ICT regions and the tion in the classroom to take interactive atlas gathers the advantage of increased use indicators of each EU region. digital competence are in close co-operation with other Commission services for research and solvable. regional policy and communications learning opportunities. 10 . international. challenges most ICT activity takes place through a composite indicator and technological developments that are likely to have an impact on school education systems. digital economy and Information mal education. as well as the digital short term and the toughest challenges faced by schools.

random vari. short-term medical and/or Mapping the European ICT Poles of with the Commission’s Direc. expenditure compared to its social networks. combines national research was carried out information. out by the JRC in support to greater than the average. according to the device used (acute hospitals). This Nordic countries lead idating the sector as one of enables identification of the e-health deployment the most research-intensive camera owner and possible in hospitals sectors in the EU economy. each sensitive element (pixel). http://europa. the European Commission’s score the lowest both with regards to availability and Horizon Report Europe – 2014 usage levels. and in close collaboration with that tele-health functionalities Europe: http://europa. and Greece) has narrowed with GDP. the Nordic due to slight. This report offers detailed country Technology. The US through video analytics and sionals actively use e-health led the ranking of ICT sector in computer vision research. After exploring innova. Schools Edition: http://europa. Content and to take the picture. verification and hospitals dealing with Read more carried out in collaboration retrieval.eu/!Rp39hp professionals the electronic Conference paper – On the usage exchange of medical patient of sensor pattern noise for pic- data with any healthcare ture-to-identity linking through social network accounts: provider in another country http://pralab. Content & this area. They found out Interactive Atlas of ICT activity in statistics.the EU ICT sector has declined Who took that picture? Directorate-General for in terms of value added (value Fighting online child abuse Home Affairs in support to of output minus the value of Every single digital device the global fight against child intermediate consumption) leaves a unique noise pattern sexual abuse online and also but increased in terms of in the images it takes. whereas Asian JRC has developed the first JRC scientists analysed countries (Japan. This research. Recent the work of European police employment. strated by the JRC. advances in image processing forces and EUROPOL’s Euro- the business enterprise R&D techniques allow the device to pean cybercrime centre. classification. The final in Europe: http://europa. the findings confirm countries (Sweden. Korea prototype application that e-health deployment. However. company data. best performers and less ority in terms of public funding This pattern is unique to advanced countries (mostly for research and development each camera and stable over Eastern European countries in this area when compared time. and Spain.it/en/ is deployed in only 7% of node/1005# hospitals.eu/!VX36cu ing of patients is available in only 9% of hospitals and the PREDICT project: functionality to allow health http://europa.diee. as demon- value added – grew. the functionalities when available. On R&D progress.eu/!NK67qx cations Networks.unica. where expenditure (BERD) intensity – be traced and matched with a test campaign of the new measured as the ratio of R&D other pictures contained in tool is to be launched. Estonia (63%). European Hospital Survey: Bench- marking Deployment of e-Health JRC’s work on the sensor pattern noise of digital cameras helps to identify Services (2012–2013): perpetrators and victims of child abuse online. terms of size.eu/!yt96pH . This JRC research in this area the Commission’s Directo- progress also coincides with explores the usage of this rate-General for Communi- an increase in public funding in sensor pattern noise (SPN) cations Networks. tion of images in databases surgical treatment and care Excellence: The Atlas of ICT Activity torate-General for Communi. countries for e-health deploy- highly concentrated in the five This almost imperceptible ment in hospitals are Denmark largest EU countries: Germany. ‘noise’ pattern is left in the (66%). France. photographer of an image According to a survey carried with an intensity four times showing illegitimate content. the top performing The ICT sector continues to be victims of child abuse online. China. allowing classifica. Finland. consol. Europe tive ways of improving the from 42% in 2010 to 34% in still lags behind although it is matching performance of SPN 2013 and that medical profes- decreasing the gap. avail- and Taiwan) led private R&D allows performing SPN-based ability and use in European expenditures. Remote monitor.eu/!Vm83nk technology-based indicators. and ations in light response of that the gap between these Denmark) showed their superi. Sweden United Kingdom. However. to identify perpetrators and Technology. Globally. Italy image by the camera sensor and Finland (both 62%).

Gaining knowledge on shale gas fracking 2014 was a breakthrough year with a new target of domestic greenhouse gas As a result of the increas- reduction of at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990. covering costs have also significantly the interactions between the decreased. have started investing in unconventional oil sources. commissioned in 2010. The JRC signifi. stemming from shale gas force its climate and energy on employment ranges from the review showed that new extraction in Europe.20%. The new 2030 policy ing scarcity of conventional framework aims to make the European Union’s economy and energy system oil reserves. barriers to their large-scale opportunities and challenges In 2014 the EU agreed to rein. each rated 3 MW.61% to +0. safe. renewable energy and energy sectors or taxation in the non operating costs. industries and more competitive. It was accom- Supporting the new any action negatively impacts several low-carbon technol. the published in 2014. JRC research con. The and at least a 27% EU-wide auctioning in the EU’s emis. In addition. such as free allocation have also nearly stalled due and environmental impacts (compared to 1990 levels) of permits. on the choice of policy instru. presenting the latest state of play for energy exploration and production production. confirmed broader economic impacts of a steady increase of wind the tighter reduction targets. In this figure. for when compared to the previ- instance. most generating capacity. A new model has also been developed to hydraulic fracturing in order to help policy makers identify the most cost-effective energy scenario and other contribute to bringing clarity studies have looked into greenhouse gas emissions of fuels and biofuels. the vertical axis 40% reduction of greenhouse annual electricity consumption represents the turbine rating in megawatts (MW) and the size of the bub- gases emissions in 2030 of a country like Spain. what the possible ous figures from 2011. Published JRC scientists contributed to efficiency. analysed. The latest JRC strategic sion’s proposal. and in particular to State of the art the impact assessment which of energy technologies accompanied the Commis. transmission. ENERGY technologies allowing policy makers and the research community to identify poten- AND TRANSPORT tial gaps and opportunities. the review the evaluation of the envi- cantly contributed to the new now covers 22 low-carbon ronmental impact of shale package. The ble represents the amount of wind turbines (also in MW) that was installed without other countries taking study also highlighted the lack in a given year The red bubble corresponds to 218 turbines. Onshore wind and economy. and 2014. with effects could be on the Gross wind rising from 84 GW to The size of wind turbines installed offshore has increased with time and it Domestic Product (GDP): a 106 GW. depending investments in conventional as an impact assessment that a 40% reduction of green. the energy system solar photovoltaic (PV) added and the environment.At the same time the impact implementation. as well targets and to achieve at least -0. the European Commis- foster sustainable and efficient transport in Europe. every two years. and solar capacities installed using GEM-E3. distribution and use. Shale gas fracking was also analysed from an environmental of hydrocarbons (such as and technological perspective and the JRC co-ordinates the new science and shale gas) using high volume technology network on this area. the JRC general in Europe.45% to -0. fossil-based technologies examined the socio-economic house gas emissions by 2030 ments. whose capital equilibrium model. to ensure sustainable. JRC experts energy technologies review. panied by a communication 2030 climate on the GDP range from ogies as one of the main outlining the potential new and energy package -0. increasing use of to reduced electricity demand of various policy options. secure and sustainable and also sets a target of at least governments across the globe 27% for renewable energy and energy savings by 2030.10% in 2030. tinued to support energy and transport policies. for example. The JRC demonstrated. such as shale gas. and predictability to public authorities. which could cover the is expected that they will continue to evolve. 12 . ETS sectors. market operators of cost-competitiveness of and citizens. and increasing shares of JRC was actively involved in binding target for both sions trading system (ETS) variable renewables with low the preparation of these texts. In January secure and efficient energy production. JRC scientists contributed sion issued a recommendation to the impact assessment of the new energy and climate package and also on minimum principles for the published technology maps.

carbon intensity of the energy assessing the impact of On the basis of this expertise. Plan Energy technologies: which takes into account the http://europa. system by up to 80%. The rate-Generals for Energy and tion (energy per GDP) is also authors provide GHG emis- for the Environment to set up reduced by 60%. but both the objective is to provide solid describes energy usage and vehicle and energy aspects support to the decision making related GHG emissions from have to be taken into account. the aim is to collect and industrial production facilities such as plug-in hybrid. battery and fuel-cell tion projects and assess the electric vehicles.eu/!Dq84Qq system model (JRC-EU-TIMES). but also in cars. port and delivery. a JRC-EU. extended. Technology map of the European tive technology mix using a Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan: recently developed energy http://europa.eu/!rK76Fm 20-20-20 policy targets and Well-to-Wheels (WTW) analysis of seven potential decarbonised future automotive fuels and power- pathways. technologies can play an 2014. requirement for the transfor. icals (REACH) and developed proposals on how the regis.gas extraction on land.js and sankey diagram to Mike Bostok. Moreover. phase. geological and environ. and also from an energy security point of view. http://europa. through its trans. and heating systems. range analyse results from explora. assessing the shale gas resources in the EU. It assesses the role of differ. The results indi. until its propulsion energy. Acknowledgment for d3.europa. A strong sions results for all vehicle and co-ordinate the Euro. the JRC co-authored tration of such a use could be important role. and energy types relevant pean science and technology mation into such a low-carbon to Europe compared to a network on unconventional society is investment in tech. In the first generation. Shale gas drilling rig. mental risks. JRC scientists assessed the use of chemicals in hydraulic fractur- ing of shale gas reservoirs as reported under the current EU regulatory system on chem. as well as energy use. especially in power It includes for the first time launched in July. hydrocarbon extraction nology. its impact on the region’s security of supply and on natural gas pricing. conventional vehicle baseline. the production paths of the health. water and air quality. electric vehicle configurations. Major energy flows in an exemplary decarbonised EU28 in 2050. consumption by a vehicle. processes and contribute to the outset of a given fuel for example car efficiency and the minimisation of potential pathway.eu/!ug98Gn . In Modelling a cost-effective energy technology mix Read more The JRC looked in 2014 at the EU’s most cost-effec. reducing the the fourth version of a report facilitated. The The JRC-EU-TIMES model – Assess- scientists tested the model ing the long-term role of the SET using a reference scenario. the options on GHG emissions the Commission’s Directo. trains in the European context: cate that innovative energy TIMES model run. European Science and Technology Network on Unconventional Hydro- ent energy technologies in carbon Extraction: meeting Europe’s energy and https://ec. The experts development of technologies Outlook for automotive conclude that options exist used to extract unconven. Coupled future fuel and powertrain the JRC was mandated by with demand reductions. energy intensity of produc. fuels and powertrains for reducing GHG emissions tional gas and oil. The overall The well-to-wheel concept from transport.eu/jrc/en/uh-network climate change objectives.

The Best Agency. Prema. The JRC provides consistency between its continuous support to these challenging endeavours and in particular in 2014 product-related policies. Last but not least. heat-related deaths could reach about 200 000. Welfare losses due to climate change in Europe in 2080 in the reference (+3. These economic economic growth projections Directive). 14 . statistics. health and consumers. conclusions. maintained. These are just some of the findings of a 2014 report by the JRC which analysed the impacts of climate change in several sectors. For an important study unveiling the costs of climate change was published. Environment policy helps to protect the EU’s natural capital. They cover both the damage in the EU could assessments are based on were taken into account. enterprise and industry. climate (€18 billion). a new soil atlas of Latin America and the Caribbean Available Techniques (BAT) was published. a net welfare loss expected by the end of the multiply. with south- ern Europe bearing most of the economic losses. billion. paper and development and co-operation. could more than triple. The number of people affected by droughts could increase by a factor of seven. Climate change remains also high on that aim at greening Europe’s products and production sys- the agenda. the current population and field and cap emissions to air. in 2014 the European Assistance was also provided to the Ecolabel scheme and other initiatives that Commission adopted two contribute to the greening of the EU economy. However. and coastal damage. ENVIRONMENT AND The results also confirm the geographically unbalanced distribution of climate change CLIMATE CHANGE related damages. instance. The EU has some of the world’s highest environmental standards and has Greening Europe’s established itself as a world leader in combating and managing climate markets change. as they are for- mally known. due to sea-level rise. technology used and the way amount to at least €190 scenarios where the climate the negative effects would the installation is designed. The JRC plays a central role in encourages the greening of business and contributes to safeguarding the several well-known initiatives health and well-being of people. agriculture. water and soil (as stipulated and global temperature (€42 billion) and agriculture if future population and by the Industrial Emissions increases by 3. As a consequence. environment and energy as well as with the European Environment mineral oil and gas. There is therefore a very close revised frameworks to cap the collaboration with the European Commission’s services dealing with climate industrial emissions from the action. operated of 1. research and board and from the refining of innovation. built.5°C. maritime affairs and fisheries. production of pulp. as proven by the EU’s decision to set at 40% the target for tems as well as in bringing reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2030. If no further action is taken followed by impacts on coasts economic landscape. are the technical basis for national authorities in EU countries to set permit Quantifying the effects of more than half of the overall century (2080s) occurs in conditions for producers in this climate change in Europe welfare losses (€120 billion).8% of its current GDP. the cost of river flood damages could exceed €10 billion and 8 000 km² of forests and natural areas could burn in southern Europe.5°C) and +2°C scenarios (measured ture mortality accounts for in percentage of GDP). Several weather-related extremes could roughly double their average frequency.

The JRC leads will also provide useful model- were adopted for heating sys. the International Coun- technical. a science-policy interface. the copper-producing sector. paints per products.eu/!gB46jV waste and resources. vironmental added value. Read more ports the EU’s Environmental The web interface will act as a Climate impacts in Europe. http://iet.eu/!wM89KY . EU Member States. cil for the Exploration of the vironmental analysis and de.eu/!kc84HF a verification procedure for JRC’s work on sustainable produc- cutting-edge environmental tion – best available techniques: technologies that can assess http://europa. http://europa. and underlines the role of soil in food security. http://ec. facilitating co-operation. The pi. over-exploitation. economic and en. life cycle of products. Soil atlas of Latin America and the further increase robustness. All ing the science-policy divide of them belong to the priority Sharing knowledge by feeding the implementation group of products consumed to protect our marine and adaptation process with in Europe according to the environment relevant knowledge from the potential to reduce environ.eu/!yJ44wR and confirm their claimed en- Best available techniques for pulp. as requested Regional Sea Conventions of the JRC. ling tools for the assessment tems. materials. The main causes are change in land use (especially deforest. EU countries achieve ‘good the European Environment ing environmental excellence. the JRC scientific community.eu market for green products’. http://europa.europa.ec. environmental status’ of their Agency. The atlas Caribbean: quality and consistency of the presents a number of strategies for soil preservation and conservation. it accelerates their ac. mental impacts.eu/environment/ cal support in particular to the ecolabel technical working groups and Pilot programme on environmental manages the central registry Soil atlas of Latin America and the Caribbean technology verification: of verification statements. plementing Decision 2014/687/EU): ceptance and diffusion. as a knowledge broker. consumers and industry. projects with strong industry achieving the MSFD goal. access to guidance.jrc. water treatment footprint pilots: and monitoring. bean. More than half of rective competence centre (MCC): the 576 million hectares of arable land of Latin America are estimated to http://mcc.europa. which emphasises the complex relationship between climate and Marine strategy framework di- tiative on ‘building the single land use. including the at achieving a high degree of products and organisations.ec. In October 2014. The JRC EU Ecolabel scheme: provides scientific and techni.jrc. This paper and board (Commission Im- way. The Ecolabel launched the Marine Strategy This centre is the result of criteria are based on scientific Framework Directive (MSFD) close collaboration between data considering the whole competence centre to help the European Commission. It acts as (RSCs). climate change and social inequality. and provides both. Technology Verification (ETV) single entry point for policy. and sector specific rules are ards for good environmental nically viable solutions. This tutes a platform on which to proposal is then discussed share knowledge and scientific and agreed with stakeholders expertise on methods and so that it meets the needs of modelling tools. promot. the JRC sup. which are key to Under the Ecolabel scheme. olive oil. assess- In addition. ments and reviews. the work on intermediate pa. It offers http://europa. It five new sets of specifications participation. bed mattresses. current review of the criteria protection of the environment Currently. product category and methodological stand- under economically and tech. be affected by degradation processes.eu/!CV87BD lot programme covers energy Overview on the environmental technologies. and in of MSFD descriptors and serve and varnishes.eu/etv In 2014 the JRC published the soil atlas of Latin America and the Carib- In the context of the EU Ini. which produces the by the directive. Sea (ICES) and the European velops a proposal of product information exchange and research community. notably in South America and Mes- the JRC is providing support to oamerica. specifications achievable by dissemination. It is supported the 10-20% best performing by a web interface that consti- products on the market.europa. http://europa. bridg- sorbent hygiene products. The JRC PESETA II project: pilot programme. ation). being developed by 25 pilot standards. To do so is the responsibility marine waters.and decommissioned and aim environmental footprint of review activities. textiles and ab.

and trade flows. However. energy internationally has dropped ble in the long term: envi. dairy and fish prices stocks that are at risk. which in turn ensures that whole-farm management like exchange rates. It continued its support to the EU’s Common Fisheries capacity and opportunity. the size and 16 . balance between the fishing managed to achieve the MSY. In 2014. The Policy. as well as its usual research on crop yield forecasting. tackling the issue of global food security has sion’s 2014 annual report on become a major challenge for countries in both the developed and developing the European fishing fleet to world. JRC scientists carry out For the second year in a row. commodity prices fisheries policy obliges EU some further work to be done as ‘partial stochastic analy. Precision agriculture is a values of key market drivers ing to the outlook.) largely due to a bumper crop whether fleets rely on stocks markets in regions of interest across in 2013/2014. and the plausible range of values which prices might take. Through its research in the areas of agricultural monitoring. the JRC contributed to the Commis- Over the past number of years. economically. milk. markets such as production The reform of the common maintaining this balance. ment. organisations as they try to meet the growing demand for food. Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). remote sensing and proximal data gathering. resources and the environ- when the uncertainties are taken into account. satellite prices and yields for the and will continue to do so for ronmentally. Precision agriculture: for the market outlook of OECD-FAO Agricultural helping to achieve Maximum benefits and challenges uncertainty about future Outlook 2014-2023. the next one or two years. with Using an approach known volumes. the JRC supports European and international by the Member States. barley and sorghum) prices in the world markets from the historical period sustainable use of natural 2003-2013 and the projection period 2014-2023. underuti- security. or inactive. socially and positioning (GNSS) data. GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY the Scientific. and markets and their volatility vital for the development of are expected to rise. approach using informa- economic growth. such as Understanding agricultural ities (arable crops. The JRC conducted a study for the European Parliament on this topic and found that precision agriculture can play a substantial role in meet- ing the increasing demand for food while ensuring Evolution of coarse grain (maize. indicators used relate to the sustainable and viable opera- tion of fishing fleets. the support of the EU’s fisheries sustainable use of natural resources. countries to achieve a to ensure that stocks are sis’. innovation in farming and analysis of policy. major agricultural commod. increased animal welfare. tion technologies. the JRC calculated technical. Sustainable Yield (MSY). and improvement of various aspects of environ- mental management. The bene- fits to be obtained include increased yields and prof- itability (mainly for arable farmers). as well as a stable information on the risk Towards sustainable lised. This analysis is meat. Contrastingly fished above MSY levels or Understanding agricultural the world. inflation. the price of major crops fishing remains sustaina. the economic and biological JRC contributed to the Agricultural Outlook of the Organisation for Economic indicators relevant to real- Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the UN’s Food and Agriculture ising the balance between Organization (FAO). Accord. AGRICULTURE AND In its role as co-ordinator of scientific advice to the Commission’s advisory body. multiple simulations which this uncertainties analysis capacity of their fleets and quantify the implications has contributed to the their fishing opportunities. Results economic future for Europe factors associated to these fishing show some progress towards and the rest of the world. Using data submitted European and world markets. whether they are economi- is crucial to achieving food stable policies as it provides cally sustainable. etc.

JRC contributions to the Commission’s annual report on fishing fleet help in the progress towards sustainable fishing. Improvements were series. Algeria and Tuni. rice). the casting system was devel- impact of precision agricul. oil seed crops. the roles of tors crop vegetation growth the farm advisory services and the European innova- tion partnership (established to help EU countries share knowledge and expertise in implementing the CAP) could be fostered. JRC’s work on crop yield forecasting: mulated biomass shows negative anomalies compared to the average time http://europa. for southern crop areas the cu.org/site/oecd-faoagri- To support EU policies on culturaloutlook agriculture and neighbour. tool which would bring deci. protein make its adoption in Europe simulation models as well crops. sugar beet. This should be order to improve JRC’s fore- accompanied by research casting capabilities.eu/!uw87nP neighbours. according to as to quantitative crop yield pastures. sia. sensing information for orological events on crop mendations such as aware. for instance. In marked contrast. potatoes. production. Kazakhstan. showing the impact of high temperatures and rain scarcity. forecasting based on remote short-term effects of mete- The report proposes recom. are synthesised in the MARS the provision of appropri. Ukraine. Turkey. published regu- ate guidelines. and development studies The MARS crop yield fore- to assess. including the the study.eu/!UU43mh ing Agricultural Resources Precision agriculture: an oppor- (MARS) crop yield forecasting tunity for EU farmers – potential system for the EU’s eastern support with the CAP 2014 – 2020: http://europa. diversity of farm structures introduced to the crop growth (cereal.oecd. and an EU obtained through different larly throughout the growing ‘precision farming calculator’ tools and systems. oped by the JRC in 1992 to ture on the environmental provide timely forecasts of footprint beyond the farm crop production. http://europa. Results of the ness-raising and information Belarus and Russia as well as yield monitoring activities campaigns among farmers. European Commission’s 2014 fishing ing countries. Finally. and extended it Summer crops display average to good conditions in north-western and to Libya and Egypt in North north-eastern regions. bulletins.eu/!cX87Rf Africa. . It moni- level. further implemented in the sion-support value to farmers pre-operational workflow in and advisers. Read more OECD-FAO agricultural outlook Extending crop yield 2014-2023: forecasts http://www. challenging. will be seasons. The prototype bulletins. JRC scientists report: have improved the Monitor. for Morocco.

The JRC also provided flood extent Committee Task Team for Pre- maps of the affected areas through the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. the JRC’s work on 2014. In 2014. exiting Fighting floods across which it will lead to extend monitoring tools and ser. damaging effects of earthquakes. activities tronic sensors and capable of research on how to better service providers (satellite Ninety per cent of the communicating their environ- predict flood risk and man. containers made of composite year on year across Eu. much is being done in terms of damage control. hugely important. This international forum Combating illicit shipping materials. artificial intelligence and sta- tistical analysis techniques to create a historical data ware- Natural hazards and extreme weather events are now common place across house of container itineraries.status wirelessly at any time. the first is concerned JRC continues its ethos of collaboration with European and international with systematic cross-checks of the declared origin of organisations on initiatives like the Global Flood Partnership.vices to complement national The JRC is also working on a With an increasing number mation and early warning capabilities. together with the Inter-Agency Standing European Flood Awareness System alerts during the Balkan floods of 2014. and weather). provide flood forecasting and system comes in. and prediction when it comes to major disasters. semantic data integration. national flood world’s cargo is transported mental. or passing through Europe. many as a result of the planet’s changing climate. the globe. leaving the door of fibre-reinforced structural Observatory of the Univer. the JRC together organisations and donors cally inspected by customs manufacturing and calibration with the Dartmouth Flood in order to develop a global authorities. It will This is where the ConTraffic meric self-energised piezo-sen- the Global Flood Partnership. the globe hydro-meteorological infor. In the area of illicit transportation of goods. Realising the risk of humanitarian crises and disasters – INFORM Most humanitarian crises can be predicted to some extent. In 2014 the JRC. building on the JRC’s existing pre-arrival data and aims to knowledge in the field of maritime security and surveillance. as well as goods inside import declara- sharing its unique facilities in areas like seismic-resilience to reduce the tions to detect customs fraud. equipped with elec- rope and indeed the world. and the second analyses 2014 saw the development of new technology. components fitted with poly- sity of Colorado launched elling infrastructure. Triggering alarm diagnostic electronics and alarm percolation through ad-hoc networks are currently being developed. As well as Two pilot projects involving fighting climate change. new concept of ‘intelligent’ of extreme weather events systems across the globe. Developed sors has shown that it is pos- sible to detect and wirelessly transmit relevant mechanical and thermal alarms. brings together scientists. the prototype system employs deep-web data min- REDUCTION ing. prevention. but only 2% is physi. and humanitarian ers. the suffering they cause can often be greatly reduced. While they cannot always be pre- vented. various EU countries got un- limitation. structural or security age flood disaster impacts is and emergency management by sea in maritime contain. The derway. flood observational and mod. In March authorities. develop risk indicators for the safety and security of contain- erised cargo entering. SECURITY by the JRC together with the Directorate-General for Taxa- tion and Customs Union and AND DISASTER RISK the European Antifraud Office (OLAF). paredness and Resilience and 18 .wide open to illicit activities.

The JRC also (the susceptibility of commu.eu are characterised by a high seismic vulnerability. (GLOFAS): http://www. INFORM is a This method proposes to technical performance. buildings in Europe were be placed in orbit in the next Global Flood Awareness System built before the 1960s and two years. the JRC (INFORM): www. Industry. The results supported the New developments in Six satellites of the constel. system studies on technical options and monitor risk trends. Structural Assessment: http://europa. of conformance. faced a particular challenge at global. . satellite navigation systems and ground-based communi- other international organisa. satellite navigation system in overall system performance. In 2014 one of the hosted cations services.eu/!uq96JF (Seismic Engineering Research Infrastructures for European Index for Risk Management Synergies) project. models. Since 2011. ered during the test will allow intellectual property rights The purpose of INFORM is to the calibration of numerical needed for implementing the provide an open. earthquake resilient buildings. to enhance the re-centring while achieving a high level sure to them. Entrepreneurship the lack of coping capacity repair a structure damaged by and SMEs in questions related (lack of resources that can an earthquake. for the navigation system a new tool to understand and ing a new concept to design services. vulnerability capability of the structure. All A long-term European am.inform-index. nities to those hazards). construction stage remov. national or regional posed methodology. when two of the satellites level. Entrepreneurship and SMEs to ensure that technical conditions for the European Satellite Navigation System are robust and free from interference with other JRC’s research helps enhancing containers’ security. preparation of European In 2014. the JRC has been working with the Directo- rate-General for Internal Mar- ket. to still use these satellites the results and data used are bition to put in place its own without compromising the freely available online. The JRC carried countries by risk. The data gath. tions developed the Index for projects completed a test To ensure market readiness Risk Management (INFORM): campaign aiming at validat. transparent. orbit is coming to reality now. the JRC has tested measure the risk of a hu.org opened the doors of its Euro- pean Laboratory for Structural European Laboratory for Assessment (ELSA) for trans. and reducing the cost and time to Industry. It covers 191 countries were launched into non-nom- and can be used to prioritise Securing Galileo – Europe’s inal orbits. Commission and the Euro- seismic-resilient design lation have already been pean Space Agency in their Read more A significant part of existing launched and 20 others will decision process. thus facilitating the Galileo programme consensus-based methodol. Within JRC’s container traffic monitoring the context of the SERIES system (ConTraffic): http://europa. This would help significantly supports DG Internal Market.eu/!Uf98gq national access to its reaction wall facility to evaluate the Global Flood Partnership: performance of buildings in http://portal. decide how own satellite navigation out extensive simulation to prepare and reduce risk. to securing and licensing the alleviate the impact). Experimental mock-up of a building in front of the JRC’s reaction wall. the Commission ogy for analysing crisis risk design guidelines for the pro. turers are ready to exploit the sions of risk: hazards (events able dissipative members unique features of this system that could occur) and expo.gdacs. It has composite index combining 50 incorporate at the design and been found that the manufac- indicators into three dimen.globalfloods. professional receivers for their manitarian crisis.org/Glob- al-Flood-Partnership case of an earthquake.

first identified reports on an awareness of diet as a key provides an overview of the Norway.an overview of breast cancer ble and inclusive economy. safety and quality. als. Switzerland and unknown disease in Guinea on contributor to healthy ageing. The Supporting cancer Through its medical informa- trition in elderly people. Substantial efforts were also made in the area of cancer prevention. report that assessed school the Ebola outbreak with a focus on under-nu. It EU Member States.5 years each decade in the EU. the JRC provided co-ordinated by the JRC. the prevention of cancer in all Ebola outbreak in 2014. The report aims to promote CONSUMER PROTECTION a stronger inclusion of diet in cancer prevention plans throughout Europe and promotes diets as cost-effec- Life expectancy is increasing by 2. the JRC a result of many complex the voluntary and compul. citizens. a new JRC report promotes alternatives to animal testing in the assess. in view of assessing 14 March 2014 and further 20 . ranging from lifestyle They provide information to economic situation. cancer (colo-recto. the JRC supported the European Commission’s health strategy with a breast cancer care. It includes infor- costs of medical treatment. chronic and age-related diseases. the JRC’s medical information system schemes and competence (MediSys) was used to track the spread of the disease. prostate ing the dietary habits of EU and lung) have been covered. the JRC and the strengthen policy measures European Network of Cancer to support healthy diets. HEALTH AND how much attention they give to dietary prevention. So towards a healthy society. not only for Another JRC report provides the well-being of the individual. as study maps for the first time prevention tion system MediSys. Promoting health is essential. sustaina. control and care promoting healthy ageing. cancer number of new studies on diets. but also for the creation of a smart.of cancer. sory guidelines in place for national measures aimed at intelligence throughout the functional and physiological schools in the 28 EU countries. poor tive measures to cut health- lifestyle choices and unhealthy diets are among the key risk factors behind care costs. mation on healthcare and In 2014. However. It far. These activities were achieved in close collaboration step towards the develop- with the Commission’s Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety. new scientific evidence to In addition. three different types of looked at the factors influenc. It decline. The A step forward was also made as well as a basis for assess. and on incidence rates. thanks to a JRC policies on childhood obesity. It aims at raising Norway and Switzerland. health under possible future These indicators are essential policy options. In the area of chemical requirements for profession- safety. ment of a European quality assurance scheme for breast cancer services. MediSys – Surveillance of of age-related diseases. Determinants to guide policy and improve of active and Another JRC study assessed healthy ageing EU programmes dedicated to the role of nutrients in prevention. which is part Towards tomorrow’s of the European Commission healthy society initiative on breast cancer. screening. regulatory situation in the EU Turkey. A Registries (ENCR) launched a new foresight study unveils new series of fact sheets as future research needs that part of the effort to achieve a should be implemented in harmonised EU-wide infor- this area if Europe is to move mation system on cancer. control and accreditation and certification care. new health risks and increasing the study. A new report reviews the helped to enhance epidemic factors comprising cognitive. Iceland. ing the impact of school food the prevention and treatment hood obesity. food policies in Europe. In 2014. Effective EU policies are needed in order to counter services in the 25 countries that voluntarily participated in the effects of a gradually ageing population. During the Ebola outbreak in 2014. This represents a major ment of chemical products. gender described potential future patterns and on trends over scenarios linked to citizens’ the last decades in Europe. study provides information on in the fight against child. providing useful data for policy development.

eu/!tV94Dw Alternative methods for chemical safety Mapping of national school food policies across the EU28 plus Nor- The European Commission way and Switzerland: promotes the application http://europa. It helps the early identification of internation. MediSys identifies potential threats to public health by tracking news alerts on the Internet and using statistical modelling techniques to iden. for companies that produce zation (WHO) uses its own local application of MediSys. Liberia and Sierra Leone it detects a sudden increase was widely discussed in the news media.newsbrief.eu It reviews the current scientific Alternative methods for regulatory status of these methods with High throughput robotic system to accelerate new toxicology testing based on toxicology . A screenshot from MediSys showing the number of news reports on Ebola tify topics that are suddenly from 1 March until 17 April.eu/!Tq84uU of the ‘3Rs’ principle in the Mapping dietary prevention of can- assessment of chemical cer in the EU28: European national safety. carcino.eu/!MW89yu icals Agency (ECHA) gathering the alternative methods that European network of cancer are not necessarily included registries – cancer factsheets: http://www. listing all articles. The system clearly identifies a peak in mid-March reported on web news. provides a valuable resource mental organisations. Since then. it sends automatic health impacts. the JRC produced a European survey on the organisa- report for the European Chem. reduction and dietary prevention of cancer: http://europa.eu/index. ing chemicals in consumer which today includes hundreds genicity and effects on human products. http://medisys. also developed by Read more the JRC. of reports related to a given topic. A page dedicated to the outbreak is available online. When corresponding to the first reports from Guinea. The role of nutrition in active and healthy ageing: http://europa. tion of breast cancer care services: http://europa.php/publica- in legal requirements but are tions/factsheets still useful for assessing the toxicological properties of MediSys: chemicals.reports about deaths caused by ‘viral haemorrhagic fever’ reported four days later in the same country. which stands for cancer plans and their coverage of replacement. Research priorities for foods and diets: proved to be very useful for http://europa. http://europa.eu/!TM83qX the WHO’s response to the Ebola outbreak.encr. The World Health Organi. and eye irritation.eu/!FR87XV refinement of animal testing. includ- alerts to the registered users. including skin and market chemicals. the system has been used to track Ebola-related news around the world.eu/!DU89UM . The system’s data feed into the WHO’s Hazard Detection and Risk Assessment System (HDRAS). as well as a surge at the end of July when the deteriorating situation in Guinea. It latory bodies and non-govern- organisations. Foresight study – Tomorrow’s ally spreading diseases and healthy society.a state-of-the-art review: respect to a range of human cell systems. In 2014. as well as for regu- of European and international development and fertility.

collaboration is crucial in this nuclear safeguards ing a proficiency test. detection against illicit trafficking. important role in the field also gain insights that may took part. and developed tools to support nuclear six technologies developed safeguards and non-proliferation. Japan. able to certify radiation played a key role. secure reference/quality control ma- and sustainable use of nuclear energy across Europe and helping the EU coun. which provide valuable information worldwide. and operates a large support equipment. provision of The Euratom treaty foresees a clear role for the EU in ensuring the safe. Following the Seoul rate-General for Migration summit in 2012. held on 24 and 25 March Scientific and technical nuclear and explosives detec- ing and sustaining a strong in The Hague. It focused mission’s Directorate-General symposium on international detection equipment against on lessons learnt as well as on for Energy. launched leaders encouraged countries in 2014 the second phase of to share best practices and the Illicit Trafficking Radia- build national capabilities. as certified IAEA techniques (also known as ‘category A’ equipment). the JRC set up a high-level meeting to share nuclear security culture The JRC is also a member of best practices in the run up to the nuclear security summit held in The Hague.progress in the field of nuclear harbours. NUCLEAR SAFETY programme for the IAEA. standards. which and multilateral co-operation. development of dedi- tries meet the highest standards of nuclear safety. equipment and investigating in human capacity building the integration of radiological. In recent years. in Vienna in October for the EU. is fundamental to promot. in which the JRC collaboration with the Com. tion Detection Assessment including through bilateral Programme (ITRAP+10). welcomes participants to the focuses on testing mobile recognising that investment high-level meeting. in the run-up to nuclear detection. Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Vladimír Šucha. 40 countries (including the radioactive and nuclear ma. together with co-operation in nuclear the Commission’s Directo- security. It has also developed was to assess the technical toms controls at borders and of Korea. for which the JRC is responsible. In this context. More than 100 of nuclear safeguards and the is held every four years and on radiation detection and representatives from around combat of illicit trafficking of hosted by the International identification instruments. International support to international tion techniques. forensics of nuclear non-proliferation allow them to improve their the Nuclear Security Summit and response. phase In this context. Manufacturers will the IAEA and United Nations) in the field of safeguards. the JRC has continuously provided both direct research as well as tools for the open and policy support. analysis of environmental particle samples.worldwide by IAEA safeguards porting new design rules and environmental reliability of components. ropean and third countries for safeguards implementation. JRC Director General. The scientific and technical AND SECURITY support to IAEA includes analysis of nuclear materials. Enhancing a global nuclear security culture Safer borders: improving Nuclear security summits and radiation detection against IAEA international conferences illicit trafficking are initiatives to strengthen The JRC. the JRC is one of safeguards: linking strategy. international or European future initiatives and means the key pillars of the EU’s implementation and people. The project will to strengthen nuclear security technical expertise in the field The aim of the event. ation. Working in close non-proliferation gathered accredited laboratories in the Amsterdam. security and non-prolifer. ing of passengers and cargo tional organisations (such as first responders and experts The European Union has an at airports. By organis- nuclear security culture. including trade analysis. and complements Member States’ efforts in training and source information collec- education in the nuclear field. IAEA’s Network of Analytical It also embarked on the second phase of a project that will improve radiation Laboratories. Canada and from training programmes for Eu. international and Home Affairs. which are essential for cus- United States. JRC experts also investigated the safety of by the JRC have been used interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and contributed to nuclear safety by sup. tion.terial. In 2014. a high level area and the EU carries out The international community II takes a step towards the meeting was organised by a wide range of international working in the field of nuclear establishment of a network of the EU on 20 March 2014 in initiatives. and for the screen- the EU) and several interna. Republic terials. cated safeguards instruments. During phase I 22 .

plutonium isotopes. which in turn can be the standards. Ongo.S. accelerator to simulate this of the equipment by giving nium isotopes. further studies are The JRC.and simplify and clarify exist. nuclear safety and security: ing system developed by the JRC. new reference material IRMM- Most of the trends observed 046c represents a useful were found to be comparable quality control tool for nuclear with characteristics of actual inspectors and nuclear labora- spent fuel. integrity of nuclear compo. assesses the security culture: of lattice swelling. The temperature components. which are now of spent nuclear fuel with a silicon drift detector being designed in Europe. which is commonly the JRC has been involved in nuclear fuel by comparing used for nuclear inspection in the revision of their design actual spent fuel with lab safeguards laboratories. the JRC tested Supporting non-prolifer. tions of most macroscopic property changes for a simu.(2009-2013). a new reference material of mal creep does not need to accelerated timescale. http://europa. components Event on international co-operation However.eu/!jQ63Jr storage and its behaviour light-water reactors stress The stress corrosion tests were JRC thematic report – Science for under accident conditions. In an Euratom Seventh 65 detection instruments ation: new technique and Framework Programme (FP7) commercially available in reference material project.eu/!Cv86jK long-term degradation mech- . The study also tories within the nuclear safety pointed to stabilised condi. anism. such growth rate tests were con- tion organisations in order to as plutonium-240. in a geological repository. The lessons identification of weapon-grade allows for a better under- learned during the first phase plutonium in the context of standing of stress corrosion will also be used to improve non-proliferation of nuclear cracking. Precise simplifies design. than light-water reactors and tion of components of spent trometry. showed that none of these in. and security: of spent fuel after extended odologies for this purpose. the JRC released tures are sufficiently low. This stressed the need Finland (STUK). Safety assessment sition of radioactive samples Fast reactors. which ing standards. distinguish the fissile pluto. Some of them were A promising new safeguards this type of cracking of vari- also tested in the U. something that comparisons help make and plutonium-242. non in different environments.eu/!HX44PG ing programmes are also nents exposed to harsh en. It measures water could be used as an to stimulate the improvement relative amounts of pluto. power plants under laboratory as well as the need to provide nium-239 from non-fissile conditions. To this end. ther- analogues in a simulated. If stresses and tempera- results obtained on fuel Also in 2014. in particular to type of incident in nuclear feedback to manufacturers. crack active input to standardisa. to tool for plutonium analysis ous austenitic stainless steels assure comparability. the optimal design of high waiting for its final disposal uranium and plutonium. safety assessments of the and accurate isotopic analyses As a consequence the JRC has alterations that occur in are needed in nuclear safe.Nuclear safety: advances lated timescale corresponding in design rules and envi- to spent fuel after decades ronmental reliability of Read more or centuries of storage. susceptibility tests for Europe. It is be exposed to higher radiation A JRC co-authored scientific regarded as a complementary damage and temperatures article examined the evolu. For http://europa. Results was developed in 2014 by were performed up to 550˚C. to enhance a worldwide nuclear being carried out in the area pean partners. JRC’s work on nuclear safeguards addressing the retrievability vironment and develops meth. This is ducted under both sub. Such highly enriched uranium-233 be considered. corrosion cracking is a key performed by a bellows-based load. will interim storage for conversion electrons. essential information for the super-critical conditions. To this end. and security framework. rules. weapons. developed ‘negligible creep’ conditions of prolonged guards for two major elements curves in order to facilitate storage of spent fuel while of the nuclear fuel cycle. together with Euro. tool to alpha particle spec. the JRC and the Radiation and One of the objectives was to struments fully passed all the Nuclear Safety Authority of verify whether super-critical tests. http://europa. This novel technique used to predict this phenome- measures the isotopic compo.

ity of scientific findings benefits both the JRC and its collaboration partners Science. Christos activities between the JRC heritage preservation. helps them in the transpo- Vasilakos. was hosted in July 2014 in transport. the JRC has Scientific bridge between the sought to enhance the JRC and CELAC countries benefits of information and The publication of the Soil Official signing ceremony of a Memorandum of Understanding between the knowledge sharing among Atlas of Latin America and JRC and the Cyprus Institute. the organisation more than 1 000 members of such activities in the target from public institutions. signed the agreement Managed by the JRC in co-op. tion between the two commu. PARTNERSHIPS organise its roundtables and conferences across Europe. co-organised with Sharing competence and acquiring new knowledge to maintain a high qual. It aims to discussed their scientific work interest including environment.75 Šucha. the scien.regional approach and budget. topics. using local advantages to The MoU specifies advanc. and industrial networks.aged in order to increase the tific community. with Member States million to support a total of eral. JRC Director-Gen. fuels and technol- with Greece gy-Hellas (CERTH) was held in Brussels. The first event held in a Member State Collaboration with external organisations and partner countries within and took place in June 2014 in beyond the EU is essential for carrying out the JRC’s work programme. sition of EU laws to national General for Research and vised by the Greek General European Forum for Science legislations. Greek Secretary and research centres super. thus supporting the dialogue AND INTERNATIONAL with Member States and help- ing them to better integrate within the European Research CO-OPERATION Area. and nuclear safety and In April 2014. technology and and integration research co-operation in fields CERTH and JRC researchers innovation in fields of mutual The JRC Enlargement and of mutual interest.and Industry (EFSI) provides JRC key orientations and work A follow-up technical meeting standing (MoU) between the a platform for exchange of programme.decommissioning. selection criteria taking into and strengthens the co-opera. two thematic areas identified as priorities by the Slovak government: sustainable Collaboration agreement for Research and Technolo. Bratislava. Support to enlargement ogy signed an agreement on meet global challenges’. countries has been encour- private companies. the National The official signing ceremony European Forum for Science criteria such as adherence to Centre for Scientific Research. ing science. energy. and adherence to co-organised with the Centre JRC and the Cyprus Institute information on scientific and target countries priorities. and technological advances and technical support to affairs. marking further ogies. create synergies with national strategies and pursue smart specialisation. and innovation needs of industries. apart competitiveness and economic from the workshops and train- recovery. Research and Sport in addressing key societal challenges. EFSI brings together ing courses. in areas of energy. As of 2014. water initiative provides scientific operation in energy. ined possibilities for joint and standardisation in cultural enlargement countries and ment and security. the Forum’s members and the Caribbean at the begin- 24 .the Ministry of Education. the Greek General Secretariat the motto ‘Sustainable growth: ration of the JRC with Cyprus. the was made on the basis of by Demokritos. transport climate change. hosted research links the European Commission. maritime and environment and exam. nities to support Europe’s As a general principle. associations number of participants. Over the years. the JRC and October in Thessaloniki. health environ. the E&IA Technology and Vladimír Secretariat for Research and and Industry bolsters ties Initiative committed €1. for Research and Technol. of a Memorandum of Under. In 2014. food. the JRC’s network of the Slovak Republic.55 workshops and trainings. The of co-operation has reached more than 1 000 partners worldwide and event had a specific focus on includes around 200 operational collaboration agreements. Integration Action (E&IA) establish a basis for co. during an information day Cyprus – strengthened eration with other services of The selection of the activities on the JRC’s work. Under strengthening of the collabo. Technology.consideration quality.

Possible co-oper.aspx . The detector technologies and flagship initiatives such as the event gathered 24 countries their applications. energy. The JRC manages the technical stimulated further discussions rate-General for International co-ordination of the initiative. Ten more countries have completed the NAQ in 2014 (Myanmar.and development of geospatial tegic dialogue with the CELAC rial science. With the aim to further in 60 languages) as well as geospatial data. Albania. radiological ronmental spatial information of mutual interest. European Forum for Science and Extended co-operation tries in eight regions across Industry: https://ec. Monitoring (EMM – aggrega.eu/!NW49Gk and the JRC signed a Letter in Abu Dhabi for the Gulf of Intent in July 2014 to Cooperation Council countries. the former Yugoslav Republic of Mace- donia. raise awareness of countries ambassadors on the renewables. INSPIRE.of JRC experts. Iraq.cbrn-coe. the two organisa. Côte d’Ivoire. This Commissioner Tibor Navracsics. on how to foster scientific Cooperation and Development co-operation. putting science to address chemical. countries in compiling their needs assessment through an in-house developed Needs Assessment Questionnaire (NAQ). INSPIRE envisages the known the JRC activities in the creation of an EU spatial data region. transport and open standards and their rele- occasion of a meeting held energy efficiency. disaster risk ting’ and the European Media (OGC) agreed to collaborate reduction. innovative vance to European policies and in July 2014 in Brussels. infrastructure sharing envi- collaboration opportunities biological.eu/jrc/en/efsi with CERN the world.Open Geospatial Consortium monitoring. JRC Direc. and Philippines and Uganda). on understanding and resolv- forestry. systems. who is responsible for the JRC. exercise serves to formulate national action plans and to ning of 2014 highlighted the data and publication manage.Digital Agenda for Europe and and allowed to make better tion and training. the Commission’s Directo. radiological and nuclear Read more of citizens. Kenya. biolog- and technology at the service ical. launched a stra. from news portals worldwide the field of interoperability of tions. nanotechnologies. ment. services and develop the collaboration. More with the support and guidance Community of Latin America specifically. CBRN Centres of Excellence: extend joint cooperation to The JRC supports partner http://www. Demo- cratic Republic of the Congo. The JRC and OGC will Vladimir Šucha.radioisotope production.possibilities of collaboration Pursuing interoperability edge sharing between the JRC in areas such as IT platforms of geospatial data on envi- and the CELAC already include for studying innovation and ronment fields such as water resource technological development In May 2014. including standards.europa. as well as identify new Addressing chemical.eu/Home. A visit and nuclear threats among public sector organi- of CELAC Ambassadors and around the globe sations with the aim to assist diplomats to the JRC facilities The JRC works alongside cross-border policy making.develop tailored CBRN projects dynamic scientific collabora. JRC’s enlargement and integration for Nuclear Research (CERN) one more also opened in 2014 action: http://europa. bioeconomy and tion and analysis of reports ing scientific challenges in Earth Observation applica. Vladimir Šucha. medical applications needed to address CBRN risks tion between the JRC and the and energy efficiency. and educa. After four regional The European Organization secretariats opened in 2013. in Ispra at the end of 2014. big data. mate. agricultural based on ‘collaboration spot. Joint work and knowl. the JRC and the management. and the Caribbean States tions have agreed to explore (CELAC). Gabon. the CELAC representatives with the JRC Director-General. (CBRN) risk mitigation cover- ing 48 different partner coun. ation also includes: medical also support the improvement tor-General.

71% scientific impact as well as the excellence of their co-authors. Results showed scientific institutions as well While the JRC’s publications average. for ses and benchmarks the JRC’s up to 3% of them among the JRC’s performance is equal which a deeper analysis was scientific impact against top top 1% most cited. be. world in terms of numbers of citations. the JRC publications with 87% of the in 17 main scientific areas in absolute numbers. In most of the of these. or better than. 2014. In Comparison of JRC publications’ impact with the world average in the 17 categories of scientific areas covered. and scientific areas covered. around 900 are This bibliometric study analy. Not only this.the top 25% most cited. the find. but in that the JRC co-authored as against the world average are often comparatively low many scientific areas. order to benchmark the JRC’s 26 . This exercise was carried out during 2014 for the 2009. the academic institutions. Out of the 5 000 publica- 2013 period. The analyses focused on revealing their 2009-2013 period. to.competes with the best in the of the top 15 organisations the top-100 and that over ing scientific impact. areas of excellence. of them have been co-au- thored with more than 1 300 institutions worldwide. Regard. Last but not least. the JRC scores similarly to the range universities ranked among and 81 subdomains. when the JRC produced nearly 5000 scientific publications. There are 27 main scientific categories that are widely used internationally and which cover more than 300 scientific areas. the world carried out. of tions published over the which roughly two thirds are articles. This analysis allows the comparison and benchmark- ing of JRC scientific perfor- mance by scientific area. Out Scientific impact JRC publications are among table below). the JRC has formal agreements with almost half of the universities in the top 100 rankings.1. The excellence mapping exercise focused on 17 main categories. providing answers to questions such PUBLICATIONS as how co-authoring institu- tions rank compared to other institutions in the world and whether the JRC collaborates The JRC has analysed its scientific publications in order to identify and map with the ‘best’ institutions.world in many scientific areas (see graph overleaf) and for one third of them are also ings show that annually. Methodology Data have been extracted from the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature in the world: the Elsevier’s Scopus® database and have been analysed using the SciVal® tool. where the JRC published more than one hundred publications. Source: JRC Excellence Mapping Vol. MAPPING THE EXCELLENCE Scientific collaborations This mapping exercise also provided the first elements OF JRC SCIENTIFIC of evidence regarding collaborations.when looking at citations in a few scientific areas the JRC among the top 15 in the tween 40% and 50% of the size-independent metrics (see has even better values.

1. ‘Academic Ranking of World Universities’) were considered. quality of the JRC research independent citations indica.eu/!Fk77RU . previous page). The JRC evaluation reports: report provided answers to a https://ec.Benchmarking the JRC’s citation statistics for the five size-independent indicators against the lowest and highest value of the top 15 organisations in the JRC’s ten main scientific areas in terms of publications. five size. Source: JRC Excellence Mapping Vol.eu/jrc/en/page/refer- ence-documents set of questions as provided by the JRC with the objective Thomson Reuters report: to measure the quantity and http://europa. In addition to benchmarking. scientific publica. 2014. having the largest number of A set of world-class peer citations in a given scientific institutions were selected to area. the JRC ing. topic cluster- the world’s average. eral scientific areas. ranking among the top 100 in at least one of the three most widely recognised world-wide rankings (‘Times Higher Education Ranking’. Thomson Reuters study A complementary exercise was also carried out by Thomson Reuters for the JRC. scientific impact. Where tions co-authored by JRC comparable. For the collaboration benchmark the JRC in sev- analysis. identi- is also benchmarked against fication of research fronts the top 15 organisations and social media analysis. ‘QS World University Rank- ing’. Methods in- tors were used (see table on cluded bibliometric analysis. during the FP7. It covered the 7th Frame- Read more work Programme (FP7) pe- riod. from 2007 to 2013. the results of researchers and universities both studies are coherent.europa. patent analysis.

Further income is gen. and the Eur.and associated countries. FACTS AND FIGURES STAFF The total number of staff working at the JRC on 31 December 2014 was 3055. In addition. Visiting staff erated by the JRC through to decommission the JRC women were represented In addition to its core staff.88 Visiting staff bring ad.work for third parties. objective to make the man. ties related to the Euratom percentage as in 2013). Staff expenses € 245. additional work for Commis. The JRC will seconded national experts the JRC are divided into from the contributions of make a continuous effort in and trainees. agement ranks more reflec. Additional credits of against a Commission aver.appropriations.92 and expertise to help Total (rounded up) € 374.nuclear installations. 21% carried out administrative or support activities and 2% worked in nuclear decommissioning. the JRC.) and specific Total 1202 1853 3055 turn.49 vanced skills. In sumables. primarily staff expenses.7%. The credits available to €13. means of countries associated to line with the Commission’s from the EU Member States execution (maintenance of Horizon 2020. Total Staff F M Total Core Staff Officials 583 1197 1780 Temporary agents 6 17 23 Visiting Staff Trainees 30 24 54 Postgraduate grantholders 26 15 41 Post-doctoral grantholders/ senior scientists 223 307 530 Contractual agents 325 260 585 resolve current and future electricity. of available commitment Horizon 2020. senior scientists. tor posts is as follows: BUDGET The table shows the break- F M The JRC is funded by the down of how the 2014 Senior management positions 20 % 80 % EU’s Framework Programme budget was spent (in terms Middle management positions 18 % 82 % for research and innovation. knowledge Operational appropriations (FP) € 43. EFTA not Non-management administrative positions 24 % 76 % atom research and training included).to finance the programme As of 31 December 2014. the multidisciplinary the research and innova- Equal opportunities research domains and tion framework programme The gender balance of staff in state-of-the-art facilities at activities (the current being management and administra. procurements) related to ence.They represented more Outgoing expenses (in million Euro) 2014 tive of gender diversity.agents). €27 programme (for its nuclear million was made available work). etc. and to in 24% administrators (AD) the JRC proactively seeks sion services and contract manage the waste activi- posts at the JRC (same to host researchers (grant. Horizon 2020). buildings and equipment.6 million were received age of 43. con- Seconded national experts 9 33 42 scientific challenges. 77% worked on scientific projects. than 40% of the JRC staff in 2014. insurance. Means of execution € 84. holders and contractual Treaty.29 28 . Of the total 3055. they benefit from the expenses (direct scientific science for policy experi.

JRC IN THE MEDIA JRC media coverage in 2014 Number of press reports 2611 Number of very positive news items in top-tier media 140 Number of countries covered 78 . article contribution to other periodicals. policy and technical reports 615 documents. from performing additional work for Com- mission services. The table Third party work € 8. the world average. article contribution to peer-reviewed periodicals listed in the ISI Science Citation Index Expanded and/or Social Science Citation index. or better than. and from contract work carried out for third parties such as regional authorities or industry. Contracts signed (in million euro) 2014 JRC earned income Indirect actions ( Framework Programme) € 7. In 2014.8 contracts signed in 2014. reports and policy Scientific.9 income in 2014 amounted to €69. while the JRC’s publi- cations are often compara- tively low in absolute num- bers. article contribution to a monograph. JRC contributions to policy documents 58 PhD theses 8 Total 1370 1 Books. Some of the JRC’s income comes from its participa- tion in Framework Pro- grammes projects (“indirect actions”). the JRC published more than JRC Publications in 2014 1300 publications. including articles in peer reviewed Books and articles in peer reviewed journals1 689 journals.3 million. These activities complement the tasks outlined in the JRC’s work programme and are an essential tool for acquiring and transferring expertise and know-how. In most of the scientific areas covered. monographs with JRC editorship.1 above shows the value of Total €72. they compete with the best in the world in many scientific areas when looking at citations in size-inde- pendent metrics.8 The cashed competitive Support to Commission services € 56. the JRC’s performance is equal to. PUBLICATIONS As revealed by a bibliometric study.

Enterprise and Innovation 23 Kildare Street Prof.O. Vassilios TSAKALOS IT – 00184 Roma – Italy CYPRUS Director General Research Promotion Foundation Dr. Bâtiment 121 – PC N˚ 2 Ms. Box 20401 Prof. Prof. Box 23422 Director of Higher Education. Emmanuel SINAGRA MALTA Dublin 2 – Ireland Head of the Chemistry Department Dr.165 02 Praha 6 – Czech Republic (CNR) and “Societa di Gestione Impianti Nucleari” (SOGIN) Dr.O. Dermot CURRAN Waiting for confirmation of new nomination HUNGARY MAGYARORSZÁG IRELAND ÉIRE Director General Innovation and Investment Ministry for Jobs. Innovation and Higher Education Dr. Eugenijus STUMBRYS LITHUANIA LIETUVA Bredgade 40 Research Council of Lithuania DK – 1260 Copenhagen K – Denmark Gedimino av. 22 Directeur de l’énergie nucléaire du Commissariat BG-11111 Sofia à l’énergie atomique (CEA) Centre de Saclay.O. Toivo RÄIM ESTONIA EESTI Advisor Waiting for confirmation of new nomination LUXEMBOURG Ministry of Education and Research EE – 15192 Tallinn – Estonia Mr. Annette BORCHSENIUS LV-1050. Latvia DENMARK DANMARK Head of Division Ministry for Science. Christophe BÉHAR FRANCE Assoc. Agrita KIOPA LATVIA LATVIJA 123 Strovolos Avenue Deputy State Secretary P. Zdenko FRANIĊ CROATIA HRVATSKA B-1050 Brussels Research Scientist. Box 361 57001 Thermi Thessaloniki – Greece Ministry of Economic Affairs P. Paolo VENDITTI ITALY ITALIA Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals Senior Counsellor of “Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche” CZ . Walter MÖNIG GERMANY DEUTSCHLAND Teichgraben 11 D-53757 Sankt Augustin Deutschland MEMBERS Mr. Science and Innovation CY-2042 Nicosia Ministry of Education and Science Valnu street 2. Evelyn PIKAVET-GEURTSEN NETHERLANDS NEDERLAND P. Pilar SANTISTEBAN NL-2500 EK The Hague SPAIN ESPAÑA Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (SCIC) Dr. Margarida FREIRE FR – 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex BELGIUM BELGIQUE BELGIË SPP Politique scientifique féderale (Belspo) Avenue Louise 231 Dr. Athanasios G. 3 LT-01103 Vilnius Dr. Karel AIM HR – 10 001 Zagreb CZECH REPUBLIC ČESKÁ REPUBLIKA/ ICPF Scientific Board Chair Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Dr. Riga Mrs. Albena VUTSOVA BULGARIA BĂLGARIJA Nikolay Kopernik Str. Abteilung II/10 Calle Arturo Duperier No 4 AT – 1010 Wien – Austria E-28029 Madrid 30 . KONSTANDOPOULOS University of Malta GREECE ELLAS President of the Board of Directors of CERTH Tal-Qroqq Director of the Chemical Process Engineering Research MT-Msida Institute (CPERI-CERTH) Ms. Member of Croatian Parliament Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health Dr. Daniel WESELKA AUSTRIA ÖSTERREICH Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Alberto Sols” Centro mixto CSIC y Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (UAM) Leiter d. JRC BOARD OF GOVERNORS CHAIRMAN Dr.

Academy – Telematic Network Albania ME-81000 Podgorica. Carlos I. Serbia ISRAEL Chief Scientist Ministry of National Infrastuctures Dr. John PERKINS UNITED KINGDOM 21-25 Mendeleev Street Chief Scientific Adviser RO – 010362 Bucharest – Romania Department for Business Innovation and Skills 1 Victoria Street Mr. M. Prof. Arjan XHELAJ ALBANIA SHQIPËRIA Cetinjski put Director. Ulla ENGELMANN Ms. Tadeusz LUTY Mr.bergmann@ec. Tudor PRISECARU ROMANIA ROMÂNIA Secretary of State Ministry of National Education Prof. VTT Technical Research Centre of PORTUGAL Vogal do Concelho Diretivo da FCT Finland Av. 06100 Ankara MOLDOVA MOLDOVEI President of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova 1 Stefan cel Mare bd. 126-2° andar FI – 02044 VTT – Finland PT-1249-074 Lisbon Waiting for confirmation of new nomination SWEDEN SVERIGE Prof. Box 2700 St. JRC CDMA 5/132 – BE-1049 Brussels CDMA 5/124 – BE-1049 Brussels Tel: +32 2 295 76 24 Fax: +32 2 298 55 23 Tel: +32 2 296 34 08 Fax: +32 2 298 55 23 e-mail: ulla. Kirsten BROCH MATHISEN NORWAY NORGE Director The Research Council of Norway Division for Energy. Erkki KM LEPPÄVUORI FINLAND SUOMI Prof.Iceland Development Nemanjina 22-26 Dr. Kemal DELIJIĆ MONTENEGRO University of Montenegro Faculty of Metallurgy and Technology Dr. Dr. EU & International Initiatives Ministry of Education. Paulo PEREIRA Director General. Science.eu e-mail: iris. “Dëshmorët e Kombit” Mr. Peter VOLASKO POLAND POLSKA SLOVENIA SLOVENIJA Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Ministry of Education. Research & Sport Stromová 1 SK-81330 Bratislava PARTICIPANTS Mr. Science and Sport Wroclaw University of Technology SI – 1000 Ljubljana – Slovenia PL – 50-370 Wroclaw – Poland Prof. Hanshaugen N-0131 Oslo Secretary of the Board of Governors: Assistant: Ms.O. Viktor NEDOVIĆ SERBIA SRBIJA Laugavegi 13 Ministry of Education. Chisinau MD-2001. Montenegro Ministry of Education & Science Bld.Kavaklidere. Science and Technological IS-101 Reykjavik . Roderik KLINDA London SW1H 0ET – UK SLOVAKIA SLOVENSKÁ REPUBLIKA Advisor to State Secretary Director of Department of Implementation of R&D State Policy. D. Atanas KOCOV HERZEGOVINA BOSNIA AND BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA CRNA GORA OF MACEDONIA FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC REPUBLIKA MAKEDONIJA/ PORANEŠNA JUGOSLOVENSKA Head of Department for Science Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Ministry of Civil Affairs MK – 1000 Skopje – Former Yugoslav Republic Trg Bosne i Hercegovine 3 of Macedonia BA – 71 000 Sarajevo – Bosnia and Herzegovina Prof. Resources and the Environment P.. 221 Prof.engelmann@ec.europa. Shlomo WALD 11000 Belgrade. Republic of Moldova Dr.eu 31 . Ammar MIRAŠČIJA Prof. Hallgrimur JONASSON UPT AL – 1001 Tirana – Albania ICELAND ISLAND General Director Rannis Prof. JRC European Commission. Gheorge DUCA TR .europa. Iris BERGMANN-HÜBER European Commission. Alper KUTAY TURKEY TÜRKIYE IL – 91360 Jerusalem – Israel Deputy President of TUBITAK Atatürk Bulvari.

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a new communication portal giving access to the latest JRC news. It is a new window for stakeholders to know more about the work of the JRC science areas. In 2014. GLOFAS • Global Flood Aware- ness System coupling state-of- the-art weather forecasts with a hydrological model. It also shows the different laboratories. and publications. The Hub also gives access to all the scientific tools and databases developed by the JRC. EURDEP • The European Radio- logical Data Exchange Platform Public Map displays radiologi- cal monitoring data from most European countries in near real-time. . NANOhub • A database and information platform hosting nano-specific information and methodologies. https://ec. SCIENTIFIC TOOLS & DATABASES The range of work carried out at the JRC also includes the compilation of a large number of data- bases in addition to the development of software and modelling tools. reports. its research topics and cross cutting activities.europa.eu/jrc EU_ScienceHub GHSL • Global Human Settle- ment Layer maps. the JRC launched the “Science Hub”. analyses and monitors human settlements and urbanisations through remotely sensed imagery. networks and bureaus of the JRC. These are some examples of databases and scientific tools developed or managed by the JRC.

and sharing its know-how with the Member States. Serving society Stimulating innovation Supporting legislation JRC Science Hub: https://ec. the scientific community and international partners. the JRC addresses key societal challenges while stimulating innovation through developing new methods. tools and standards. LB-NA-26867-EN-N JRC Mission As the Commission’s in-house science service. evidence-based scientific and technical support throughout the whole policy cycle. Working in close cooperation with policy Directorates-General.eu/jrc ISBN 978-92-79-43179-1 doi: 10. the Joint Research Centre’s mission is to provide EU policies with independent.europa.2788/1795 .