Full text available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.

1561/2700000003

Energy Efficient Passive
Building: A Case Study of
SODHA BERS COMPLEX

G. N. Tiwari
Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
gntiwari@ces.iitd.ernet.in
Arjun Deo
Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
Vikram Singh
Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
Arvind Tiwari
Bag Energy Research Society,
Varanasi, India

Boston — Delft

www. PO Box 1024. Please apply to now Publishers Inc. Permission to use this content must be obtained from the copyright license holder. 1. +1 781 871 0245. USA.com For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license. 2600 AD Delft.doi. +31-6-51115274 The preferred citation for this publication is G. e-mail: sales@nowpublishers.nowpublishers. This Foundations and Trends R issue was typeset in LATEX using a class file designed by Neal Parikh. 2016. Printed on acid-free paper. PO Box 1024 Hanover.nowpublishers. Tiwari.. sales@nowpublishers. The ‘services’ for users can be found on the internet at: www. www.com sales@nowpublishers.com. no. MA 01923. 222 Rosewood Drive.org/10. No part of this publication may be reproduced. 109–183. Hanover. Singh and A. stored in a retrieval system. Authorization does not extend to other kinds of copy- ing. pp.. such as that for general distribution. V.com. In the rest of the world: Permission to pho- tocopy must be obtained from the copyright owner. Deo. Inc. MA 02339. N. In the USA: This journal is registered at the Copyright Clearance Cen- ter. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use. A. N. Tel. Tiwari. is granted by now Publishers Inc for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). photocopying.copyright. A. Deo. vol. without prior written permission of the publishers. Danvers.1561/2700000003 Foundations and Trends R in Renewable Energy Published. MA 02339 United States Tel. mechanical. ISBN: 978-1-68083-197-9 c 2016 G.com now Publishers Inc. The Netherlands. 3.com . or for resale. Energy Efficient Passive Building: A Case Study of SODHA BERS COMPLEX. Tiwari All rights reserved. Please apply to now Publishers. Singh and A. recording or otherwise. Tiwari.nowpublishers. sold and distributed by: now Publishers Inc. Photocopying. for advertising or promotional purposes.com Outside North America: now Publishers Inc. has an exclusive license to publish this material worldwide. Full text available at: http://dx. PO Box 179 2600 AD Delft The Netherlands Tel. or the internal or personal use of specific clients. Foundations and Trends R in Renewable Energy. PO Box 179. for creating new collective works. V. or transmitted in any form or by any means. a separate system of payment has been arranged. +1-781-985-4510 www.

doi. Athientis Jeffrey M. Full text available at: http://dx. 2016 Editorial Board Editor-in-Chief Brian Norton Dublin Institute of Technology Ireland Editors Andreas K. Gordon Concordia University Ben Gurion University of the Negev Manuel Collares-Pereira Jean-Louis Scartezzini University of Evora EPFL Robert Critoph Carsten-Hein Westergaard University of Warwick Texas Tech University Seamus Curran Karl-Friedrich Ziegahn University of Houston Karlsruhe Institute of Technology . Issue 3.org/10.1561/2700000003 Foundations and Trends R in Renewable Energy Volume 1.

doi. Also available as a combined paper and online subscription. ISSN online version 2328-8906. . 4 issues. Volume 1. Full text available at: http://dx.org/10. 2016. ISSN paper version 2328-8892.1561/2700000003 Editorial Scope Topics Foundations and Trends R in Renewable Energy publishes survey and tutorial articles in the following topics: • Renewable energy technologies • Systems – Solar thermal – Energy storage – Photovoltaic – Grid integration – Wind – Conversion technologies – Hydro-electricity – Underpinning materials developments – Bio-mass – Bio-gas • Non-technical – Wave – Economic viability – Tidal – Market development – Ocean thermal – Legal and regulatory Information for Librarians Foundations and Trends R in Renewable Energy.

N. Tiwari Centre for Energy Studies. Tiwari DOI: 10.1561/2700000003 Foundations and Trends R in Renewable Energy Vol. Singh and A.1561/2700000003 Energy Efficient Passive Building: A Case Study of SODHA BERS COMPLEX G. No. N. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.in Arjun Deo Centre for Energy Studies. V. India Vikram Singh Centre for Energy Studies. India Arvind Tiwari Bag Energy Research Society.doi. 1. Deo.iitd. A. Tiwari.ernet. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. India gntiwari@ces. 3 (2016) 109–183 c 2016 G. Full text available at: http://dx. Varanasi.org/10. India .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. 7 3.1 Trombe wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .doi. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5 Passive Cooling Concepts 15 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Basement . . . 11 4.2 Air cavity cabinet wall . . .3 Ventilation/Infiltration . . . . . . .1 Foundation . 13 4. 8 4 Construction of SODHA BERS COMPLEX 10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ground floor . . . . . . . . . Full text available at: http://dx. . . 15 5. .1561/2700000003 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Background 5 3 Design of SBC 7 3. . . . . .org/10. . . . . . . . . . .5 Roof top PV system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Outer Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5. . . . 8 3. . . . . . . . 27 ii . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Column .6 Solar water heating system . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 First and second floor . . .4 Wind towers . . . . . . .3 Beam and Slab . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .4 Energy payback time . . . . . .5 Carbon credit earned by SBC . . . 50 7 Cost of Construction (Initial Investment) 51 8 CO2 Analysis 52 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6. . . . 29 5. . . . . . . .1 Experimental validation . . . 57 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 9 Lifecycle Cost Analysis 60 10 Result and Discussion 64 11 Recommendations 67 Acknowledgements 69 References 70 . . . . . . . . . 33 5. . . . . . .3 Energy saving due to natural day lighting . .7 Green roof . Full text available at: http://dx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Monthly Thermal Energy Saving . .1 Embodied energy . . . . . . . . . .org/10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 CO2 Emission . . . . . .3 CO2 mitigation of SBC . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Earth air heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Height of a room . . . 58 8. . . . . . . . . . 52 8. . . . . . . . . .8 Sky irradiative cooling . 34 5.doi. . . . . . . . . 48 6. . . . . 46 6. . . . . .1561/2700000003 iii 5. . . 37 6 Thermal Modelling 39 6. . . . . . . . . . . .4 An overall energy saving at SBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109–183. DOI: 10. most of the older cooling concepts such as orientation. India. Additionally. 2016. Foundations and Trends R in Renewable Energy. passive-cooled. in order to meet the energy demand of buildings. day lighting. unglazed Trombe walls. wind towers etc. G. earth sheltering. pp. a roof top PV system and a photovoltaic thermal greenhouse dryer have also been integrated. were considered. In the design of the SBC building. vol. cross ventilation. This four-story. the earth sheltering/basement (∼ = 28◦ ) and first and second floors (∼= 18–20◦ ) are the most comfortable zones from a passive cool- ing/heating point of view respectively. passively-cooled building is known as SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC). Singh and A. and (ii) one unit of energy saving of 3 for an average 10◦ temperature difference between the room and the ambient air temperature. no. N. V. Based on the present study. a solar water heating system. 3. Deo.1561/2700000003. annual energy saving and CO2 credit of SBC have all been evaluated.doi. Tiwari. . Energy Efficient Passive Building: A Case Study of SODHA BERS COMPLEX. Full text available at: http://dx. CO2 emission.1561/2700000003 Abstract A composite climate case study has been carried out of a newly- constructed. A. Tiwari. it has been seen that during harsh summers and cold climatic con- ditions. 1. four-story building in Varanasi (UP). It has also been observed that there are approximately 4740 tons of earned CO2 credit with (i) a pay- back period of 20 years. The total initial embodied energy.org/10.

Chen et al. [2012] and Stevanović [2013] have reviewed the work on passive heating/cooling mechanism of buildings which includes the orientation. from fossil 2 . shade. there is a 48% energy consumption in the building sector against a 29% energy con- sumption in the domestic sector in India (CEA 2009). air-tightness and infiltration performance.doi. including building design. [2015] have comprehensively reviewed the passive building design criteria by considering the building layout. The pattern of energy consumption in buildings is shown in Figure 1. and their effects on energy consumption. It is important to mention that these two problems are tightly connected and need to be resolved as a holistic solution. Pacheco et al. envelope. glazing and phase change materials etc. building geometry.1. In the United States. ventilation. Recently.1561/2700000003 1 Introduction The depletion of fossil fuels and climate change needs to be addressed in every sector of life.org/10. This shows the strong requirement to design passive cooled/heated buildings across the Indian continent. which has been continu- ously increasing since the beginning of industrialization. shape. thermo physics. Only 12% of energy is required for artificial lighting in India. which clearly shows that 59% of the energy is consumed in the cooling and heating of the building. radiative cooling. Full text available at: http://dx.

all have a hot and dry climatic condition. comes under a composite climatic condition with temperatures ranging between 2 ◦ C and 50 ◦ C. From Table 1. Hence.1: Pattern of energy consumption in a residential building (source: Depart- ment of energy) fuel based energy conservation to sustain the climate. Oman. Furthermore. Germany. Full text available at: http://dx.org/10. a harsh cold climatic condition is only present for a few days during December to January (approximately 30 days) and a warm condition is the norm for about seven months (April to October). there is a need to design passive buildings in northern India from a cooling . the proposed classifica- tion can be valid globally. Iran and Iraq. the weather in many European countries including the UK. Bansal and Minke [1988] have made an attempt to classify the Indian climatic condition based on a heating and cooling point of view and it is summarized in Table 1. the passive design of a building from an energy conservation point of view mainly depends on local climatic condition. lighting and cooling point of view will be different for each climatic condition. For example. France and Italy fall under the category of cold and cloudy like Srinagar and Jammu. However.1. cov- ering a maximum populated area. Here it is important to mention that the design and performance of buildings from a heating. one can see that the northern part of India.1561/2700000003 3 Heating and cooling(59%) Lighting(12%) Refrigeration (8%) Clothes washing(5%) Electronics(5%) Cooking(5%) Computers(1%) Others(5%) Figure 1. However.1. Coun- tries in the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia.doi. Ireland.

when six months or more do not fall New Delhi. [Bansal and Minke. Recently. . Air Relative Precipitation Number Temperature humidity (rain/snowfall) of clear Climate in ◦ C (γ) in % in mm day Example Hot and dry >30 <55 <5 >20 Jodhpur. (CC) Jammu Cold and sunny <25 <55 <5 >20 Leh. (CS) Ladah Composite This applies.1: Criteria for the classification of climatic condition based on monthly average climatic parameters.org/10. the government of India is encouraging the use of solar energy in the heating and cooling of build- ings by passive and active modes. (WH) Mumbai Moderate 25–30 <75 <5 <20 Bangalore (MO) Cold and cloudy <25 >55 >5 >20 Srinagar.doi. In the past. 1988]. Full text available at: http://dx. As men- tioned earlier.1561/2700000003 4 Introduction Table 1. (HD) Jaipur Warm and humid >30 >55 >5 <20 Chennai. energy supply to the building sectors in India is mostly from coal-based power plants. there are many passive cooling concepts available in the literature and some of them will be used in the present study by using locally available building materials and skilled manpower. (CO) within any of the above categories Varanasi rather than a heating point of view to sustain the climate.

2011. Applied Energy. Improving thermal performance of building walls by optimizing insulation layer distribution and thickness for same thermal mass. Stack ventilation in multi-storey atrium buildings: A dimensionless design approach. and G. and B. Bisoniya. R. 2014. 72:44–52. Hunt. I. S. Optimizing energy and environmental performance of passive Trombe wall. Thermal radiation role in conjugate heat transfer across a multiple cavity building block. Passive cooling techniques through reflective and radiative roofs in tropical houses in southeast asia: A literature review.1561/2700000003 References Acred. Daylight factor prediction in atria building designs. Solar Energy. Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). B. K. M. 35(8):3508–3516. and F. Calcagni. 2004. Minke. and M.. and G. 88(9):3113–3124. 2014. Bojic. A.org/10. 2010. and M. Al-Sanea. Building integrated photovoltaic thermal systems. Agrawal. M. Rahman. K. Kuznik. K. A. Anil. 3(3):283–297. A. Paroncini. and M. Energy. 2010. Energy and Buildings. Tiwari. 1988. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013. Antar. Johannes.doi. Zedan. M. 76:669–682. Experimental and analytical studies of earth–air heat exchanger (EAHE) systems in india: A review.. Climatic Zones and Rural Housing in India.. Prashant. 2014. B. K. S. 70:279–286. 19:238–246. Bansal. Full text available at: http://dx. Building and Environment. Mazran. Germany. Al-Obaidi. N. T. A. 70 . and G. (UK). Frontiers of Architectural Research.

Yang. Wind-driven cross-ventilation in long buildings. Goiaa. Efficient venetian blind control strategies considering daylight utilization and glare protection. and G. New York. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015. and R. Lee. 2013. and P. S. Köster. Perinoa. K. IIT Delhi. E. Passive Low Energy Cooling of Buildings. H. and R.doi. 2013. Muselli. H. Energy Edu. Energy and Buildings. Deo. 50:1425–1436. Solar Energy. 2012. Passive cooling methods for energy efficient buildings with and without thermal energy storage — a review. F. CIBSE. C. Lam.Tech. Natural light controls and guides in buildings. Gan. Energy saving for electrical lighting. and H. Rooftop electrical power generation for rural applications. Charde. Technol. A. 2013. G. Gago. CES. Brun. G. Wurtz. and A. Daylighting and window design. 112:1016–1024. 1994. Thesis. E. Design development and thermal performance evaluation of static sunshade and brick cavity wall: An experimental study. 77:206–218. Tiwari. Chow.. Deo. C. X.. Energy conservation in building. Sci.. Knez. Edwards. Velraj. . NREL/TP-550-30769. W. Bo-Fan. and M. A. Haase.. E. Optimizing the configuration of a facade module for office buildings by means of integrated thermal and lighting simulations in a total energy perspective. M. Natural crossventi- lation in buildings on mediterranean coastal zones. C. Communicated. Vanm Nostrand Reinhold Co. Geetha. 2014.. A literature review of the effects of natural light on building occupants.1561/2700000003 References 71 Chan. Chen. Energy and Buildings. Gupta. 98: 241–254.org/10. 29(2):913–946. 2013. PartA: Energy Sci. and L. and C. Agam. Lu. 108:515–27. Applied Energy. 1999. A comprehensive review on passive design approaches in green building rating tools. W. John Wiley & Sons. Y. 80:150–158. M.. M. G. Faggianelli. Building and Environment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.-R. Applied Energy. J. Li. reduction of cooling load. A. B. L. Muneer. 60:210–216. Energy and Buildings. A. N. 2002. 41:1–13. M. B. 2014. Givoni. 1998. Chu. M. and M.. Tzempelikos. Tiwari. A. 27:37–43. T. 2015. A parametric study of Trombe wall for passive cooling of buildings. and J. 2015. Full text available at: http://dx. Analysis and prediction of daylighting and energy performance in atrium spaces using daylight-linked lighting controls. D. Energy Policy. H. Torcellini. Lighting Guide LG10. N. 2013.

Jie. 2008. Ecological Engineering. Empirical study of a wind-induced natural ventilation tower under hot and humid climatic conditions. Evaluation of lighting performance in office build- ings with daylighting controls. N. 2012. 2014. W.. Sohif. T. Maerefat. Baskaran. 2007. Mardaljevic. Jim. 69:265–275. Lam. 2001. Diakaki. Haghighi. 2014. Saidur. Numerical exper- imental analysis of cool roofs application on a laboratory building in Irak- lion. H. Roof pond cooling of buildings in hot arid climates. L. 38:905–913. S. E. 2006. T. Chicago. . Iqbal. 43(7):1676–1684. S. Liu.doi.trombe wall installed in a fenestrated room with heat storage.. I. and J. Mahlia. Evaluation of a Trombe wall system in a subtropical location. Li. IL. A. Gang. and J. and R. Michel. C.. H.. M. 62:468–477. Cost benefits analysis and emission reductions of optimum thickness and air gaps for selected insulation materials for building walls in Maldives. Matoski. Li. C. 27: 1507–1515. Y. N. National Research Council. Energy and Buildings. Sulaiman. Building thermal-insulation effect on ambient and indoor thermal performance of green roofs. Applied Thermal Engineering. M.1561/2700000003 72 References Haw. Y. Energy. Thermal performance of green roofs through field evaluation. B. and A. P. M. Suzuki. Awards and Trade Show. Omidreza. Kamaruzzaman. S. Proceedings for the First North American Green Roof Infrastructure Conference. 2003. Energy and Buildings. Energy and Buildings. Energy and Buildings. Bing. and B. 43(1):82–89. K. Ong. Building and Environment. and A. 35(5):2242–2250. C. Exergy analysis for day lighting. Passive cooling of buildings by using inte- grated earth to air heat exchanger and solar chimney. Renewable Energy. 33:793–803. J. K. Papantoniou. Yuebin. Renewable Energy. Energy and Buildings. N. M. 35(10):2316–2324. 52:28–38.. Y.. I. Greece. Kruger. Useful daylight illuminances: A replacement for daylight factors. Mahlia. 2010. S. Performance of a cou- pled cooling system with earth-to-air heat exchanger and solar chimney. Kolokotsa. 66:364–372. 2010. P. Crete. P. D. M. Fuxin. E. Taufiq. and A. electric lighting and space cooling systems for a room space in a tropical climate. Hua. Kharrufa. Full text available at: http://dx. 2013. Study of PV. Nabil. 2012.org/10. Adil. K. and A. and L. and S. D. Vlissidis. 1–10. and Y. C. 2011. Y. and C. Jianping.

Morales. Parker. 2013. Sopian.. V. Kaushik. A. Pisello. Ajit. 9(1):33–48. 69:154–164. and A. 44. R. and G. Santamouris. Nilofar. and A. S. Passive cooling of building using multi air gaps. Pacheco. Trombe walls: A review of opportunities and challenges in research and develop- ment. A literature review. M. 14(1):47–52. A. Synnefa. Applied Energy. A. Theoretical evaluation of the night cool nocturnal radiation cooling concept. Drying and Testing of mint (Mentha Piperita) by a Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) based Green- house Dryer. Solar Energy. lakis K.. Sherif. and Z. H. L. 2012.. Angelo. C. Roberto. Energy efficient design of building: A review. Cotana. Roche. Littlefair. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. I. Kumar. O. 66: 211–221. S. 86:3353–3363. Dewey. S. D. 66:106–114. K.. A. Jaya. S. C.. 2012. A study of air flow and heat transfer in building-wind tower passive cooling systems applied to arid and semi-arid regions of mexico. 16:3559–3573.org/10. Building and Environment. and G. Lim. . H.. M. 2011. Occupant reactions to daylight in offices.. Tiwari. Drying Technology. Light Res Technol. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Srivastava. J. Sulaiman. Tiwari. Dimitriou. J. N. Sabry. Singh. Khatry.. Tiwari. 2000. S. 2005. De. and F. Sierra-Espinosa. Energy and Buildings. L. L. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on daylight availability in residential desert buildings. A. Int. 32(3):119–26. 2008. 29(9):1002–1009. S. Energy Conversion and Management. Full text available at: http://dx. M. I. V.. and M. and G. C. The design and environmen- tal evaluation of earth-to-air heat exchangers (EAHE). and M. The thermal effect of an innovative cool roof on residential buildings in Italy: Results from two years of continuous moni- toring. Gadelhak. FSEC-CR 1502-05. C. Goyal. Optimum distribution of insulation inside and outside the roof. Moya. N.1561/2700000003 References 73 Nayak. G. M. A. M. M. Florida Solar Energy Center: Contract Report. and P. 2012. and F. Ozel. M. K. Sodha. C.doi. 28:107–116. Determination of optimum insulation thickness based on cooling transmission load for building walls in a hot climate. 2014. Kolokotsa. D. 2013. U. A.. Reyes. A. E. Saadatian. Pas- sive cooling of the built environment — use of innovative reflective materials to fight heat island and decrease cooling needs. Malik. 3(2):71–82. Z. 1981. M. K. Z. 2013. Low CarbonTechnol. Martinez. 16(8):6340–6351. Peretti. H. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. J. Energy and Buildings. N. 1979a. Ordonez. Y.

Stevanović. Applied Energy. A. Reviews of Renewable Energy Sources.. Applied Energy. N. 7(13):229–242. S. Solar Energy Technology Advances. 1983. N. N.org/10. Photovoltaic modules and their applications: A review on thermal modelling. Heating/cooling of building by flow of water over the roof. Synnefa. Energy Research.. N. Roof cooling by water evaporation. Matthopoulosa. M. Energy matrices of the building by incorporatin daylight concept for composite climate — An experimental study. Nova Science Publishers. N. and M. Sudan. Kumar. 3:349–356.. Trombe wall management in summer conditions: An experimental study. Vikram. and S. Sodha. R.. Estimating the effect of using cool coatings on energy loads and thermal comfort in residential buildings in various climatic conditions. G. S. U. 2011. 39:1167–1174. S. Spala. Joshi Poonam. 2014. 39(2):201–209. 2008. S. Tiwari. and M.1561/2700000003 74 References Sodha. Sodha. 2007. J. Kumar.. Solar Energy: Fundamental. 1980a. Inc. N. The Open Environmental Sciences. N. Full text available at: http://dx. G. Periodic theory of an open roof pond. M. Sodha. and G. Deo Arjun. S. Renewable Energy. Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. N. and G. selection. Tiwari. 2011. Design. 7:305–319. A. Tiwari. A. 1980b.. S. F. Usha. 8:18–28. 33:173–177. Stazi. and G. 2013. K. A. A. India. Mishra. C. Tiwari. A. Tiwari. Srivastava. M. Tiwari. New Delhi.. N. S. Solanki. Assimakopoulosb. Building and Environment. Design of an earth air heat exchanger (EAHE) for climatic condition of Chennai. D. Akbari. Optimization of passive solar design strategies: A review. Narosa Publishing House. P. A. Applied Energy. Tiwari.. (UK). Advanced renewable energy sources. Perna. Srivastava. 86:2839–2851. H. Tiwari. 2002. 2006. Tiwari. 6:053122. Tang. Greece. G. 1979b. Kalavrouziotisa.. and G. Singh. 2:148–229. Thermal performance of double hollow wall/roof. Mastrucci. Santamouris. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. D. M. and H. N. and R. G. G. N. Mishra. New York. and C. 88(7): 2287–2304. Bagiorgasa. R. M. and Y. state of the art and energy potential investigation of a system installed in an office building in Athens. 2004. Tiwari. and G. S. Agam. Solar Energy. 2014. G. S. Etzion. G. 2012. 25:177–196. On thermal performance of an improved roof pond for cooling buildings. M. On the green roof system.doi. Energy and Buildings. K. Modelling and Applica- tions. .

and B.doi. Su. Simulation and experimental studies on natural lighting in enclosed lift lobbies of high rise residential buildings by remote source solar lighting. 2007. Tyagi.wikipedia. Letherman. Y. 2013. Energy and Buildings. Choi. https://en. 2013. and X. and D. 2009. F. Z. Wikipedia. Zinzi. . 61:323–332. Zhang. and S. V. I. Thermal per- formance of insulated walls enclosing residential spaces in thailand. Tummu. J. 92:705–713. Performance analysis and experimental investigation of a novel trough daylight concentration and axial transmission system. 2007. 41(7): 769–773. Us patent. PCM thermal storage in buildings: A state of art. 30(1):1–10. and H.. C. Zheng. Wright. Xue. 1998. Duc. 3:832–992. Energy and Buildings. Solar Energy. R. Buddhi. H. H. Numerical study on the heat storing capacity of concrete walls with air cavities. and R. L. Pipat. Applied Energy. 2012. H. Zhiye.. Illuminance in atria: review of prediction meth- ods. Full text available at: http://dx. Wikipedia. Pattana.org/wiki/Trombewall. H. M. C. Energy and Buildings. Cool and green roofs. Yang. International Journal of Project Management. and K. Y. J. and H. C. P. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 97:200–207. Wachenfeldt. Surapong. 11:1146–1166. Agnoli. 2012. Wong. V. Lighting Research & Technology. 1972.org/wiki/Embodied_energy. https://en.. L.1561/2700000003 References 75 Trombe. 25(2):143–149.. Li. Wang. an energy and comfort compar- ison between passive cooling and mitigation urban heat island techniques for residential buildings in the mediterranean region. Cost-effectiveness assessment of insulated exterior walls of residential buildings in cold climate.org/10. Feng. 55:66–76.wikipedia. Wang. V.