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4.1 Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

1 Reproduction is a process to produce offspring to ensure the survival of the species.
2 Importance of reproduction increase the number of individuals/offsprings of the same
spesies, replace those that die and to ensure that the species does not become extinct.
3 Reproduction can be divided into sexual and asexual reproduction as follows.

Binary fission Budding Spore formation Vegetative reproduction

Rejuvenation (Regeneration)

3. The similarity and differences between sexual and asexual reproduction.

Characteristics Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction
(a) Number of parents Two One
(b) Involvement of gametes(fertilisation) Yes No
(c) Characteristics of offspring and parent Different Same
(d) Both methods of reproduction produce offspring
(e) All living things reproduce to propagate their species

4. Fusion between the male gamete and the female gamete is called fertilisation.
5. External fertilisation is fertilisation that occurs outside the body of the female.
Fish and frogs carry out external fertilisation.
6. Internal fertilisation is fertilisation that occurs inside the body of the female.
Mammals, reptiles, birds and insects carry out internal fertilisation.

4.2 Male Reproductive System

Part Function
Testis Produces sperms and male sex hormones (androgen and
Scrotum Protects the testes outside the body at a temperature which
is lower than the normal body temperature
Sperm duct Channels sperms to the urethra
Seminal Produces a fluid that provides nutrients for sperms to keep
vesicle them alive
Penis Delivers sperms into the vagina of the female
Urethra Conveys semen or urine out of the male body at different
Prostate gland Produces nutrients and a medium for sperms to swim in

1. A sperm is a male gamete

2. The role of sperms in reproduction is to fertilise an ovum to form a zygote.
3. The lifespan of sperm is three days.
4. During puberty which is around 14 years old, the testes will produce male gametes.
5. Changes in male during puberty are:
involve the production of male sex hormones and sperms
a change in attitude towards girls
an enlargement of the penis and the growth of beard, chest hair, armpit hair and pubic
a rapid increase in height, the broadening of the shoulders
the development of body muscles and the deepening of the voice (hoarse)
Growth of moustache

Galery Info
The urethra and penis are also excretory organs. The urethra
and the penis channel urine.
4.3 Female
glands system
consist of prostate gland and seminal vesicles.
Besides producing fluid to activate the sperms, the seminal
vesicles store sperm.

Part Function
Ovary Produces ovum and female sex hormones (oestrogen and
progesterone )
Fallopian tube (Oviduct) -First parts of the oviduct
-Helps to push mature ova from the ovary to the uterus
-Fertilisation occurs here.
Uterus (womb) -Hollow organ with a thick muscular wall which supplied with
many blood vessels.
-Place for the implantation of the embryo and foetus until birth
Cervix -Opening at the neck of the uterus that joins the uterus with the
-Produces mucus to enable semen to flow through the uterus
-The baby leaves the uterus through the cervix.
Vagina -Muscular canal which functions to receives sperms from the
male penis during intercourse .
-Produces fluid for lubrication
1. The role of a female gamete (ovum /ova) is to fertilise the sperm to form a zygote.
2. At puberty or about 12 years old the ovaries will produce a female gametes.
3. The lifespan of an ovum is 24 hours
4. Changes in female during puberty.
involve the production of female sex hormones, the release of mature eggs
a change in attitude towards boys/ shows interest in males
the development of the breasts, the growth of pubic and armpit hair
a rapid increase in height and the widening of hips.
Begins menstruation
Comparison between an ovum and a sperm

-A sperm and an ovum are human gametes or reproductive cells.
- One sperm fuses with one ovum during fertilisation

4.4 Menstrual Cycle

1. Menstruation is a process by which the blood, dead ovum and the lining of the uterus
wall breaks down are discharged through the vagina.
2 The menstrual cycle begins when a female reaches puberty.
3 A menstrual cycle is a series of changes that take place in the ovaries and the uterine wall.
This cycle involves the breaking down and building up of the lining of uterine walls and
the release of ovum from the ovary
4 Each cycle is about 28 days.
5 Menopause is when menstruation stops permanently. This usually happens between the
ages of 45 to 55 years.
6 Personal hygiene is important during menstruation and a female should take during
menstruation to prevent infection of the reproductive organs by microorganisms such as:
Bath as normal
Change sanitary pads frequently
4.5 Fertilisation and Pregnancy
1 The movement of sperm from the testis to the Fallopian tube is as follows.

2 Fertilisation occurs in the Fallopian tube. Out of millions of sperm released, only one can
fuse with the ovum.
3 Fertilisation produces a zygote.
4 The zygote moves through the Fallopian tube and enters the uterus. At the same time, the
zygote undergoes cell division many times to form an embryo.
5 The embryo is implanted in the wall of the uterus. This process is called implantation.
6 The embryo develops into a foetus in which the arms and legs and the main organs are
already formed.
7 The placenta attaches the embryo (and later the foetus) to the wall of the uterus. The foetus
obtains nutrients and oxygen from the mothers blood through the placenta. Waste
products, such as carbon dioxide and urea, from the foetus is removed into the mothers
bloodstream through the placenta.
8 The foetus is connected to the placenta through the umbilical cord.
9 After about 9 months, the uterus contracts and the foetus is pushed out through the vagina
during birth. The foetus that is born is called a baby.
Development of a zygote into an embryo
1 A woman is said to be pregnant when fertilisation has taken place.
2 After fertilisation, the zygote formed will move through the Fallopian tube to the uterus.
3 The zygote begins to divide before reaching the uterus. The zygote grows through cell
division to form the embryo.

Zygote is formed through fusion between the
nucleus of a sperm and an ovum.

Zygote divides many more times to produce a
lump/ ball of cells called an embryo.

Implantation of embryo to the uterus wall

1 Upon reaching the uterus, the zygote will have developed into an embryo. The embryo will
then embed itself in the uterus wall.
2 The process of the embryo sticking to the uterus wall is called implantation.
3 The placenta implants the embryo to the uterine wall.
4 The umbilical cord connects the embryo to the placenta.
5 The placenta contains many blood capillaries. The embryo gets its supply of food and
oxygen from its mother's placenta through the umbilical cord.
6 Waste products like carbon dioxide and urea from the embryo is eliminated into the
mother's blood through the umbilical cord.
7 The embryo has its own blood circulatory system which does not mix with the mother's
8 The embryo is protected by two layers of membrane called embryonic membranes.
9 The fluid in the embryonic membranes (amniotic fluid) protects the embryo from any
vibration or shock.

Comparison between ovulation, fertilisation and implantation


1 Two months after fertilisation, the embryo develops into a foetus.

2 When all parts or body organs have been formed and are distinguishable, the embryo is

known as a foetus. The foetus has a human shape.

3 The period between the occurrence of fertilisation until the birth of the baby is known as

the pregnancy period.

4 After about nine months, i.e. pregnancy period, the foetus is born. The foetus born is called
a baby.
5 When the time for birth arrives, the foetus will turn with its head pointing downwards. The
strong contraction and relaxation of the muscles on the uterus wall will push the foetus out
of the mother's body through the cervix and vagina.

Zygote Embryo Foetus Baby

Length of
As soon as the sperm nucleus
0-2 months 2-9 months Foetus that is born
fuses with the ovum nucleus
Made up of one Resembles a human being with All parts of the body are
Made up of one or a few cells..
lump of cells distinguishable body parts fully developed

Comparison between the zygote, embryo, foetus and baby

The embryo in the 3rd week is is big

as a raisin The embryo in the 7th week has eyes The foetus in the 8th week is about 1.5
with retina and lens cm in size .

The foetus in the 12th week about 8

The foetus in the 20th week can hear The foetus in the15th week has cm in size
his/her mother's voice taste buds
The foetus's body in the 24th week is The foetus in the 32nd week sleeps 90 The baby is born in the 40th week and
covered with hair. - 95% of the day is ready to live outside the mother's


1 It is important for the mother to eat nutritious food during pregnancy in order to stay
healthy so that the foetus develops normally.
2 Protein is needed in greater quantities to build new cells and antibodies. Minerals such as
calcium and phosphorus, and vitamins such as folic acid are also needed in extra amounts
as compared to a normal female.
Nutrition Function/Importance
Protein Needed to build foetus tissues
Calcium and Needed to strengthen bones and teeth of foetus
phosphorus Needed to prevent tooth decay in the mother
Needed to build red blood cells to transport oxygen to foetus
Iron Needed to prevent mother from contracting anaemia (shortage of red
blood cells)

Folic acids| and Needed to strengthen the defence system (immune system) of the foetus
vitamins and its mother against infectious diseases

3 The pregnant mother should avoid excessive carbohydrates and fat intake to prevent herself
and the foetus from becoming too fat.
4 The pregnant mother should avoid taking alcohol, drugs, medicines, and smoking that can
endanger or cause deformity to the embryo or foetus.
5 Chemical substances in cigarette smoke like nicotine and carbon monoxide can threaten the
health of the foetus.
Risks faced by a pregnant mother who smokes
6 Alcohol slows down the growth of a foetus and causes brain damage.
7 Drugs or certain medicine can cause deformity in the foetus.
8 A pregnant mother should consult before taking any medicine.

4.7 Importance of Research Human Reproduction

1 Sterility is the inability to produce children.

2 Sterility in a male may be caused by:

(a) production of no sperms or very little sperms
(b) sperms that die too early
(c) sperms that do not mature and cannot fertilise the ovum
(d) a penis that does not function well
(e) venereal diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis
(f) damage to the testes or sperm duct

3 Sterility in a female may be caused by:

(a) ovulation that does not happen, i.e., the ovary does not produce ovum
(b) ovum that dies too early
(c) ovum that does not mature
(d) irregular menstrual cycle
(e) deformity in the reproductive organ, e.g. Fallopian tube is blocked
(f) inability of embryo to implant itself to the uterus wall
(g) imbalance of reproductive hormones

4 Ways of overcoming sterility include

(a) hormone treatment, for example, to promote ovulation
(b) surgery to treat blocked Fallopian tubes
(c) in vitro fertilisation (IVF)

Some sterility or infertility cases can be overcome through:

(a) taking nutritious food or good nutrition
(i) Sterility may be overcome if a sterile individual takes nutritious food like food rich in
vitamin E.

(b) hormone treatment

(i) During hormone treatment, a female takes fertility pills or medicine containing
hormones that can balance the hormones in the female body.
(ii) This fertility pill contains hormones that can stimulate the ovary to produce ovum.
(iii) Irregular menstrual cycles can also be treated by taking this pill.

(c) surgery
(i) Sterility caused by a deformed or incomplete reproductive system may require surgery.

(d) in-vitro fertilisation

(i) In-vitro fertilisation is fertilisation that takes place outside the human (or animal) body.
(ii) This technique is used when u wife's Fallopian tube is blocked. Her ovum cannot be
fertilised by her husband's sperm.
(iii) The wife's ovum is fertilised by her husband's sperm in a petri dish containing suitable
culture substances.
(iv) Then, the fertilised ovum or zygote is put into the wife's uterus.
(v) A baby born in this way is called a test tube baby.

The ovum is retrieved

from the woman's ovary
by piercing a sharp needle Fertilisation

Fertilised ovum is
put into the uterus
Birth control

1 Birth control is usually carried out by couples who:

(a) are not ready to have a child

(b) already have many children

(c) want to space out the birth of their children

2 The principles used in birth control are:

(a) to prevent the ovum from being fertilised by a sperm
(b) to prevent an embryo that is formed from implanting itself to the uterine wall
3 Methods used in birth control are:
(a) natural method Rhythm method
(b) chemical method - spermicide
(c) physical/mechanical method condom, diaphragm, IUD
(d) use of artificial hormones contraceptive pills
(e) surgical method/sterilisation Vasectomy (men) , ligation (female)
4 Methods used by males to prevent pregnancy:
(a) Use of condoms
(i) The use of condoms is one of the physical methods to prevent pregnancy.
(ii) The condom is a rubber tube worn on the penis to prevent sperms from entering the
female uterus.

(b) Vasectomy
(i) This is a surgical method carried out on a husband who does not want any more
children or who wants to be permanently sterile.

(ii) Surgery is done to cut the sperm duct and tie up the cut ends to prevent sperms from
moving out from the testes into the urethra.

5 Methods used by females to prevent pregnancy:

(a) Natural method/ Rhythm method
The rhythm method is also called the safe period.
It is called rhythm method because it is carried out by following the menstrual cycle.
Using this method, the husband and wife avoid intercourse during the fertile phase,
three days before and three days after ovulation is expected to occur.
Nevertheless, this method is less effective because the menstrual cycle of some
females is not regular.

(b) Contraceptive pills

(i) Contraceptive pills (birth control pills) are taken by a wife who wishes to avoid
(ii) These pills contain female artificial hormones that can prevent ovulation or the release of
ovum from the ovary.
(iii) Generally, contraceptive pills come in a pack containing 21 capsules.
(iv) These pills are taken for a period of 21 days or 3 weeks beginning from the fifth day in
the menstrual cycle and then stopping for a week at which time menstruation will begin.
(v) However, contraceptive pills may cause side effects like weight gain, high blood pressure
and headache.
(vi) A wife has to get a doctor's prescription before beginning to take the pill.

(c) Use of intrauterine device (IUD)

(i) The use of IUD is a physical method to prevent pregnancy.

(ii) An IUD is made from plastic or metal (copper) that is 'T'-shaped, spiral or loop shaped.
(iii) An IUD is inserted into the uterus by a doctor to prevent the embryo from implanting to the uterus wall.
(iv) Some women who use the IUD experience side effects like bleeding.

(d) Use of spermicide

(i) The use of spermicide is a chemical method to prevent pregnancy.
(ii) Spermicide is a chemical substance in the form of jelly, cream or spray that is applied to the female vagina
wall before intercourse.
(iii) Spermicide kills sperms that enter the vagina.
(e) Use of diaphragm
(i) The use of a diaphragm is a physical method to prevent pregnancy in females.
(ii) The diaphragm is a soft dome-shaped rubber device that is placed in the female cervix to prevent sperms
from entering the uterus.
(iii) Normally spermicide is applied on the diaphragm before use.

(f) Ligation
(i) This method is a surgical method that is carried out on a wife who does not wish to have
any more children or who wants to be permanently sterile.
(ii) Surgery is done to cut the Fallopian tube and tie up the cut ends to prevent sperms from
entering the Fallopian tube and fertilising the ovum.

Misuse of birth control method

1 Nowadays, birth control methods are abused by youths and cause many social problems.
2 Youths indulge freely in premarital sex. This practice undermines their character and
3 Knowledge of birth control is being used by young couples who live together without
getting married to prevent the female partner from getting pregnant.

The importance of research on human reproduction

The importance of research on human reproduction are:
(a) solves the problems suffered by a husband or a wife who cannot have children
(b) helps married couples to practise family planning to plan the number of children they


(c) helps married couples to use suitable methods to prevent conception

(d) helps detect foetus deformity. Nowadays, an operation can be done to a foetus to correct
its deformity