Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180

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Composites: Part B
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A short review on basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites
Vivek Dhand a, Garima Mittal a, Kyong Yop Rhee a,⇑, Soo-Jin Park b, David Hui c
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin, Republic of Korea
Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea
University of New Orleans, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, New Orleans, LA 70148, United States

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A recent increase in the use of ecofriendly, natural fibers as reinforcement for the fabrication of light-
Received 3 September 2014 weight, low cost polymer composites can be seen globally. One such material of interest currently being
Received in revised form 28 November 2014 extensively used is basalt fiber, which is cost-effective and offers exceptional properties over glass fibers.
Accepted 9 December 2014
The prominent advantages of these composites include high specific mechano-physico-chemical proper-
Available online 16 December 2014
ties, biodegradability, and non-abrasive qualities to name a few. This article presents a short review on
basalt fibers used as a reinforcement material for composites and discusses them as an alternative to
the use of glass fibers. The paper also discusses the basics of basalt chemistry and its classification. Apart
A. Fibers
A. Polymer (textile) fiber
from this, an attempt to showcase the increasing trend in research publications and activity in the area of
B. Mechanical properties basalt fibers is also covered. Further sections discuss the improvement in mechanical, thermal and chem-
B. Thermal properties ical resistant properties achieved for applications in specific industries.
Basalt Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction low loadings. The problems of weakness and brittleness in the
composite (carbon fiber reinforced plastic-CFRP) can be resolved
Since its discovery in 1923 by American scientists, basalt was a by a hybridization technique, that is, by replacing the layers of
classified material of choice for military research and was exten- the carbon fibers with ductile fibers. This may result in cost bene-
sively used in defense and aeronautical applications during World fits and improvement in the physical and mechanical properties.
War II by the United States (US), Europe and the Soviet Union By using this technique, novel types of materials can be synthe-
[1–3]. Fig. 1 shows basalt fiber and carbon woven fabrics, which sized and fabricated. For example, Park and Jang [12] introduced
are extensively used. In recent decades, an increasing research fibers of polyethylene (PE) along with carbon fibers within an
interest in the use of basalt fibers due to their enhanced mechan- epoxy matrix to fabricate a hybrid laminated composite material.
ical properties has taken the polymer industry by storm. These In their experiment, they chose PE fibers because of the high elon-
fibers are now used in fabricating light, high-end hybrid composite gation at break followed by its high specific-strength and stiffness.
materials for infrastructural and civil applications [4]. Based on their observations, it was concluded that the superior
In general, hybrid nanocomposites are fabricated when two or mechanical properties of the hybrid-based composite depends
more combined foreign materials are embedded or reinforced strongly upon the position of the reinforcing fiber. So, whenever
within a common host matrix. With this mixing of two or more the CF was placed at the peripheral (outermost) layer, the compos-
materials, a synergistic effect is realized, which provides new and ite delivered a high degree of flexural strength.
superior properties within the material like improved elastic mod- Based on the above observations, strong, lightweight, durable
ulus, ductility, light weight, and flame retarding ability [5–7]. and economically viable fibers are currently required for fabricat-
These qualities are already present in carbon-fibers (CFs), which ing the hybrid composites. Presently, several organic and inorganic
are useful in a plethora of large scale engineering applications like fibers are available in the market, but many of them either lack
aircraft (civil and defense), automobiles, shipping, sports equip- structural strength or durability, or are extremely costly for use
ment and construction [8–11]. CF-based composites are, however, in moderate loadings. Basalt fiber is the material of choice pres-
pliable to stress concentrations owing to the brittleness of the ently and is an inorganic fiber with extremely good modulus, high
carbon fiber [8]. The major drawback in the carbon composite strength, improved strain to failure, high temperature resistance,
industry is the expense of production, resulting in the use of very excellent stability, good chemical resistance, and it is easy to pro-
cess, non-toxic, natural, eco-friendly and inexpensive [13–18].
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 31 201 2565; fax: +82 31 202 6693. Basalt fiber is obtained after extrusion from basalt-based molten
E-mail address: (K.Y. Rhee). igneous volcanic rock, which is found in flowing lava [19]. The
1359-8368/Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

[20]. (c) strands of carbon fiber. but the cost of as a reinforcement within the matrix in various shapes other than the whole process is not currently economically viable [23]. The fiber dimensions are their fabricated BWFRC had similar electrical properties in compar- generally in the range of 10–20 lm [16. As stated above. fibers. applications [6. As for the structural properties of the erties (like tensile and compressive properties of basalt) are better basalt fiber. Hence. if the basalt is rich in silica and poor with sodium it is catego- composite world [30]. and they found that basalt was superior and has Basalt is chemically rich with oxides of magnesium. basalt was a preferred choice counterparts [20–22]. which is then extruded in the form of properties. Eslami-Farsani et al. V. inert. inates. (d) strands of basalt fiber. rized as tholeiitic basalt. several reports are available which show promising than the fibers of E-glass and are also far cheaper than their carbon capacities of the material.25. [24]. physi. along with traces of alumina. Previously. and by surface up to 33% of the earth’s crust. of basalt as discussed previously is to hybridize it with carbon The fibers are chemically composed of pyroxene. concrete materials [18. fibers. Shapes like rods. cost olivine. which is melted at around 1500–1700 °C to carried out surface treatments of the basalt fibers to enhance its yield a glassy molten liquid. low cost and as stable. Young’s modulus and flexural behavior of basalt fiber 1. Another possible alternative to enhance the properties thin threads. Woven fabrics: (a) basalt fiber fabric. the present accounts of reports are available which report the introduction of review highlights the applications of the composites made by using basalt fibers with different reinforcements within composite lam. eco-friendly and non-reactive reinforcement mate- effective properties of basalt fibers could make basalt a prospective rial used in the synthesis and production of light-weight compos- candidate for reinforcement in CFRP based composites. At present. Also. Thus. This approach not only improved the yield strength sively adopted in the automotive industry due to their superior but also the elastic modulus of the composite dramatically. then the basalt is Fig. A similar report was prepared by sodium. Several of these prop. (b) carbon fiber fabric. As mechanical properties. bars and textile fabrics are possible the need for lowering the production and delivery cost without [6. potassium. if the mineral seemingly higher inter-laminar shear strength for their basalt is rich in alumina with a concentration over 17%. the potential to replace glass. clinopyroxene. Fig.19]. Dhand et al. 2 depicts the overall percentage distribution of the chemical cal and physico-chemical properties of the fiber reinforced plastics constituents in basalt. The chemical content may differ based on or polymer were further improved by the introduction of foreign the geographical distribution. clay mixture. potential applications exist other applications like marine [16]. Moreover. a polymer matrix reinforced with basalt fiber. woven fiber reinforced composites (BWFRC). basalt fibers have received increasing of material (as fibers) in the construction industry. the mechanical. On the other hand. the CF composites are being exten. silicon and iron. impact or ballistic resistance in the fabrication of basalt-epoxy composites. By utilizing this reinforcing material. Further. reported higher flexural modulus and in silica then it is categorized as alkali basalt. which are also light.31. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 167 extrusion process of basalt fiber is very energy efficient and sim. Several ites with highly improved mechanical properties. [13] investigated and compared the compres- sive strength. . If the basalt is rich in sodium and deficient Carmisciano et al. basalt can also be used in Based on the merits of basalt fiber. durable. one basalt is more utility-friendly and ductile. and has been in attention as a novel type of reinforcement material for the fabrica. and plagioclase minerals [51]. Manikandan et al. Currently.18. Based on the above chemis- effective and also opens numerous opportunities in the hybrid try.34–50]. Lopresto et al. ison with E-glass composites. enduring a loss in CFRP-based composite mechanical properties The present review focuses on the extensive use of basalt fibers is important. 1. Basalt fibers are manufactured from alterations [29] of the fibers. This would make it extremely light weight. fiber fillers [6. Chemistry of basalt reinforced plastics or polymers (BFRP) with glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP).19.1.32]. They also found that pler than that of any competing fibers. very few researchers have finely powdered basalt. extensive use since as an external or internal reinforcement within tion of hybrid composites/laminates. basalt can be introduced could decrease vehicle body weight by 40–60%. [33] fabricated a compos- weight and have strong load-bearing properties useful in the heavy ite by chopping the basalt fiber and mixing it in a polypropylene– automobile industry. calcium.32]. Basalt is abundant and comprises fillers like nanoparticles [25–27].28]. the promising nature.

Different types of fiber stacking are displayed in Fig. 4) and a comparison with different other commercial fibers are depicted in Fig. A basalt tetrahedron diagram in Fig. orientation and fiber-layout in the composite. which shows that basalt has an excellent tensile strength and also a good modulus. rigidity. Physical attributes of reinforcements As discussed above. these fibers act as load bearing components. heat resistance and resistance against chemi- cal and physical corrosion. 3 depicts the mineral dis- tribution within basalt. the mechanical properties of the reinforcing fibers are substantially higher than that of the non-reinforced resin-based composites. chemically unstable. 3. The present section discusses the mechanical and thermal properties of the basalt fiber reinforced composites as reported in the literature. Need/importance of reinforcement Fig. Dhand et al.1. conductivity. 2. 3. but these fibers are arranged and woven in the form of a sheet or fabric for easy handling. and their orientations within the fabric lead to characteristic changes in mechanical properties. Several types of reinforcements are used in different composites depending upon their applications. The properties of these composites (fiber/resin based) are dependent upon the contribution of these fibers. Basalt tetrahedron depicting different phases of basalt mineral based on the in composites are: (1) the inherent mechanical quality of the fiber. fibers in the form of single strands or bundles have also been used in processes like filament winding. 4. The main contributors that govern the role of fibers Fig. attention than any other conventional fillers (glass fibers) due to . reinforcements. which has extre- mely small concentrations of titanium and other trace metals [52]. nontoxic. heavy. In short. Properties of reinforcing fibers As reported earlier. basalt is eco-friendly. (4) the position. (3) the volume fraction of fiber within the composite. 3. when introduced into the matrix. 5. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 categorized as an intermediate between the tholeiitic and alkali basalt. Typical mechanical properties of basalt fiber. then the reinforcement success- fully enhances the composite matrix and makes it much stronger and stiffer than the matrix. which exhibits different types of woven fabrics used for composite fabrication.168 V. which reflects the chemical nature and kind of basalt produced during a geological event.1. one can infer that the majority of the materials of choice are costly. the use of basalt fibers as the source of fibrous reinforcement has gained much more Fig. In contrast. 2. When compared with other materials. making it an ideal candidate for fabricating composites for several applications. or tough to handle and require longer curing prepara- tions and methodologies to obtain good composites. This helps in mitigating deformation effects and also possibly changes or delays failure mechanics in the composite. Percentage distribution of chemical constituents in basalt. (2) the physico-chemical interaction between the fiber and resin component (interface interactions). silicate concentration. and (5) recyclability. improve physical properties of the composite. Mechanical properties As previously outlined in the above section. The various arrangement and assembly of fibers. which result in a synergistic effect in strengthening the composite. 2. If the above conditions are met. Basic mechanical properties of basalt fibers (Fig. 6. Reinforcements are constituents within a polymeric matrix of a composite which help improve the strength. matrix inter- action. lightweight and easily affordable. Magnesium-rich basalt is called boninite. Nonetheless.

Dhand et al. . basalt fibers are analyzed for their impact behavior. ature (HDT) of the composite was significantly higher than the neat forced composite strongly depends upon the chemical affinity and polymeric (PBS) matrix. Ary Subagia et al. alternative layers within the composite (as in intercalating. where its design was optimized for the application in a long-span cable based bridge.5–2 wt%) using the vac- uum assisted resin transfer molding technique. Results showed that the hybrid laminates fabricated with the intercalated stacking sequence (alternating fab- ric layers of basalt and carbon) possess better absorption of impact energy with enhanced tolerance toward damage than the laminates consisting of only carbon fibers.6. They observed an Fig. Zhang et al. the Vicat softening temperature (VST) and heat deflection temper- viously reported that the elastic modulus of the basalt fiber rein. It was pre.13. Sarasini et al. respectively. one can also enhance the matrix component. and impact behavior [4.43. Similarly.32. They tested the interplay hybrid system by stacking two laminates employing different sequences (sandwich-like and intercalated) at three different energies.54]. V. thermoplastics if basalt fibers are either placed on the surface or pre-preged using [22.53. recently reported the effects of hybridization using basalt fiber on quasi-mechanical properties and also addressed the low velocity impact behavior of their carbon-epoxy based laminates.54]. With the sion and the linkage is stronger between the basalt fibers and the help of these improved parameters. [59].47. several reports are available within the composite has shown excellent impact and energy on the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-based composites for shielding in the composite. the basalt fiber ties within the composite. Laminates of TM/ basalt/epoxy showed that the tensile and flexural strength increased by 16%. and impact properties along with the thermal stability of the composite (Fig.24. Stacked bar chart depicting the comparative mechanical properties of different known materials. whereas an increase of 27% and 153% was observed for the tensile and flexural modulus.55–57].61–63].21. [53] fabricated basalt/epoxy composites with tourmaline micro/nano particles (0. The strength of the composite is higher applications like thermosets [2. the composite showed an increase in the overall modulus. due to the effect of hybridization of the fiber. 3:7:3) layer showcased promising flexural behavior. They employed an injection molding method and assessed the tensile strength. The results obtained showed that. Recently. morphological analysis showed composition of the individual basalt fiber. Hybrid laminates resembling a sandwich pattern (basalt:carbon:basalt.47. Further. Figure depicting different types of stacking in the woven fabrics in use for improvement in the tensile and flexural properties of the PBS improving the mechanical properties of the reinforced composite. Basalt is also known for that the fractured surface demonstrates superior interfacial adhe- higher tensile strength and elongation at break [47. matrix due to the synergistic strength offered with an increasing number of basalt fibers in the composite. potential strength and also fatigue behavior. [15] proposed an enhance- ment method for BFRP based on hybridization. fabricated composites of basalt fiber (BF) reinforced with poly- butylene succinate (PBS) with variable contents of different types of fibers. 7). 6. 5.58–60]. When composite laminates prepared with impact resistance and environmental sustainability of the proper. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 169 Fig. [47]. Wang et al. They demonstrated that their enhancement of mechanical properties [47.47. To date.20. flexural.

wettability of the basalt fiber through contact angle studies. The composite displayed high adhesive strength the irradiation time is below 1. Figure depicting (a) flexural. a resin matrix [45. 8). it leads to a decline in the between the filler (basalt fiber) and the matrix (high density poly- properties of the composite. Botev et al. delamination [76–88]. This decrease in the properties can ethylene).71]. g-MA). [72] inves. [87] when they modified mation of the polymeric bonds. They also found that when (NaOH) solution. Bashtannik et al. Using this strength when the samples were plasma treated using oxygen. As a result.70. (b) tensile. This stacking results in dissipation of a large amount of energy of the SiAC bonds within the fiber is lower than that of the kinetic energy resulting in a series of changes upon contact of the C@C polymer bonds makes this composite vulnerable even at the impactor. The One can also enhance the properties of basalt fiber composites results obtained showed a remarkable increase in the wettability by altering the surface (functionalization) or by using the glow dis. the composite [73–75]. enhanced the mechanical properties (impact strength and tensile posite by irradiating basalt fibers from zero to six minutes at strength) of basalt/polypropylene composites by using chopped intervals. Kurniawan et al.43. which is due to the fact that the inter-laminar ability of the composite laminates made of basalt have higher toler. fracture test showed a remarkable 16% improvement in the tions used are either acidic. of the fibers along with enhancement of functionalization of the charge method. 7. basalt fibers treated with polypropylene-g-maleic anhydride (PP- ties (strength and modulus) were 45% and 18% higher. Also. They studied the inter-laminar frac- composite is primarily dependent upon the fiber modulus and the ture.5 min. sandwich). length of fiber posites. delamination. The mechanisms in action for the enhanced abidance short exposures of plasma.89].5 min.47. [90] fabricated and ical and thermal properties of the basalt fiber/polylactic acid com. influence of adhesive forces and increased wettability. An improved tensile strength in basalt/vinylester com- be attributed to the breakage of the silane bonds instead of the for. the basalt tigated the effects of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma fiber’s mechanical properties improve greatly when reinforced with polymerization on silane treated basalt fiber to assess the mechan. The optimized time for such etching it with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a sodium hydroxide improvement was found to be 4. the surface modification of basalt fiber can be achieved also reported that. friction. Kim et al. pull outs. The results obtained showed that the composite proper. it can be inferred that the load bearing ing impact behavior. toughness and the behavior of the basalt/epoxy woven com- modulus of the resin matrix. but also on the matrix of cracking.64–69]. orientation of fiber. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Publishers. it is known that the sensitivity of the flex. Dhand et al. Reinforced composites often display excit- Based on these accounts. [91] modified the basalt fiber surface by than the untreated ones (Fig. debonding and fiber breakage. The main goal of their study was to understand the and the content of the fiber [59. [59]. Plasma treatment is a more eco-friendly approach fiber surface through physical etching. alkaline or silane-based.170 V. where the basalt fiber content in the poly (butylene succinate) matrix is varied. . (c) heat deflection and (d) impact strength properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite. matrix dependent upon the curvature of the fiber. They approach. Similarly. The strength of the composite is not only are the changes in elastic and plastic deformations. [45] investigated the mechanical ural properties is much higher than the tensility and fiber loadings. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 Fig. region is basically resin-rich due to the type of stitch made within ance for the incident high kinetic energy based impactor when the composite fabric. respectively. The fact that bond dissociation the basalt fiber surface using a silane precursor as a coupling agent. properties of surface treated basalt fibers using a low-temperature which means that the tensile modulus of a fiber reinforced polymer atmospheric oxygen plasma. Ref. posites was reported by Czigány et al. by surface alteration and with the collective with improved mechanical results [45]. The adjacent layers result in overlap in such compared to their counterparts like glass or carbon laminates a way that the fiber helps in reducing crack propagation during [32. the inter-laminar than the usual wet processing technique where the wetting solu.

Analysis showed that the reinforcement of basalt fibers for the low quality timber beams demonstrated high strength with a good level of ductility and deflection. Earlier. basalt in the concrete was from 0% to 0. Dhand et al.0% basalt loading the geo- polymeric concrete showed higher fracture toughness than the concretes made of commercially available Portland brand cement. Flexural strength was evaluated and was found to improve with a yield of 27% based on the layers of fibers employed. and they showed higher adaptability than the glass fiber. [98] noted that with very low loadings of basalt fibers (<0. [118] investigated strength. mixed. Chemically. [40]. This helps in modifying the failure mechanism. Results show resins with basalt fibers and sufficient cohesion between them. self-piercing riveting and adhesive co-curing thermal resistance improved even at higher temperatures up to bonding on the rivets. due to the development of crack and fatigue within the structures The merits of basalt composites have long been utilized in civil [107. the adhe. Coupon . Fiore et al. impact- sive joints offered a conjoined resistance 67% higher than the mixed compression strength. that vacuum bagging allows a 23% increase in their average failure Fan et al. the freeze–thaw (FT) tests are used vance of the use of basalt fiber to strengthen skeletal material for [109–113]. they adhesion was attained by the process of vacuum bagging. [106] investigated the impact-mechanical properties of load due to the improvement in adhesion strength between the riv. When the basalt fiber volumetric loading was 0. epoxy resins. Due to the thermal incompatibility. [31] investigated the rele. They found that the mechanical properties and the niques. They found that with 0. The volumetric loading of ets and the BFRP. Fibers were also tested for their thermal stability where they were kept at 600 °C for 2 h. They present the clear danger of weathering fiber-matrix medium.1%. it was noted that the unidirectional basalt fiber based reinforcements beams having 2 Fig.94] studied the properties of basalt fibers and emphasized its fundamental use as a possible replacement to steel as a reinforcing agent in concrete-making. In order to understand the dynamics of composites infrastructural applications. They assessed the durability. More recently. [72]. They concluded that the use of two layers of basalt fiber sheet is enough to express the desired strength in the concrete. Sim et al. sure bar (SHPB) dynamic stress–strain curves showed that the strated a higher adhesive resistance of 43% compared to the mixed BFRC had promising and favorable impact properties at high strain vacuum bagging based laminates.108]. damage to the FRP composite is imminent. chemical moieties to form strong bonds with the surface function. the fiber is 30% carbon and 60% high strength the FT resistance for basalt. basalt fiber reinforced concrete (BFRC). The fibers were also examined for their weathering mers (BFRP. They also employed the hand layup tech. Zhu et al. GFRP. Split Hopkinson pres- Mixed joints fabricated through the hand layup method demon. [105]. Since these fibers provide considerable support and control cracking (thereby increasing the fracture toughness of a matrix). Li et al. Similarly. including basalt for testing the mechanical strength of the timbers. mechan. Harsh environments are always a threat to conventional archi- alized fibers and synergistically provide higher strength to the tectural components. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier publishers. Borri et al.91]. Previously. strain rate strengthening effects. under harsh cold conditions. found that the concrete demonstrated higher toughness. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 171 resistance. reinforced wood with natural fibers. Similarly. which is reported to have 1 GPa as its tensile account [114–117]. If co-curing fibers.e. On the other hand. the use of short fibers like basalt and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) improved the mechanical properties of geo-polymers. and strain samples. V. i. glass and carbon fiber reinforced poly- s-glass fiber. [92] analyzed ways to connect an aluminum temperatures by using different types of heat resistant vinyl and alloy (AA6086) to BFRP by exercising three different joining tech. thereby improving the adhesion properties and bio-activity in moist and cold atmospheres and cause damage and increasing the mechanical properties of the composite [59. Figure depicting different mechanical properties of the basalt and polylactic and 3 strips of basalt fibers expressed a dramatic increase of 26% acid reinforced composite: (a) strength and stiffness data. other natural fibers also provided some exceptional results in terms of the mechanical strength when compared to basalt. and they still retained a maximum of 90% of their normal temperature strength. the hand rate because the volume content of the concrete was mainly basalt layup fabricated composite showed an equal resistance. respectively. However. 100 °C. This shows that the surface treatment allows the matrix rate sensitivity to impact-compression. Dias and Thaumaturgo [97] studied the fracture toughness of basalt fiber reinforced geopoly- mer concrete. Brik [93. There are very few reports published on this Russian basalt fiber. moisture build-up the infrastructural industry. in load carrying capacities when tested by modulus data. Shi et al. CFRP) along with their hybridization. The group employed a high-grade severe damage. ical qualities and also the flexural strength of the concrete material which not only influences the tensile properties but also causes fabricated using basalt fibers. This increased mechanical and thermal stability of the BFRP nique and vacuum bagging process to realize the fabrication of bars up to 100 °C is due to the impregnation of the heat resisting the composite laminates for joining the structures. Further. they ought to be brittle due to the bridging action occurring during the process of micro and macro cracking [95. They introduced a series of natural fibers in the tension zone.3% volume fraction) in geopolymeric concrete there was a significant improvement in energy absorption and deformation capacities [95–104]. Ref.3%. recently studied the mechanical properties of the BFRP bars and also assessed its fire resistance capabilities at higher Likewise. 8. and chemical reactivity.5–1. the 4 point bending method. (b) tensile strength and and 11%..96].

This can be capacity for each and every FRP composite (pre and post fatigue achieved by the use of a dissimilar variety of materials and prod- load). The modulus and also maintain the configuration of the material and product results obtained showed that the BFRP could withstand 90 GPa of with a good balance of thermal resistance. dynamic and long-term properties the imposed conditions of flame impingement. Also. Further. the stress (i. This 300 FT cycles. aerodynamic. secondary event leading to loss of lives and property. the samples exhibited strong bonding between the matrix and fibers after FT cycling 3. and this resulted in transverse cracks caused due to the makes these materials weak and brittle. Recently. specifically for large BFRP did not exhibit any kind of delamination within their com. transverse cracks) were more readily serves the purpose. vermiculite. The system is maintenance-free and does not involve any kind of more. the inter-laminar fracture pering it at different temperatures of 50. tensile strength/modulus when compared to the GFRP. They toughness was found to be 10% less than that of the BSCC compos. dentally released volatile/combustible substances leading to jet Wu et al.56% higher than that of polyparaphenylenl benzobis. types of composites were made.e. fire exposure stress. This shows that the fiber’s tensile can be utilized to make composites [128–134]. ability. to glass fiber (GF). To further understand the suitability. Thermal properties [119. Since the co-efficient of thermal expansion of fabrication of composites [125–127]. ucts.135–138]. these materials are transfer of stress to the adhesive layer. this was dubbed a basalt skin. The composites were then investi. For the first case. [122] studied the tensile properties of BF by tem- than that of BSCC. basalt is much closer to the epoxy resin. ceram- These failure modes within the BFRP composite demonstrated the ics. [128] fab- posite sheets. static. there were some morpholog- ite. Dhand et al. BFRP showed some incredible protection (PFP) is the need of the hour and can prove to be a reli- results and is promising for use in civil infrastructure and develop. Safety requires a thermal shield made of cementitious. and resistance ture with excellent residual strength. which was activation or power or triggering in its action. Presently. able solution where the chosen material is not only able to endure ment. [108] showed the tensile fatigue behavior for the fiber fires [128]. BF gated using flexural and mode I interlaminar fracture tests. properties like fatigue. the mechanical properties of the composite. They found that in the case of the CSBC composite. Hence. load-bearing infrastructure and civil and inorganic matrices. Wu et al. 100. temperature profile. and 300 °C. Their results compared to a bridge made of steel cables. The main function found to be 2. the composite Czigány [58] not only investigated basalt fiber (BF) strength was formed by making four sheets of basalt fiber cloth at the center properties but also checked its thermal properties in comparison covered with two sheets of carbon fiber cloth on either side (i. showed that basalt composites demonstrated low wall tempera- with the aid of hybridization. 568 ± 267 MPa. mineral-based and tumescent materials. debonding between the matrix and the FRP sheets along with their representative epoxy resins up to fibers was the prime cause for the initiation of fracture. the BFRP has improved FT resistance in compari. They created an extensive database of FRP-concrete industries are caused due to the spontaneous combustion of acci- joints to validate the choice of adhesive layer. due to the effects implies that basalt stacked as a core material is sure to improve of hybridization. However. In the CSBC case. Eventually. they assessed the rupture strain of the BFRP.. which decelerated the panel of the B/CFRP could be enhanced for sufficient times. Recently. [124] studied the stacking effect and the mechanical manufacture of novel thermal shields for PFP. these fires may lead to a major catastrophic reinforced polymer (FRP) and hybrid-FRP based composites. continuous FT cycle results have also reported similar results with improved mechanical prop- show degeneration of the tensile properties of the resin matrix due erties when basalt was used as a central/core material during the to sustained loading. On the other composites and fire-resisting thermoplastics [58. 200. with such an outcome. due to fatigue load. They concluded that the best suited for fixed or static installations. due to the thermal effect. Table 1 shows a qualities like fracture and flexural properties of basalt fiber sheets comparison of thermal properties between basalt. The results obtained show that.4 ± 18. but also retains its mechanical strength. way to fabricate a composite is to impregnate organic and inor- due to the consequence of low moduli in composites of both GFRP ganic materials. chemical resistance and low water absorption. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 tests were carried out to investigate the tensile characteristics of case of the BSCC composite. In the showed strong tensile properties when the fibers were treated . the fiber ical and structural changes observed within the fibers including a breakage and the cracking of the matrix were the dominant fea. A second set was formed by making four sheets of carbon Apart from the superior mechanical performance of BF.e. Wang and Wu [123] of these materials during accidental flame impingement under investigated the merits of using high performance hybrid basalt/ strict conditions. there was a 45% capacity drop.120]. Secondly. basalt fibers highly beneficial for bearing dynamic loads. They deter- long cable-stayed bridge. They experimentally studied the suitability applications due to strong bonding [122]. there are fiber cloth at the center covered with two sheets of basalt fiber other properties which make basalt a remarkable fiber.9 GPa. 2B4C2B).2. thus explaining its nature as a promising material ricated composites of basalt fibers. they carbon FRP composites in the construction of a thousand meter designed and also simulated jet fires at bench-scale. Passive fire Amongst the several FRPs used. The choice of inorganic material over the organics and BFRP. Two silica filaments. They emphasized that. the flexural strength of CSBC was found to be 32% greater Militky´ et al. change in tensile properties.. and rupture sequence. scale modern industries [128]. Diab and Farghal [121] assessed the bond strength and the bond length of FRP-based concrete applied using Mishaps that occur mainly in chemical and petrochemical an adhesive. Their results show that the hybrid com. BF is cloth on either side (i. Several other authors son to GFRP and CFRP sheets. They has gained attention for its potential application as a reinforcing found that the flexural modulus of the CSBC composites was material for composites and also its use in thermoset-matrix based around 245% greater than that of BSCC composites.. since they are completely neutral toward fire absorbed by the adhesive layers within the hybrids. fiberglass and sandwiched with carbon sheet in the presence of epoxy resin.172 V. They concluded that. the only moduli within the composite influenced the failure mode. Tensile strength results of BF were found to be 2C4B2C). They also compared the load carrying its targets against any fire hazard or impending mishap. impregnating it with organic for manufacture of heavy. They concluded that the fibers tures for initiating the fracture mechanisms from within. However. Landucci et al. hand. which is failure. and weight loss during ical. known to possess outstanding thermal resistance. found that. whereas its modulus was around 60.e. posite. may perhaps be considered as a fundamental constituent for the Lim et al. For BFRP. mined the response of various kinds of materials by using the time posite (B/CFRP) cables displayed superior performance in mechan. sound insulation carbon core (BSCC) composite. which existence of transverse cracks. documented that there was a 36% increase in the elevated temperatures. this was dubbed a carbon skin-basalt core (CSBC) com. of such a system is to maintain low temperatures and also protect oxazole (PBO) composites.

toughness. Also. properties of the resin.4  10 6 5. upon prolonged exposure to an unfavorable (10 vol%) throughout the experiment. composition for determining the etching effect on the fiber surface ics) have been used in composites as reinforcements. They also material. alkaline conditions were the most corrosive for basalt. Reports in the literature have revealed that basalt and result in different types of deformity/damage to the composite fibers have higher chemical durability and superior corrosion resis- only after the limit of thermal saturation at elevated temperature tance [14. glass. strength of these bags decreased by 20–30% in less than two years Due to the long-term chemical action on the mineral/natural fibers. Rybin et al. V. 9 and 10). [153] employed a sol–gel technique to coat a dense and a porous layer of zirconia on basalt fiber to assess the chemical 3. They also showed that when the bags are fabri. the strength of it is difficult to measure or determine the corrosion effect. there observed that basalt fibers were extremely resistant to acid attack is no other known filtering fabric which can be employed under rather that alkaline attack.04 Melting temperature (K) 1720 1390 2070 Thermal expansion coefficient (1/K) 8. the reinforced fibers play a pivotal role in balancing the thickness of a denser zirconia coating on BF is promising in pro- external load and stress [31.035–0. basalt fibers are extensively used to counteract chemical basalt fiber composites in the area of hot gas filtration. They observed that BFRC expressed anti-seawater corrosion their work that the use of basalt fibers in composites allows the properties similar to GFRP. and degradation pared to the fibers exposed to the cement solution for a very long . Thermal properties SI units Basalt filaments Fiberglass Silica filaments Maximum application temperature (K) 1255 923 1640–2070 Sustained operating temperature (K) 1093 753 1470 Minimum operating temperature (K) 15 210 100 Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 0. They studied the mechanical environment.038 0. The compos. There is presently a lack of basic under- ricated hybrid composites of basalt fibers and ceramics for study.3. This ability of basalt to retain strength temperature. and the ceramic content was kept constant been reported that. point to understand how these materials behave in such harsh They chose fibers with different compositions and observed that environments in applications [147. [84] fab. For the above Medvedyev and Tsybulya [139] showed the effective use of reasons. They corrosion. Scheffler et al. basalt has been used to 300 °C. Chemo-resistance activity resistance of the fibers in an alkaline medium.034–0. 11).145. During the service of the sion rate of basalt fiber in alkaline solution. one can higher temperatures. In contrast. They also examined post-treated fibers in They emphasized that even though the life span of a basalt com.150–152]. They also studied parameters like surface topology. with respect to time. As zirconia is generally used as a coating ite derives its strength synergistically due to the presence of fibers material against corrosion. It has between 0 and 40 vol%. in addition to its superior the volume content of basalt fiber. To avoid such circumstances. Dhand et al. [150] studied the effects of surface chemical corrosion ter fabrics for remediating hot corrosive gases and polluted air con. 15 and 60 min. solution composition. Ozturk et al. The resistance offered by activity. Chemical corrosion of calcium ions play an important role in the inhibition of corrosion composites is also a major challenge. elemental mapping and phase Several high performance filaments (carbon. media (Figs. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 173 Table 1 Comparison of various thermal properties of basalt fibers. They all also reported that the mechanical achieve better and improved stability of composites in seawater properties of the basalt fiber composite varied with its matrix environments. the friction coefficient of the mechanical properties. is achieved [17. To the best of our knowledge. the most tecting the fiber against corrosion rather than the porous zirconia challenging hurdle is its long term performance and durability coating. and silica filaments [128]. The rate the basalt fiber composite bag retained the same strength even of corrosion depends on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors like under similar conditions. may be attributed to the fact that the fabric is more resistant pH and size of the fibers. there are only a ter. the solutions. standing of the complete mechanism involved in fiber damage ing its hot wear properties. the filaments during corrosion is dependent upon the resistance the outer surface of the fibers corroded extensively when com- activity. For a composite. They posite under these drastic conditions may be less than a year. Wei et al. fiber composition. They concluded that by effectively low- material to be much cooler on one side than the side exposed to ering the content of Fe2+ ions within the basalt fibers. aging time. morphological and structural changes in the fibers and the wear friction properties by using a heated pin-on-disc arise. This section further highlights some work carried out showed that by incorporating basalt fibers in the fabrication of a by researchers related to the use of BF as a chemo-resistant bag house increases its life span by 7–10 years [140.141]. also possesses high chemical stability when hybrid composite also increases dramatically. resistance was similar [145]. Wei et al. alkali and acid these conditions. of operation at a temperature of 190 °C. they attempted to slow down the corro- incorporated within the weak matrix [24]. They concluded that amongst these cated with other high-temperature based synthetic fibers. terms of their strength maintenance ratio and mass loss ratio. and ceram.148]. They observed that the wear test coefficient of friction tive fiber.49. there is a need for an alterna- apparatus.0  10 8 below 300 °C for a period of 1. They found that the composite. corrosion crack-propagation. All these authors conclude in ment. They also showed and concluded that with an increase in address the above challenges. The fiber content of basalt was varied and degradation during chemical corrosion of a composite. explained the importance of the use of basalt composite-based fil. whereas for glass fiber. [14] reinforced basalt and glass toward higher temperatures than the synthetic fibers grown using fibers in an epoxy resin to study composite degradation in seawa- a similar technique.0  10 6 5. It is also a crucial glass fibers in alkaline solutions of NaOH and cement (Fig. fiberglass. The tensile strength and bending results of seawater treated few authors who have reported the thermal properties of basalt composites indicated a decreasing trend based on the time of treat- fibers composite for diverse areas.142–144]. on basalt and glass fibers in both acidic (HCl) and alkaline (NaOH) taining suspended hot particles with temperatures up to 800 °C. which is not only chemically inert but also resistant to increases directly when the disc temperature is increased up to any kind of environmental. exposed to different environmental conditions [149].031–0. [152] investigated the aging of basalt and and maintenance under critical environments.04 0. Basalt. they observed that during aging in a NaOH solution. Recently.146].

Ref. Under such conditions. (b) 1 h post acidic treatment. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier publishers. (a) original basalt fiber. Figure depicting activity of acid and alkali on the basalt fibers and glass fibers. Alkali (NaOH) treated SEM images of (d) glass fiber and (e) basalt fiber surface. time. . (c) Relation between strength maintenance ratio and treating time of fibers during acid treatment. the fiber and degradation of its mechanical properties. respectively. Ref. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 Fig. Dhand et al. This brittle fibers.174 V. which is pre. (d) Relation between strength maintenance ratio and treating time of fibers during alkali treatment. (c) 3 h after acid treatment. 10. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier publishers. Fig. resulting in a decrease in the diameter of brittle layer surrounding the axial length of the fibers. During aging with NaOH. 9. local attack was revealed on the dominantly a characteristic feature of NaOH corrosion. [150]. (b) Relation between mass loss ratio and treating time of fibers during alkali treatment. Cross sectional SEM images of basalt fiber before and after acidic (HCl) treatment. they observed the formation of a layer often is peeled off. (a) Relation between mass loss ratio and treating time of fibers during acid treatment. [150].

But. They infer that. which have zero or limited ites immersed in salt water. which thickens over the time and does not prevent further industries for diverse applications. The acid resistance increases with application determines the surface densities. Post-aging results showed that the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composite decreased only slightly. [156] studied the tolerance level of BFRP compos. The mecha- non-reactive toward water and does not cause air pollution. radiation. [24] explored of the effect of corrosion on the capability of asbestos. when the composites were immersed and aged under hot salt water at 40 °C. They observed that the above parameters degraded gradually with respect to time. The fol- surface progressively forms a loosely bound layer of reaction prod- lowing section discusses the potential of basalt fibers in various ucts. glass fiber–AR grade stored at 60 °C in 5% NaOH for 7 days and (b) basalt fiber stored at 40 °C in 5% NaOH for 7 days. Basalt fibers also have three times the heat insulating Manikandan et al. Dhand et al. SEM image revealing the formation of corrosion layer on the surface of (a) performance end uses. They observed an intense effect of plasticization within the broken cross sectional zones of the sample. an alkali attack. they found that the strength of basalt fiber was sites. there seems to be an accelerated degradation. However. There was no change in the shear strength for the BFRP composites even after 199 freeze–thaw (FT) cycles. Eventually. being an ecologically pure substance. asbestos/glass fibers. These caps provide protection for several centuries to protect too high and glass fiber degraded earlier than the basalt. automobile. Basalt inter-liners in mattresses are the surface of the fiber eventually becomes rough. This corrosive activity of an alkali over the fibers results in loss of rigidity within the composite. Basalt fibers in the future may serve as an effective substitute against the use of traditional fibers for manufacturing several types of fiber reinforced composites. Geocomposites ric acid. sub-humid zones. whereas the alkali resistance increases between 160 g/m2 and 1100 g/m2 for insulation-type applica- due to the presence of a high concentration of alkaline earth ele- tions. this commonly used to prevent accidental fires. These . Finally. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier has a wide spectrum of applications. The appearance of spiral and axial cracks throughout the sur. is tolerance and effect of temperature. Abrasion of the basalt only produces thick physical properties of BF. Further. Ref. the vulnerability of the interfacial region is the pre- dominant factor which results in the damage of the composite.8–11]. 4. Basalt-based geo-composites are extensively used in face of the fiber is attributed to longer exposure times. future equipment will be made of basalt-fiber based composite materials. they concluded that the mode of the final fail- ure is widely affected by the degree of corrosion stress induced within the composite. the area is often devoid of any life forms. Liu et al. the fiber these fibers is used in opto-mechanical applications [97]. they also studied the underground water. [155] investigated crack formation and corrosion of basalt fiber in sulfu. both woven and ments and alumina. Thus.1. the chemical makeup of for structural and electro-technical purposes and its applications the fibers determines the resistance to wetting by water. care in handling is recommended. Basalt fibers are mainly produced tional to time and temperature. Shokrieh and Memar [157] investigated the stress corrosion behav- ior in bending loading of epoxy/basalt composites when sub- merged in 5% corrosive sulfuric acid. and they range increasing silica content. the chemical resistance depends purely upon the ship and household appliance components [5. When the loading of fibers is beyond 50% of the ultimate strength. 11. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 175 cycling on BFRP. which can cause health hazards. Further. Using microscopy and elemental mapping tools. making radiation-proof protective caps for nuclear waste disposal ison to glass fiber. alkali attack. Nasir et al. Apart from this. They note that fibers corrode due to dif- fiber fragments that pose no respiratory hazard. they attempted to examine and explain the cause of corrosion in terms Basalt fibers are useful in transporting and storage of radioac- of leaching of calcium and ferric ions from the surface of the basalt tive nuclear materials since they do not absorb any kind of nuclear fiber. which results in loss of mass and also. a sudden decrease in the shear strength occurred. 4. basalt fibers are non-hazardous as they are spun with a diameter higher than 6 lm [13]. Thus. aircraft. V. situated in arid. for public transport systems. as with fusion of corrosive agents through the matrix following the path of most substances. and leak-proof and should also be a maintenance-free zone. Unlike the conventional publishers. The strength of both of these attacks is directly propor- material in the USA and Europe. It nisms involved in acid or alkaline attacks on the fibers are totally has favorable bio-persistence and has been made a label-free different. Composite aging for 240 days was carried out in salt water. [152]. During include electromagnetic shielding structures. In compar. An attack over a long period of time dissolves knitted basalt fibers are used in making fire-blocking materials the SiAO skeleton structure. Owing to its inherent thermal properties. Basalt fiber is a degraded interface leading to matrix cracking [154]. moisture absorption. Nuclear landfill sites are often study. for BFRP composites. Applications Many authors in the past have discussed the various applica- tions of basalt fibers especially in the field of composites and high Fig. Basalt. Glass reinforced with deteriorates the fiber elasticity and makes it brittle. The type of mixture of various oxides. which not only possess high strength but also exhibit extreme anti-corrosive properties. they public health and the environment against leaching or release of concluded that basalt fiber was superior to glass fibers in their nuclear underground wastes [158].

polylactic which makes them an ideal candidate for providing fire resistance. After metallization. irreparable damage and premature wear in ordinary pipes if not lined by the basalt. when liquefied at mina and magnesia containing granulated furnace slag cause high high temperatures. These 4. As pre-pregs of embankment stabilization. using basalt lined casted pipes [160]. geotextiles. Furthermore. these modified basalt fibers (chopped and filaments). basalt fiber-based geo. where the filter bags often are damaged attack. basalt in the presence of thermoset poly(ethylene terephthalate).176 V. basalt fibers in the . it can withstand wide range of tempera- its exceptional chemical resistant properties. A few other advantages of BLPs are as follows: 4.4.164]. On the other hand. industrial surface. it is appropriate for use in soil and lowed by enriched flexural properties [25. linings are general applications of basalt fiber tissues. are used. These basalt lined pipes (BLPs) are known for their hard. coarse materials and basalt rock armor.57.94]. basalt fibers erties to electromagnetic radiation. and colors. Basalt fibers have been employed in several high temperature chemical corrosion. tissue tapes for joining two boards. hence the wear due to their high abrasiveness. For example. abrasion.2. insulation [2]. causing leaks and hazards. silica. acids. and direct pressing autoclaves. The pipes lined by basalt Basalt casting can be a good solution for the equipment facing are expected to give a longer shelf life up to 60–80 years. basalt fibers are employed in the fabrication of car brakes [165– environmental conditions and UV-rays. Similarly. the transport span of the pipes can be improved up to 8 years. 167]. basalt is easy to recycle and also ing with bituminous coatings. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 dumping pits are often deep and made of several layers of sand. Basalt fiber gravel. BFRP-based high pressure pipes are also known to withstand higher pressures up to 1000 atm when compared to steel. water proof. through which various chemicals can be applied sion wires during power transmission and for protection against on the surface to yield finishes which are resistant to attack from fire hazards [16. which is high wear and tear in the mining industry. In the medical research field. applications. and plastic foams with foam been reported. which enhance the inter- ment are thus substituted by basalt geo-meshes. alu- ash [161]. Specifically. no known toxicity has anti-corrosion material. By introducing basalt One of the widely used examples of these composites employ. is more abrasive than any material.8–11]. phenolic resin. due to excess heat. Since basalt has impres- comparatively much higher than the metallic pipes. BLPs are tough sive anti-corrosion and anti-frictional properties. This issue can be resolved by basalt lining within the boilers helps to counteract this. For example. For example basalt fiber is used in hot gas/particle  Basalt fibers are resistant toward fungus and microorganism separation industries. starch resin. acid. and alkali chemicals. Generalized industrial applications  Basalt is an insulator often found to be resistant toward electro. fol- environmentally friendly. winding lying. non-woven construction to aerospace industries. making it superior to glass fiber ment and pipes are ideal for transportation and storage of highly [162]. and abrasion units [160]. In case of abrasiveness life BLPs are extensively used in mining. the basalt fabric exhibits shielding prop- Also. To further enhance the properties During the 1980s and 1990s. ances. it can be coated and require almost negligible maintenance even when they are onto friction-contacting parts to make a smooth. In the automobile industry. pipes carrying lime. Further. Abrasion resistance for industrial pipes are appropriate for die-casting. Since basalt is facial properties between the polymer matrix and basalt fibers. which is basically an ordered dis. reinforced polymeric concretes show enhanced mechanical properties over polymer composites can be stored for several years at 40 °C with conventional cement [93. which possesses remarkable properties they have a broad spectrum of applications [5. oil. poses no threat to the environment. fabrics into industrial ventilators. Dhand et al. Basalt lined castings basalt pipes are used extensively as components in shaft linings and transportation of corrosive chemicals. these filter bags requires proper maintenance so that 4. latex. abrasion resistant carrying abrasive material like a coal slurry. Laminates and pre-pregs they are leak proof. poly. soil. BFs are known to have basaltic tapes/fabrics have also been in use for insulating high ten- high wettability. It should be noted that low-sulfur coal. vacuum molding. As previously described. due to heat. collection of salt and par. or polyamide [163]. Enhanced like chemical inertness.159]. friction and chemical resistance. Therefore. during the production of slag cement. resins have been successfully employed in various sectors from amide. achieved by using silane coupling agents. these natural inorganic geo-mineral fibers are non-flammable. of mining chemicals like chlorides of sodium and potassium are known to be highly abrasive and corrosive in slurry form and can 4. Soft roofing. Transport of slag is a major challenge printable circuit boards. Surface treatment of basalt fibers has been meshes. hermetical packing. Basalt fiber laminates synthesized using resin transfer ness (8–9 Mohs). Basalt is extremely resistant to are also used in the manufacture of some machines [162]. fire safety also increases since ing basalt is ‘‘basalt fiber tissue’’. very high thermal sustainability against surface properties of basalt plastics make them a better choice molten asphalt/tar and is lighter than other known metallic for paint applications. which furnaces also employ basalt to contain the hot liquid slurry of the is an additive of Portland cement. Basalt has already replaced asbestos as a heat insulator corrosive chemicals like hydrogen sulfide. basalt-lined equip. Apart from these examples. Basalt is known for its insulation properties and has long been affin within the pipe decrease due to the lower thermal conductiv. They are often used in making impact resistant molding (RTM) are used as composite panels in graph plotters. Pre-pregs of basalt fibers with modified polyester resins 4. Another example reinforced plastics are another example of these composites and is basalt geo-mesh [159]. and electrical circuits to provide good and this results in severe strain on the pipes and their components. Electrical insulation cause severe. In order to avoid accidents. basalt fiber based sewing threads are used. epoxy. Being a natural geo-mineral.6.5. in use as an insulating fabric around electrical wiring and appli- ity of basalt. Thus. tures from 260 °C to 800 °C.3. melamine. To date. persion of basalt fiber in a binder matrix such as PVA. Due to temperature. poly(butylene terephthalate). Even today. glass and metals used for pavement reinforce. mineral/organic acids due to its low thermal conductivity. structure which has impressive resistance against alkalis. and they are suitable for a large array of appli- cations. It is a porous. phenyl formaldehyde. basalt lined pipes were widely of the composites some combination of the reinforced materials installed. which help in repairing leaks [122].

Compos Part B – Eng superior to any other reinforcement available today. are favored by readers. Further. Mater Des 2010.56:898–906. basalt fibers are almost as favorable as [6] Dehkordi MT. Bending reinforcement of timber also been discussed in terms of its function as a reinforcement in beams with composite carbon fiber and basalt fiber materials.53(1):426–31. Valenza A. The influence of applications and automobile and aerospace applications [13. Here. The analysis also provided polypropylene. A large portion of the review deals with its superior – Eng 2013. Biscaia HC. several researchers have success.45(1):172–7. Alkaline [19] Banibayat P. which leads to 2013. Compos Technol 2006. Investigation of by basalt fibers. Mater Res 2009. Researchers have also shown that by hybridizing the surface of [15] Wang X. since its discovery. they are focused only on synthesis. Santos ADND. 5.43(2):812–8. Jang J. Czigany T. Bella GD. Oak Ridge National reviewed the mechanical. and possesses very low thermal conductivity making it the mechanical properties of epoxy-based composites. [5] Ary Subagia IDG. fiber reinforced vinylester composites: flexural and electrical properties.171]. Chastre C.58:251–8. of the abovementioned properties. Mislavsky B. Shokrieh MM. Vergani L. 1–49. was mainly used for clandestine military operations involving the [3] Pavlovski D. inorganic and Mater Des 2012. / Composites: Part B 73 (2015) 166–180 177 presence of organic binders make an ideal cryogenic storage con. Tijing LD. stimulating research Compos 2006. Jappes JTW. Minak G. The effect of post-processing of carbon fibers on corrosion. Mater Des 2014. Investigation of basalt fiber these corrosive chemicals.41(8):927–32.12:44–8. vegetable growth. Presently.32:337–42. land Acknowledgements drainage. new properties of basalt were found when the of intraply basalt/nylon hybrid composites. thermal and chemical resistance offered Laboratory. Ghelli D.43]. [21] Liu Q. CNG cylinder manufacturers test basalt fibre. Mater Des 2014. hybridization on impact damage behavior and residual compression strength In later years. Still. (Project Number: 2013R1A1A2A10063466). Leone C. In this review. Basalt woven there is a long way to go to achieve this goal.55:66–74. Compos Part B – Eng 2014. [13] Lopresto V. the authors feel that there tainer fit for storing and transporting biological samples [168].31(8):3835–44.94(3):1165–74. Rosa IMD. [8] Paivaa JMFD. Escamilla AC. characterizations of carbon fiber fabric reinforced epoxy composites used in duction of basalt composites including what kind of publications aeronautical field. but none of the reviewers have of DOE’s lightweight materials composites research. and how the choice of journal shows the [9] Taketa I.51(4):36–7.42(4):717–23. fully reinforced basalt fibers in various organic. To assist the beginner in [10] Hollaway L. 2001. Antonov A. V. Ghelli D. Shaw MT. basalt has also been used by the tile industry to Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea enhance the glaze of the surface and also bring out colors (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education. Su SS. Presently. Lomov SV. Using this principle. [177. sports. but have an edge as they are ecofriendly. to 80–95% of the sounds propagating in the frequency of 1800 Hz. [24] Manikandan V. Low velocity impact properties of intra-ply hybrid composites based on basalt and nylon carbon fibers. researchers in comparison with glass and carbon fibers. Polymer composites for civil and structural engineering. Zhu H. The cost of automotive polymer composites: a review and assessment processing and applications. Song SH.44(1):184–92. Finally. Amuthakkannan P. Mater Des 2013. in the future the use of basalt composite mechanical properties for applications in transportation. Effect of stacking material was open for civilian research. Compos Struct 2012. McDonnell AM. the research trends for the use of basalt fiber as a [2] Colombo C.42:265–71. Mechanical characterisation of basalt fibre the article also showcases some attributes of basalt in the form reinforced plastic.178]. the exceptional improvement of the mechanical properties [16] Fiore V. electromag- standards for construction of concrete bridges and also for marine netic absorption. San-Jose JT. physical thermal and chemical properties assessed by different [12] Park R. Ustarroz J. Last This work was supported by the Basic Science Research but not least. Compos Part B – Eng between the matrix and the basalt fiber increases. its properties and chemistry have York: Springer. and green. deep sea civil infrastructure and environmental shown that the fibers can act as a barrier [13. Compos Part B – Eng 2012. García MNG. Static and fatigue characterisation of new reinforcement for composites has shown that. Interply hybrid composites with carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene and self-reinforced specific fields that are most active. Properties of glass concrete reinforced with short basalt fiber. seeding. Verpoest I. non-abrasive. Compos Part B – Eng 2011. Dhand et al. Compos Part B composites. 1993. Zen F. Static fracture and failure behavior of aligned discontinuous mineral fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. agrarian machines and construction [170. Shon HK. 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