Group No.

3 GH-2L Date Performed: February 7, 2017
DOLORES, Teddy Joy Date Submitted: February 17, 2017
LERIOS, Alyssa A.
LOMENTE, Laizha Lynn
LOO, Chiaw Yuen
TAMONDONG, Ma. Mariella G.

Exercise No. 1


Forest trees provide man with different uses of wood. It is very important to know the
features of a wood from a certain species. With the proper knowledge on the species to be
used, it will give advantages to the user and may prevent from harm that can be caused by the
usage of inappropriate species. Also, with the proper knowledge about the features of a
species, it will give the species the proper valuation and the appropriate use for the species.
Different features of the wood will give different benefits for its usage.

Each species differs from one another, there are species that are appropriate for
building and there are also species that will be very dangerous when used for construction.
Knowing the features of a wood from a certain species will aid in the proper use of that


 To relate the different structural features of wood, to the other properties and uses
of these products; and
 Explain the similarities and differences among different woods.


In order to achieve the objectives of this exercise, the materials or equipment used are
twenty different wood samples, cross section of a wood trunk, a hand lens and a Vernier
caliper and/or ruler. Using our naked eye, the cross section of the tree trunk is examined and
illustrated including the proper labels. The diameter of the heartwood portion and the entire
tree trunk are also measured to determine the ratio of the tree diameter as the tree increases or
become mature.

The twenty different wood samples were identified based on its gross structures and
features. The samples were classified whether they could be used for furniture making or not,
and the basis for justification is from the lessons and principles learned in FPPS 11 (Wood
Structure and Identification). The different structural features of the wood such as the color,
texture, grain, density are identified and classified according to its species and recommended

heartwood and sapwood are the structural features that are visible to the naked eye. wood rays.uses. The structural features and its functions: Wood Ray . RESULTS and DISCUSSION 1. Growth rings. b. Cross-section of the tree trunk a. Growth Ring . Illustration of the cross-section of a tree trunk and its labels. the pith. IV.appear as lines extending in the general direction from pith to bark these formations of primarily parenchyma cells that allow the radial transport of sap and are essential in the processes of tylosis.Growth rings are visible as concentric circles of varying width .

c. the part that conducts water and dissolved materials. Central portion : diameter = 8cm Area: = ?4??2 = 50. ?? ?? 4 d. g.08 will also increase as the diameter of the tree increases and the tree becomes mature. The diameter of the entire tree trunk: 27 ?? + 24.152??2 Ratio= 1:71. when a tree is cut crosswise.08 (Central Portion: Total Cross Section) We think that the ratio 1 : 71.26??2 Total cross-section : average diameter = 45. Pith .It is a thin layer that separates two other types of plant vascular tissue called the xylem and phloem. The diameter of the dark-colored central portion: 24?? + 23 ?? + 18.5 ?? + 19.25 ? 2 = ??.625 ?? ? = 22. The main function of the heartwood is to support the tree (Shmulsky.625??2 = 1608.25cm average radius = 22.5 ?? ?= = 21.Pith is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants which is also known as the medulla.It contains the older xylem cells in the center of the tree that become inactive then gradually die.25?? ? = 21. often light-colored part that is on the outer part of the woody stem of a tree.4 ?? + 20 ?? + 19 ?? ?= = 22. It is composed of soft. Sapwood .625cm ???? = ?22. We would not recommend the light-colored portion in the manufacture of forest products because often times the light-colored or the ‘sapwood’ has less strength value than the heartwood. Heartwood . in which it increases in girth size. dyes and oils. They represent layers of cells produced by the tissue known as vascular cambium. It is less likely to be able to support heavy objects. Vascular Cambium . spongy parenchyma cells that is important in storing and transporting nutrients throughout the plant. Most growth rings reflect a full year's growth and are called annual rings (Free Dictionary). It is usually darker than the sapwood because it is filled with stored sugar. hence it will make . The portion of the trunk that is made up of dark-colored central portion: f.It is the youngest. 2011). ???? 4 e. eventually forming the heartwood.26548246 = 50.625 ? 2 = ??. The cells in this portion divide and multiply with the plant's secondary growth.

13 of it can be used as furniture. Every kind of species has its own corresponding use and purposes. h. on the other hand. Otherwise. hard and classification heavy. Table 1. Among the 20 wood samples given. Dao Mollucan sau Ilang-ilang Gmelina Mayapis Taluto .1. Classification of wood uses can be determined through its physical features such as color and density. The radial section. low density used as bases for your colored wood. it is suitable to other purposes. 2. Table 1. Tangential sections are then made perpendicular to the rays and tangential to the annual rings and face of the log. Structural features and influence on other properties and uses. is perpendicular to the cross-section with parallel annual rings. furniture sturdy. Recommend for furniture Not recommend for furniture Name of species Kamagong Balobo Mahogany Malapapaya Ebony Narek Dao Yakal Narra Ilang-ilang Apitong Malabayabas Mollucan sau Taluto Ipil Kalantas Gmelina Tanguile Mayapis Teak Common features that you Most of these species are dark Interlocked-grain. Classification of the color of each species. crossed texture. with a crossed grain. Species Recommended uses Light-colored Balobo Light colored wood are Malapapaya usually used for food Yakal implements and wood pallet. Identification of 20 wood samples and categorized it to its corresponding uses. The cross section is easy to distinguish because of the growth rings and rays that are visible on it. and lustrous.

However. it is classified as fine-textured. Classification of the wood’s texture.2. texture can represent the sizes of its cells. Basically. determining woods to be used for furniture are better to observe the color (Constantine. half of it was classified as light colored and otherwise. Table 1. Texture can be classified as coarse or fine upon seeing the cells at the cross section of the wood. 1959). . Narek Ebony Narra Apitong Ipil Kalantas Tanguile Malabayabas Generally. Species Recommended uses Fine-textured Balobo Furniture Malapapaya Kamagong Narek Ebony Yakal Narra Malabayabas Coarse-textured Mahogany Posts Dao Sculptures Apitong Wood pallet Mollucan sau Ipil Kalantas Ilang-ilang Gmelina Tanguile Mayapis Taluto Teak Sizes of the cells of wood are not visible through the naked eye. Otherwise. coarse-textured is when pore outlines are very distinct to the naked eye. It was also given that the color shows attraction on the aesthetic value of each species. Teak Dark-colored Kamagong Ideal for furniture and Mahogany decorative purposes. Out of the 20 given wood samples. The natural color of the woods make itself more attractive to consumers. dark colored.

Table 1. It can be curly. Classification of each wood’s grain. Classification of each wood’s density. straight.3. an interlocked grain was mostly described. a visible feature. Species Recommended uses With straight-grain Balobo Furniture Malapapaya Kamagong Ebony Mollucan sau Taluto Teak With interlocked-grain Mahogany Boat making Narek Doors Yakal Dao Narra Apitong Ipil Kalantas Ilang-ilang Gmelina Tanguile Malabayabas Mayapis Grain.4. though upon the observation from the wood samples given. spiral or diagonal. Interlocked grain or crossed grain is mainly different to the other type of grain. Species Recommended uses Light Malapapaya Boat making Mollucan sau Frame Kalantas Wood pallet Ilang-ilang Taluto Moderate Narra Furniture Dao Handicrafts Gmelina Sculptures Tanguile Mayapis Teak Heavy Balobo Flooring Kamagong Furniture Mahogany House building . It has several types. represents the orientation of cells in wood.Table 1. Orientation of grains can also be a factor of consumer’s attraction due to the natural beauty and creativity patterns of the wood. while straight when it is parallel to the longitudinal axis of wood.

. is a helpful characteristic in proper identification of wood species. REFERENCES Constantine. the solidity of wood. . V. If the wood is properly identified. Jones. etc. New York City. (2011) Forest Products and Wood Science. it would be easy to determine whether they could be recommended for making furniture or not.. etc. b) moderate for some furniture. P. Narek Post Ebony Yakal Apitong Ipil Malabayabas Some species of wood can be partially to fully like to other species. Knowing the different structural features of the wood is important in order to determine its properties as well as its specific uses.. (1959). Know Your Woods. Different classification of density has its own purposes such as: a) light for boat making. R. A. VI. and c) heavy for floorings of houses.D. etc. USA: Scribners FPPS 11 WOOD STRUCTURE AND IDENTIFICATION MANUAL Shmulsky. Density. frame. SUMMARY and CONCLUSION The Gross features of wood is an important factor in wood identification.