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Beams in Bending

Revision Problem Sheet

A – Sign Conventions and differential relationships

Problem 1

For the two sets of conventions given below, derive the differential relationships between M, S, q

and write the correct relation between M and ߢ.

x + y S M

M S S M M S

y +

x

Convention 1 Convetnion 2

Problem 2

Show that the bending moment diagram along a stretch of beam that is completely unloaded (no

external load, no reaction) must be a straight line. Show that along a stretch where the bending

moment is zero throughout, then the beam remains straight.

B – Bending moment diagram and deflection by differential equation

Problem 3

The following beams are all of uniform bending stiffness EI and of length L. For each case:

(i) Draw the free body diagram

(ii) Derive an expression for the bending moment using the convention prescribed

(Conventions 1 and 2 refer to Problem 1 above) and draw the BM diagram.

(iii) Derive an expression for the shear force using the convention prescribed in each case

and draw the SF diagram.

(iv) Identify the maximum bending moment and shear.

(v) Find the equation of the deflected shape by solving the curvature-deflection relationship

and identify the maximum deflection.

W W

(a) Use convention 2 (b) Use convention 1

W=qL W=qL

(c) Use convention 2 (d) Use convention 2

A B

M M

(e) Use convention 1 (f) Use convention 1

P Duffour 1 Oct 2014

4mm@x=1. (c) WL/2. Find typical values for r from TATA standard Universal Beam data tables. Calculate the maximum deflection. Assume it is properly restrained laterally (so that any buckling is prevented). second moment of are I. This problem checks these on a simple cantilever beam. Compare this shortening to ߜ. Deduce the vertical deflection of the tip ߜ and compare it to u by expressing the ration u/ߜ in terms of the radius of gyration of the beam = ݎඥܫ/ܣ.CEGE2007/2008 Beams in bending . WL3/3EI. (b) WL/4. (a) Find the shortening u due to compression alone. (e) M. Deduce L L the deflection and slope at C. P Duffour 2 Oct 2014 . M’(x)= ±S(x) gives d2M/dx2=±q… 6) u/δ~(r/L)2 . M’(x)=S(x). M=+EIk.revision Problem 4 Derive the differential equation for the deflection of the q first half AB of the beam shown right. Problem 5 54kN A B 18kNm A simply supported beam loaded as shown.46m 2) S’(x)= ±q. ଶ Note that to meet serviceability requirements. WL3/8EI. Δ/δ~ δ/L 3) a) WL. What does this mean for the validy of the usual assumptions for beams and frames in bending? Answers: 1) (a) S’(x)=+q. 5WL3/384EI. 4)ߜ = 7qL4 /24EI. (f) M. Young’s modulus E and length L. It is loaded at its tip by a transverse load W and axial load W.03x103/EI2. Note: solve the differential equation analytically but once you have the equations of the deflected shape you may use Matlab or Excel to plot the deflected shape and find the maximum. Integrate this A B C equation to find the deflection and slope at B. M=+EIk 5) 36. The identy √1 + ߙ ≈ 1 + ఈ valid for small ߙ may be useful. ML2/93EI. ML2/2EI. WL3/48EI. It is made of steel (Young’s Modulus 210GPa) and has square hollow section of side 21mm (external) and 1m 2m 3mm thickness. Problem 6 Two standard assumptions of first order elastic analysis W of structures in bending are that (i) deformations due to W A B axial loads and (ii) shortenings due to curving and L deflection are negligible compared to the displacements caused by bending. θc = qL3 /6EI M’(x)=+S(x). (b) Find the equation of the deflected shape due to the vertical load alone. (b) S’(x)=-q. a cantiliver in bending should not deflect by more than ߜlimit = L/180 . Calculate the భ difference Δ between the defected length and the original length. (d) WL/8. What length L is required for u to become significant compared to ߜ? ௫ (c) The length of a curve of equation y(x) is given by ∫ = ܮ௫ మ ඥ1 + ݕᇱଶ(ݔ݀)ݔ. The beam has a uniform section of area A.

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