Imperfection defect associated with the

an image by using an
distortion produced in the beam that scans the surface
in Solid vicinity of the end of an of a
extra halfplane specimen; an image is
of atoms within a crystal.The produced by
Chapter 4
Burgers vector is reflected electron beams.
perpendicular to Examination
the dislocation line. of surface and/or
Grain size. The average microstructural
Alloy. A metallic substance grain diameter features at high
that is as determined from a magnifications
composed of two or more random is possible.
elements. cross section. Scanning probe
Atom percent (at%). Imperfection. A deviation microscope (SPM).
Concentration from A microscope that does not
specification on the basis of perfection; normally applied produce
the to an image using light
number of moles (or atoms) crystalline materials wherein radiation.
of a there Rather, a very small and
particular element relative to is a deviation from sharp
the atomic/molecular probe raster scans across
total number of moles (or order and/or continuity. the specimen surface; out-
atoms) of Interstitial solid solution. of-surface plane deflections
all elements within an alloy. A solid in response to electronic or
Atomic vibration. The solution wherein relatively other interactions with the
vibration of small probe are monitored, from
an atom about its normal solute atoms occupy which a topographical map
position interstitial positions between of the specimen surface (on
in a substance. the solvent or host atoms. a nanometer scale) is
Boltzmann’s constant (k). Microscopy. The produced.
A thermal energy constant investigation of Screw dislocation. A linear
having the microstructural elements crystalline defect associated
value of 1.38 _ 10_23 J/atom- using some with the lattice distortion
K type of microscope. created when normally
(8.62 _ 10_5 eV/atom-K). See Microstructure. The parallel planes are joined
also structural features together to form a helical
Gas constant. of an alloy (e.g., grain and ramp. The
Burgers vector (b). A phase structure) that are Burgers vector is parallel to
vector that subject to the dislocation
denotes the magnitude and observation under a line.
direction microscope. Self-interstitial. A host
of lattice distortion Mixed dislocation. A atom or ion
associated dislocation that is positioned on an
with a dislocation. that has both edge and interstitial
Composition (Ci). The screw components. lattice site.
relative content of a Photomicrograph. The Solid solution. A
particular element or photograph homogeneous
constituent (i) within an made with a microscope, crystalline phase that
alloy, usually expressed in which records contains two
weight percent or atom a microstructural image. or more chemical species.
percent. Point defect. A crystalline Both substitutional
Dislocation line. The line defect and interstitial solid
that extends associated with one or, at solutions are possible.
along the end of the extra most, several Solute. One component or
half-plane of atoms for an atomic sites. element
edge dislocation, Scanning electron of a solution present in a
and along the center of the microscope minor concentration.
spiral of a screw dislocation. (SEM). A microscope that It is dissolved in the solvent.
Edge dislocation. A linear produces Solvent. The component of
crystalline a solution

Diffusion of surrounding Solid-state diffusion is a atoms environment. change of concentration is Diffusion Carburizing. atomic motion. stepwise Interstitial diffusion. Mass transport amount. means of mass transport of one metal into another Concentration gradient within solid materials by metal. such as diffusion. required to initiate a Fick’s second law. such time rate of as diffusion. The to a unit cross-sectional area beams that are transmitted solution for of material per unit time. This Chapter 5 concentration relationship is of a ferrous alloy is employed in nonsteady-state increased by diffusion diffusion from the situations. migration of host atoms. A the diffusing species is time the diffusion flux and the solid solution wherein the independent. free energy). This relationship is weight (or mass). The reaction. A The slope of the atomic motion. and the flux or concentration solute rate is proportional to the gradient in Fick’s first law. atomic species generally . for motion Concentration profile. The specification on the basis of and increasing exponentially diffusion flux is weight (or mass) of a with increasing proportional to the particular element temperature. the term is from interstitial site to curve “interdiffusion” is used. The mathematics Diffusion flux (J). of internal features at high Gaussian error grain magnifications is possible.Two interstitial that results when the mechanisms are possible: site. atoms replace or substitute negative of the Its magnitude is indicative of for the concentration the host atoms. concentration vacancy Nonsteady-state of a chemical species is and interstitial. employed Activation energy (Q). composition boundary behind Examination condition involves the a reaction. normally occupied lattice Diffusion Usually attendant to the site from which an atom or The magnitude of the reaction is ion diffusion coefficient is a reduction in some type of is missing. dissolves a Nonsteady-State Diffusion Diffusion coefficient (D). The process proportional by which to the second derivative of the surface carbon concentration. solute. The impurity atoms. a partial perpendicular an image by using electron differential equation. The microscope for nonsteady state quantity of (TEM). concentration relative to the total alloy gradient. (pass a constant surface Driving force. (e. Concentration being strongly dependent on Fick’s first law. function. (dC/dx). growth. Transmission electron first law. For steady-state diffusion. interstitial condition for which there position in a material. for steady-state diffusion The energy situations. by atomic It is the component that Steady-State Diffusion motion.. indicative of the rate of energy Weight percent (wt%). Diffusion. Diffusion Mechanisms Interdiffusion. The term diffusion concentration profile “self-diffusion” refers to the mechanism whereby atomic at a specific position. The diffusion plotted versus host metal. or a phase Vacancy.g. The constant Substitutional solid the concentration profile of of proportionality between solution. gradient according to Fick’s rate of atomic diffusion. The impetus through) the specimen. A microscope that are described by Fick’s mass diffusing through and produces second law. A Factors That Influence transformation.present in the greatest diffuse more rapidly. For a given diffusion.

static yield strength and the sectional area. The common.There are several condition for which there is four test types: tension. Atomic are used. Also. stress parameters were energy absorbed during . characteristics of metals can resistance to localized Steady-state diffusion. both materials are normally time. torsion. In The diffusion stress–strain tests. Brinell. Ductile on induced by a stress. For many is from lattice site to an modulus of elasticity for metals. depletion and true stress. Concepts of is the capacity of a material applied stresses. and is independent of time. Typical material behavior. and is the shear modulus strength are approximately when the stress is shear. popular hardness-testing no compression. and techniques (Rockwell. in Metals or permanent deformation. be ascertained by simple plastic deformation. properties (as well as other Tensile Properties material properties) are not Properties of The phenomenon of yielding occurs at the onset of plastic exact and precise quantities.Knoop. design stress and strain were first to absorb energy during or safe stresses are introduced. whereas Strain may be sustained by magnitudes of scatter Stress–Strain Behavior a some net accumulation or defined—engineering stress the fracture of a material. elastic. For mechanical load or force. Tensile commonly specified in strength corresponds to the terms of Concepts of Stress and maximum tensile stress that averages. or an index number is Vacancy diffusion. Self-diffusion. safe normalized engineering stress–strain stress is the ratio of the to take into account cross. Strain and is taken as the area of diffusing species. area beneath the ductile materials. proportional to each other. Hardness migration in Some of the mechanical Hardness is a measure of the pure metals. yield strength is determined that there will always be some scatter for the by a strain offset method measured Chapter 6 from the stress–strain data. Materials reduction in area are Design/Safety Factors True Stress and Strain measures of As a result of A number of the important ductility—the amount of plastic deformation that has uncertainties in both mechanical properties of occurred at fracture. hardness and tensile vacancy. which is indicative of the stress at which plastic property values are deformation begins. deformation. predominantly metals. Poisson’s ratio represents Variability of Material the Properties negative ratio of transverse Measured mechanical Mechanical and longitudinal strains. The constant depth of the resulting atomic migration of proportionality is the indentation. normally utilized for measure of an applied modulus of resilience is the design purposes. curve up to the yield point. Two different toughness represents the factor of safety. and Vickers) a depletion of Tensile are the most small diffusing species. have been discussed Resilience properties and inservice in this chapter. net accumulation or shear. measured mechanical materials. adjacent tension and compression. whereas may be expressed as Elastic Properties of percents elongation and standard deviations. determined diffusion wherein stress and strain are on the basis of the size or mechanism wherein net proportional. The represents the amount of under the entire engineering diffusion flux is dependent deformation stress–strain curve. A material that is indenter is forced into the diffusion flux stressed first undergoes surface of the material. The nonpermanent. engineering and true strains tougher than brittle ones. Stress is a elastic deformation.

The measure of Shear strain ( ). Yield strength (_y). A stress gauge stress. specified amount of plastic Hardness. stress and strain ceases. The onset of The instantaneous parts of the same body to plastic deformation. of the after release of the applied that may be sustained calculated stress level (on load. used. in gauge length of a it is the yield strength True stress (_T). a a material’s resistance to tangent of the shear angle strain offset of 0. The Nonpermanent deformation a material to absorb energy natural logarithm that is recovered or regained when it is elastically of the ratio of instantaneous upon the release of a deformed. for ductile deformed The change metals. point on a fractures. For strength. design factor (which has a elastic deformation. The The ratio instantaneous of stress to strain when applied shear load divided deformation by the is totally elastic. The material as it failure. Product nonrecoverable tension. used for length of a specimen being Strain. A force applied so as instantaneous divided by its original gauge to cross-sectional area of a length. The divided by its cross-sectional in a direction stress required area parallel to their plane of to produce a very slight yet before any deformation. The capacity of True strain (_T). The elastic (nonpermanent) Deformation maximum deformation. cause or tend to cause two specimen.002 is deformation by surface that results from an applied commonly indentation or by abrasion. totally recovered upon between strain release of an applied stress. Shear stress (_). A measure of value the negative ratio of lateral the greater than unity). Elastic recovery. The specimen (in divided by a instantaneous the direction of an applied factor of safety. applied load divided by the stress) Shear. adjacent Yielding. load applied to a specimen slide relative to each other. It is accompanied by without fracture. in Design stress (_d). stress–strain curve at which indicated by the total area Deformation the under that is nonpermanent—that straight line proportionality the material’s tensile stress– is. Used to and axial strains that result amount of energy absorbed protect from an applied axial stress. the stiffness of a material. by a against unanticipated Proportional limit. also a original cross-sectional area measure of across . curve. engineering (_). Resilience. (tensile) and a Poisson’s ratio (_). The strain. by a uniaxial force. that is permanent or engineering stress. Timedependent Plastic deformation. gauge length to original mechanical Safe stress (_w). shear load.Anelastic deformation. engineering (_). design purposes. which it is applied. Tensile strength (TS).Toughness is Elastic deformation. Toughness. contact. the basis permanent Often termed ultimate of estimated maximum load) atomic displacements. Stress. Modulus of elasticity (E).