Honeywell

APPLICATIONS, DIMENSIONING
1. GENERAL

Control valves are these devices in an control loop which are, operated by a
controller signal, steering the size of energy (using media water or steam).
You find this control devices in most heating, ventilating and air-conditioning
systems. The right selection is very important for the controllability of the
specified control loop and customer satisfaction.
The control device (valve and actuator) should be selected accordingly
to the design requirements of the application and should result in a linear
coherence between the output signal and the control variable.

2. DIMENSIONING AND APPLICATION POINT OF VIEW
If the system is to be prepared for connection to a district heating network, space
reheaters (radiators, convectors and heating coils) should be connected with 2-way
valves, according to system 1 or 2, and dimensioned for water temperatures
of 80C/40C, at the prevailing outdoor temperature.
In case air reheaters are dimensioned for a return temperature of 50C, the air
heater group must always be connected to the boiler in a bypass configuration,
with an automatically controlled 3-way valve. This will ensure a sufficiently high
return temperature. If air heaters are to be connected to a district heating network,
their temperature and pressure specifications must be suitable for such operation.
If there is no likelihood of later connection to a district heating network, the system
should be dimensioned for 80C/60C operation, at the prevailing outdoor temperature.
The heaters should be connected with a 2-way valve, in a bypass configuration

or with a 3-way valve (system 4).Honeywell (system 2). a freeze protection thermostat should be installed in the lowest water pipe. which ensures calculation through the boiler. which. Select the configuration that gives the lowest system cost. . in case of freezing risk. When such air heaters are installed. automatically stops the supply air fan and closes outdoor air dampers. to prevent freezing. Air reheaters for outdoor air or a mixture of outdoor air and return air should always be fitted with circulation pumps.

% of Antifrogen L  KVS .0475 1. where 10C 1.0715 1.0790 1.0302 1.0200 1.0385 1.0168 1. It characterises the volumeflow in m3/h of water by mixtures are used to reduce the temperature for freezing of measuring a differential pressure of 1bar.Value and Kvr .Value describes the smallest Kv .0670 1.value is showing the capacity of media flow of a differences in density of the glycol/water mixture.Value is normally used and is releated glycol mixtures: to the volumeflow in gal/min by having a differential Values given in  kg/dm 3 pressure over the valve of 1 lb/sq in. a) Propylenglycol/Watermixture KV = 0.0710  Kvr .Value. the Kv .0241 1.0438 1. the CV .1560 2 10C 1.0570 1.0431 1.0538 1.Value (Medium Water) -10C 1.0510 1.1630 kv = V / SQR (pv ) 0C 1.0870 1.0820 1.Value is related to a 16% 25% 38% 47% 100% Stroke of H = 100%.0400 1.0369 1.0430 1.0815 1.0149 1.0500 1.0184 1.0487 1.0275 1.0305 1.1695  Calculation with KV .0357 1. This valve.0421  Rangeability Sv b) Ethylenglycol/Watermixture The rangeability Sv is charaterizing the relation between (example: Hoechst Antifrogen N) Kvs . % of Antifrogen N Sv = Kvs / Kvr 20% 27% 39% 52% 100% -20C .0620 1.2.1 Characteristic Parameters In applications where water/glycol mixtures are needed.0755 1.Value this is mainly used for heating recovery systems in air/ water applications a conversion is needed for the The kV.0500 30C 1. 1.0290 1.0618 1.1360 V = Volumeflow in m3/h pv = Differential pressure in bar  Conversation for other media kv = V x SQR ( / pv )  = Density in kg/dm3 .Value By using the Kvs .1425 V = kv x SQR (pv ) 30C 1.0766 -10C .0111 1.0920 1.0400 1.Value Attached you find some values for the density of water/ In the USA.  CV .  KV .0647 The Kvr .0545 1. Vol. -20C .1045 1. Vol.86 x CV  CV = 1.0970 1. . the heat exchanger by the outside air.Value.Value 0C 1.1495 pv = (V / kv ) 20C 1. 20C 1.1010 1.0330 1.0360 1. 1.0323 1. 1. Temp.Value.0576 the inclination tolerances of the valve characteristics are just fit.17 x kV (example: Hoechst Antifrogen L) Temp.0472 1.0582 1. .

 Pp  P2 Pc C V2  P3 V3  Pc C B AB V A M  PA Fig.5 3-way valve with water path B open V1 M 2. Close path total pressure drop in the open flow path.2 Mixing or diverting valves The valve has been selected. For the same flow. 3-way valves always have som water path open. The from the pump does not affect the mixing valve.2.2.3 Pressure drops in typical mixing valve circuit EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA A-4 . when plug A is closed. B AB A M V1 A AB V B M C Fig. This means that the same pressure prevails in diversion point C and at plug B. calculated from B of valve VI.way valve is equal to the Ignore pressure drops in pipes and pipe bends.Honeywell 2.2 Pressure drop across the valve plug Fig.1 Pressure drop across 3-way valves Pplug  pc  p A The pump pressure and the pressure drop across the 3- way valve are often confused. The flow from the diversion point C. the pressure As pointed out earlier. so that its pressure drop will be pA. above shows that the 3-way valve is only affected by the pressure drops in the circuit. where the flow is varied by Which pressure drop affects the valve plug? the mixture valve. is zero. In every control circuit there is a mixing and a diverting Pressure at plug A: p A  pc  pc  p A point. if the circuit was so q=0 designed originally. The flow from point C passes through the load. V3. In new constructions. When renovating old installations.4 3-way valve with water path A open q Fig. The pressure drops that load a 3. which means that the total pressure The same reasoning applies. the valve is installed in the mixing point. drop in this line. L and valve port A. the diverting valve should be retained. 3-way valves are used in order to minimize upsets in pressure and flow balances in the drop across the load will be pL. through the point at which the flow is divided (C) to the common the balancing valve.1 3-way valve as a diverting valve B AB A q=0 V M C B q AB A Fig.2 3-way valve as a mixing valve Pplug  p  p  pc  ( pc  pc  pA ) 2. system. for a given flow. There can be no pressure valve port (AB).

Port B: CB. are relatively small. C E C Fig.3 Valve authority c. of the circuit. But to maintain correct characteristic in control valve V. in Fig. in which the flow is effected by the valve. 8.3.9 Mixing three way valve  pV  pG  pC pV  b.8 Diverting three way valve G C pV  B pV  pD  pCE V A AB M d. Port B: CB.2. A M AB pV  pD  pCE B V G C pV  pV  pE  pCD C For the marked parts the pressure drops in Fig.7 Mixing three way valve therefore often close to 1. Thus. Mixing three way valve: Port A: Pipes CA + pressure drop across G.  pV  pG  pC A-5 EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA . The autority of 3-way valves is Fig. does not effect the valve authority. Diverting three way valve: B * Port A: Pipes AC + pressure drop across G. Diverting three way valve: Port A: Pipes AD + CE The valve authority should only be calculated for that part Port B: BC.6 Diverting three way valve Port A: Pipes AE + CD. Mixing three way valve: Fig. pV Fig. the balancing valve. G C Port B: CB. The 3-way valve effects the flow in the following parts of M AB A the pipe network (marked in the figures): V a. V2. don´t select it for a p pV below 3kPa. and Fig 9.

12 Radiator circuit connected to boiler heating plant Fig.15 Heating system connected to district heating network System 3 System 7 M G C E M Fig.Honeywell 3.10 Preheating coil which can be subject to freezing Fig.16 Domestic hot water system connected to System 4 district heating network C M Fig. DIMENSIONING System 1 System 5 M M V1 A AB B C C q Fig.11 Reheating system in cases not subject to freezing System 6 Fig.13 System with constant primary and secondary flows EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA A-6 .14 System with constant primary and secondary flows System 2 M M C E C C Fig.

constant temperature STAD-P M STAD-S  The coil must not be subjected to freezing.1 Functions and characteristics 3.1 / s ) Fig. A AB pv  H STAD -G B V The pressure drop in the pipes of the primary side is G C negligible. constant flow pv  Connected to district heating network.2 Valve sizing H qp tp qs ts ß>0.3 Flow Characteristic  Heating installation.AB = EQ% (Logarithmic)  Large air heaters. variable temperature  System with local boiler  Pv 3. this configuration does not provide V an even temperature in the air coil.1. not subjected to freezing B . 3-way mixing valve Thermal equilibrium q p  (t p  t r )  q s  (t s  t r )  Pv Dimension the pump for the flow in the secondary circuit.3.2 System 2.5 i.18 3-way mixing valve with primary pump pv 3.1 / s ) E D qp G qs H STAD -S 3.1.2. M P2 F qg C H ts q s and the total pressure drop in the circuit. P 3. with a requirement on low return temperature 3.2. 3-way mixing valve with primary  Primary circuit: variable flow.AB = linear (LIN) 3. Boiler.e.1 Functions and characteristics  Primary circuit: constant flow  PL  Secondary circuit: variable flow. tr tr  With variable flow.17 2-way valve with primary pump p v  H  p c 3. 2-way valve with primary pump 3.1 System 1.1 Functions and characteristics  Primary circuit: flow control.LIN) 3. 3.19 Constant flow in boiler H = 3-5kPa Eq% (Lograrithmic) H = 5-10kPa Modified linear (MOD.3 Flow Characteristic Llinear The resistance of pipe CD is considered to be negligible. A-7 EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA .3.3 System 3.1. with long pipe runs A . constant temperature pump  Secondary circuit: constant flow. pv  pc Fig. constant temperature 36  q Kv  ( kPa.2 Valve sizing 3.1 / s )  Secondary circuit: temperature control. P1 36  q p tr Kv  ( kPa.2.3.2 Valve sizing STAD -P M ß=1 A AB V B pv   GD   CH  Pc H C not less than 3 kPa STAD -B 36  qs q Kv  ( kPa . *  With small coils also risk for hunting at constant C supply air temperature control.3 Flow Characteristic Fig.

Open port A-AB of V fully.5. temperature control  Secondary circuit: constant flow. The pressure drop in D-E tgs  ts is negligible. 3. in which the flow is affected by the valve.4 Balancing Pv 1.3 Flow characteristic for V: network.5.Honeywell 3. System with constant flows in primary and secondary circuits Fig.4. tr 3.4. V 4. Adjust STAD-S.5.  It is suitable for connection to large boilers.22 Heat exchanger.  PE E C C q H ts EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA A-8 . in which the flow is affected by the valve.   qg  tgs  t gr  qs  t s  tr  3. Adjust STAD-G. multiple mixing valve .1 / s ) pv  3kPa (Linear) pv 36  qs 3. so that the flow through the coil is M correct. but the valve must be designed for a pressure drop of at least 3kPa.3 Flow characteristic for V: 36  qs v  ( kPa. ß = 1. P1 and P2. ß =1. which also means that the heating coils secondary circuit cannot affect the primary circuit.1 / s ) water/water pv Fig. where each  This configuration is used for large systems.2 Valve sizing qgs  qs Pipe section D-E is the part of the pipe network. variable temperature  Secondary circuit: constant flow  Pressure changes in the primary circuit do not affect  This configuration is used for large air cooling and the secondary circuit. so that the designed primary flow is obtained.0.6 System 6. heating system 3. System with constant primary and secondary flows 3.1 Functions and characteristics 3. with object is individually controlled.1 Functions and characteristics  Primary circuit: constant flow.21 Constant flow in primary/secondary circuit  H1 STAD -G  Pv  Pp P2 P1 t gs C D qs M ts P1 P2 tg D tp ts qg qg qp A AB qs BV H * C H C B V t gr A E tr tr AB M STAD -S tr E C  Pv STAD -P STAD -S Fig. constant temperature  Primary circuit: constant flow.2 Valve sizing Pipe sections C-D and E-A are the part of the pipe 3. 2.5 System 5.4 System 4. 3.20 Coil in air handling unit 3. which means that the authority of the valve.4. Close port A-AB of V and start pumps. 2-way valve with primary pump v  ( kPa. pv  3kPa (Linear) Valve authority.4.bypass groups.

 q   secondary circuit.5 G = kg/h  Temperatures (standard values): Flow characteristic: EQ% (Logarithmic) Heat exchanger.7.2 Valve sizing Steam G  1. cooling coils   5  10 Heating demands of dwellings: ts New buildings 40 W/m 2 living area Well insulated buildings 50 W m 2 living area  Pv Not very well insulated buildings 60 W/m 2 living area  PE E Poorly insulated buildings 100 W/m 2 living area M Cellars 15 W/m 2 living area H V q tr Cold water M tg ts Fig.5  Valve characteristic: EQ% (Logarithmic) A-9 EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA .7. method: Fig.1 Formulas connected to district heating network. Heating:  Heat exchanger between primary and secondary Water   4. not subjected to freezing. is required if static pressure and temperature on primary side are incompatible with equipment in   116 .3  q   3.1 / s ) pv qw = 1/s q = m 3/h p   v  0.7 System 7.1 / s ) pv pv   0.6.  Small air heaters.24 Calculation of leakage using the temperature 3. other   20 3. radiators.1 Functions and characteristics G tr qb C  Flow control. low flow system   50  water/(domestic) water (80-30K) Heat exchanger.59   pv    pE Units and designations:  = kW 36  q q = m 3/h v  ( kPa. Air   1. with a requirement on low return temperature.  Throttling away of excess pressure tr tr  Domestic hot water system connected to district heating network  System with requirements on low primary return Calculationof valve leakage using the temperature temperature. district heating   40K Heat exchanger.6. 2-way valve with primary pump Heat exchanger. primary. 4. hot water qg qs 3.2 Valve sizing method pv    pE qg ts  tr qb t s  t g   36  q qs tg  tr qs t r  t g v  ( kPa. CALCULATION EXAMPLES  Heating system (radiator groups and air heaters) 4.23 Heat exchanger.1 Functions and characteristics  Flow control.18  q w   circuits.3.

bar absolute p2 = Pressure after valve. district heating pP  15 kPa exchangers. the magnitude of the pressure drop across various components.Honeywell Valve flow coefficient q p Liquid Kv  C v  117 . pS  pressure drop on secondary side of heat Water meter. °C k = Correction factor for superheated steam Valves connected in parallel  v   v1   v 2   v .7  p  p2 k  1  0. The following information will suffice for rough estimates. Pipe resistance Pipe resistance copper pipe steel pipe p  0.20kPa. v Dpv CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP SUB-CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP Steam p  0. p1 . kg/h ts = Steam superheating temperature.50kPa.35  p1 v  22. although the manufacturers Convectors Dp  5  20 kPa specifications always should be consulted when making accurate calculations.max.5  10 kPa exchangers.max.max. Filters p  15 kPa (tap water) Water heater  pP  2  7kPa. at p = 1psi p1 = Pressure before valve.5  p1 p  0..p2.5  p1 G G Saturated steam v  v  11.2 kPa / m p  0.3 Guide for quick estimates Heating/cooling coils p  5  20kPa The following are commenly encountered pressure drops: Boilers single family houses p  1  5 kPa p  pressure drop on primary side of heat Boilers apartment houses p  0.5 kPa Radiators without radiator valves 4. m3/h G = Steam flow rate. bar absolute pv = Pressure drop across valve. at p = 1 bar Cv = Flow coefficient..2 General Low flow systems with radiator When designing HVAC-systems.35  p1 22.0012  t s Kv = Flow coefficient. US gallons/min.max. often uncertainty exists Dp  10 kPa valves regarding. m3/h. Heat exchanger (radiator network)  pP  20 kPa.4 kPa / m   ps  10  30kPa. Pipe resistance total in a substation (district heating) p  10 kPa EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA A-10 . kg/dm3 (note units) q = Liquid flow rate. Fan coils Dp  5  20 kPa 4. 1  1  1  s   v  2   v1  2   v 2  2 p  0. bar p = Density.7  p  p2 Gk v  Gk Superheated steam 11. Heat exchanger (air  conditioning) Heat exchanger (snow melting)  Valves connected in series  p  15kPa.

63 (a good value as  should be >0. 1 / s) 100 = q  (100-35)  1. the authority.5) 100 Valve authority. 5. Control valve. To obtain a flow in the primary circuit of 1.  = 1.27 (kPa.3 compensate with STAD-S.16 kW K  36  q 36  1. V The pump P provides a constant flow in the secondary v = 6. pressure drop of 10kPa is required. V should be dimensioned for the entire pressure drop.27 The pump P should be dimensioned for the flow.1 Example 1 4. and p = 20kPa.38 v = 5.4 Calculations 4.27  2 p = 100 kPa.0.2 Example 2 Pv P M q = 1.3 -20% = 4. q = 1.37 Kv    1. A pressure drop of  Sizing of circulating pump. l / s) 63 DH 100 =  0.3 q = 1.39   5.39 l/s V  p= H =  H=100kPa 20kPa + P=100kW V 100kPa  p = 10 kPa E M STAD-P  Pv STAD-S STAD Fig. .4.3 Example 3. Calculate the flow coefficient.33 (kPa. and  Calculate the authority of the valve.26 Example 2 Fig.16 v p 90 q = 1.4. P.10 = 90kPa P  q  T  1. Dp  90     63 kPa v  6. Pressure drop to create in the balancing valve Choose right v Select STA-P DH  Dpv  DpE  100  63  10  27kPa . Solution Solution pv = 100 .37l/s +40% = 7.4.3  36  q 36  0.2 m 3/h. Kv.25 Example 1 An air preheater must deliver 100kW.39 l/s circuit and overcomes drops in the secondary circuit. 100kPa is available. Valve authority. of the valve.3m 3/h = 0.4. Select the nearest larger pump and Select v = 6.  4. plus the remaining pressure drops in the circuit.39 l/s a  Sizing of V.

1 Medium Water A heating demand of 60W/m 2 gives  Drawing Line in Fig.value = 3. Result: Select a valve with kvs = 16.8bar with pv = 0.value 13. 28 q  3. P tot = 195 + 9 = 204kW Result: Select a valve with kvs = 6. pressure? From this point move vertically upwards. Then from the mass flow of superheated steam GS = 1300kg/h follow parallel to the lines and move Valve close-off pressure vertically upwards to the point of intersection with the Can the primary valve close off the maximum differential horizontal line for the superheat t = 100°C.4.  Searched for: -kvs .5. a cellar area of 600m 2. v    3. The point of intersection with the horizontal drawing line Is pc (maximum permissible p across a closed shows the kv .9  Drawing Line 1 in Fig.Recknagel/Sprenger ”Taschenbuch für Heizungs.5. Heating.value 100.6bar Water meter and piping p  25kPa Searched for: -kvs .Honeywell 4. HLK)” .35bar -Superheat t = 100°C Valve authority.35bar move horizontal into the kv .2 Basic Kv .2 Medium Steam   q    1.value 6. valve type and valve size? If not. radiator circuit 4. mass flow of saturated steam GS = 370kg/h Pressure drop in the circuit -Primary valve pressure p1 = 2.27 move vertically downwards. Radiator valve V1 4. Then from the mass flow of saturated steam G S = 370kg/h 36  q 36  0.2bar EQ% (Logarithmic) characteristic: (absolute) -Pressure drop pv = 0.2bar with 150 pv = 0.5 Example 5.2 Example B -20% = 2.3m³/h 4.0m³/h P = 50  65  60 =195kW -Pressure drop pv = 0. 28 Given: -Max.5 Explanation Examples Heat demand 50 apartments.5.16  Drawing Line 1 in Fig. with a heating demand of 15 W/m 2. each with an average area of 65 m 2 4.16 4.8bar (absolute) Heat exchanger pP  35kPa -Pressure drop pv = 0.0m³/h +40% = 5.value pv  150  35  25  90 kPa From the point of intersection of p1 = 2. 27 Given: -Volume flow V100 = 6.05% of Kv). the valve leakage will be excessive (>0.5m3 / h  0.68 4.4.value area.9bar (= 90kPa) Searched for: -kvs .value Similarly.1 Example A 204  q  (100  50)  1.2. The point of intersection of the two drawing lines shows the kv .Technikum Luzern ”Arbeitsunterlagen Heizungstechnik (Abt.value area.68 ( kPa.4 Example 4. l / s ) The point of intersection with the horizontal and vertical pv 90 drawing line is between kv .7 and 16.value 90   0. gives 9kW.0 GS = 1300kg/h -Primary valve pressure p1 = 1.97l / s Given: -Max. mass flow of superheated steam Select: Kv = 4.und Klimatechnik” .5.6bar move horizontal into the kv .3.2. APPLICABLE LITERATURE: . valve) lower than the maximum value permitted by the Result: Select a valve with kvs = 100m³/h combination of actuator.Honeywell ”Engineering Manual of Automatic Control” EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA A-10 .6 From the point of intersection of p1 = 1.

0 300 0 .5 700 1.5 1.0 500000 300000 30 =6 200.0 16 5.40 0.5 500 400 1.0 10 20 30 50 90 100 200 500 1000 kPa pressure drop p vA-AB Fig.0 1000 2.3 2.2 50 waterflow Q (m3 /h) waterflow Q (l/h) 40 30 20 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 mbar 0.63 0.2 200 0 . Medium Water water column 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 20000 50000 100000 mmWS 500.0 5000 10 3000 6.0 1500 1.3 0.0 100000 0 25 0 16 50.0 50000 40000 0 10 30000 63 20.1 0.0 2000 4.0 20000 40 15000 10.0 k VS 200000 0 40 100. DIAGRAM 1 Dimensioning. medium water . Example for dimensioning.6 600 0.2 0.0 10000 25 6.1 100 5 0.0 5. 27.

28 Examples for dimensioning. G (kg/h) Fig.Honeywell DIAGRAM 2 Dimensioning. medium steam EN3C-0156 0399R5-MA A-12 . G s (kg/h) superheated steam. Medium Steam superheating t in K saturated steam.

C Rg5 ss Brass/EPDM Rg5 EPDM *) V5833A/V5832B. DN25-40 Rg5 ss Brass Rg5/Brass EPDM *) V5823A.C/33A.C Rg5 ss Brass/EPDM Rg5 EPDM *) V5011R Rg5 ss Brass ss PTFE *) V5011S Rg5 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5013R Rg5 ss Brass Brass/ss PTFE *) V5328A GG-25 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5049A PN16 DN100 GG-25 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5049A PN16 DN100-150 GG-25 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5049A PN25/40 GS-C25 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5329A PN16 GG-25 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5050A PN16 DN100 GG-25 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5050A PN16 DN100-150 GG-25 ss ss ss PTFE *) V5329C PN6 GG-25 ss ss GG-25 PTFE *) V5015A PN6 GG-25 ss ss/EPDM GG-25 PTFE *) V5050A PN25/40 GS-C25 ss ss ss PTFE *) *) Silicon free version only on request. . VALVE PARTS MATERIAL LIST Valve Body Stem Plug Seat Stem Seal Lubrication Silicon free V5822A/32A Brass/Rg5 ss Brass/EPDM Brass EPDM *) V5823A.