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D DAVID PUBLISHING

**Buckling of Thin Plates under Uniaxial and Biaxial
**

Compression

**Mokhtar Bouazza1, 2, Djamel Ouinas3, Abdelaziz Yazid1 and Abdelmadjid Hamouine1
**

1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bechar, Bechar 08000, Algeria

2. Laboratory of Materials and Hydrology (LMH), University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Sidi Bel Abbes 2200, Algeria

3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mostaganem 27000, Algeria

Received: November 04, 2011 / Accepted: December 23, 2011 / Published: August 25, 2012.

Abstract: In this paper, buckling analysis of rectangular thin functionally graded plates under uniaxial and biaxial compression is

investigated using classic plate theory and Navier’s solution. Material properties are varied continuously in the thickness direction

according to a simple power law distribution. The Von Karman’s nonlinear strain-displacement relation is used to account for buckling

due to mechanical load. The validation checks on the program are carried out using the results of previous works in the literature.

Furthermore, the effects of volume fraction distributions and system geometric parameters are investigated.

Key words: Classic plate theory, Navier’s solution, buckling, functionally graded materials.

**1. Introduction structural element, functionally graded materials
**

(FGM), because of smooth variation of material

The buckling of plates has been studied by many

properties along some preferred directions. This

researchers. Solutions to isotropic plate buckling

variation provides continuous stress distribution in the

problems can be found in the monograph of

FGM structures. Several investigators have studied

Timoshenko [1]. Buckling of composite plates has

buckling of such FGM plates by Bouazza, et al. [5-8]

been investigated extensively in the monograph edited

without considering flatness of FGM plates before

by Turvey and Marshall [2]. Following the use of

buckling. The variation in material properties through

laminated composite plates in engineering applications,

the thickness causes coupling between extension and

bifurcation buckling of such structures has been

bending deformations, as it is often the case with

investigated by many researchers without considering

laminated composite materials. Buckling analysis of

flatness before buckling [3]. This point was first

isotropic rectangular plates on elastic foundation was

clarified for laminated composite plates for some

carried out by Yu [9]. He considered a plate resting on

boundary conditions and for some lamina

elastic foundation with two opposite edges simply

configurations by Leissa [3]. Qatu, et al. [4] applied

supported and different boundary conditions along the

this result to identify true buckling behavior of

other edges (Levy solution). It was concluded that the

composite plates.

number of waves of the buckling mode increases with

Recently, a new type of material has been used as a

stiffness and occurs in the direction of the applied

Corresponding author: Mokhtar Bouazza, doctor, research stress. Also, increase in the plate width or height

field: analytical modeling of composite laminate, functionally increases the buckling load for the free horizontal edge

graded material, and nanocomposites; numerical modeling of

composite laminate, functionally graded material, and case, but the effect is the opposite for the clamped or

nanocomposites by ANSYS; wave propagation characteristics simply supported cases. Hosseini, et al. [10] obtained

in fluid-conveying double-walled nanotubes. E-mail:

bouazza_mokhtar@yahoo.fr. an exact solution for the buckling of isotropic

Then the displacement field in the (x. [11] of the constituents which can mostly be defined by studied the axisymmetric bending and buckling power-law functions [16. x + U . and kx. An approximate method for simultaneous modification of natural frequencies 2. and u.2 Governing Equations and buckling loads was presented by Mirzaeifar. E ( z ) = E m + E cm V f ( z ) E cm = E c − E m Monoaxial in-plane compressive loads on both α ( z ) = α m + α cm V f ( z ) α cm =α c − α m (1) directions were considered as well as equal biaxial ν ( z) = ν 0 compressive loads. 1 Typical FGM rectangular plate. υ are in-plane graded rectangular plates using the principle of displacements at a point of the mid-plane. shear and ε x = ε 0x − zk x . volume fraction function is expressed as: They used unconstrained third order shear deformation V f ( z ) = (z / h + 1 / 2) k (2) plate theory for their analysis. They considered these kinematical equations can be written as: several cases of buckling under direct. The present article. y (4) proposed by Liu and Pavlovic [14].488 Buckling of Thin Plates under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression rectangular Mindlin plates. z) reference frame has the following form [18]: buckling behavior of functionally graded material plate U = u − zw. analysis of thick functionally graded circular plates. Saidi et al. They obtained the first and second order Kirchhoff assumptions which maintain that the normal derivatives of natural frequencies and buckling loads to the midplane before deformation remains normal with respect to an arbitrary geometrical or physical after deformation. V and W are displacement components of a governing equations are obtained for functionally typical point in the plate. 1. the equilibrium and stability ky and kxy are the curvatures of the mid-plane during equations for FGM are obtained on the basis of classic deformation. Poisson and [12]. Meisam. This theory is based on the Cauchy.y γ xy = V . They considered a thickness according to the following.x ε y = V. Where εx0 εy0 and γxy0 are the mid-plane strains. ε y = ε 0y − zk y . property of a plate. et al. . Formulations 2. minimum total potential energy.1 Functionally Graded Materials Consider a case when FGM plate made up of a mixture of ceramic and metal as show in Fig. y W =w (3) under different loading conditions based on the based on the classical plate theory (Levy solution). x V = υ − zw. An analytical Using the strain-displacement equations of the approach for the elastic stability of simply supported classical plate theory: rectangular plates under arbitrary external loads was ε x = U . 17]. respectively. and Vf(z) is volume fraction shapes for the six cases analyzed. 2. The results are compared with the results of previous works in the literature. et al. Resulting equations are employed to obtain the closed-form solutions for the critical buckling load. These are given by: plate theory and Navier’s solution. [13] investigated the y. The material properties vary continuously across the Fig. For power-law FGM. γ xy = γ xy 0 − zk xy (5) bending loads. They presented the where subscripts m and c refer to properties of metal non-dimensional critical buckling loads and mode and ceramic. the where U. which are the same combination of six different boundary conditions in as the equations proposed by Praveen and Reddy [15]: which two opposite edges are simply supported.

x ) + w. yy = 0 value for ξ1 or ξ2 shows uniaxial loading in x or y directions. expressed in terms of the stress components through where w1 is an arbitrarily small increment of the thickness are: displacement.x +v. y. xx + N y w.x ) + w. y +v. k y = w.xx + w. Therefore. N xy0= 0 (16) −h / 2 h/ 2 where P1 is the force per unit length. y ) + 2 2 (w.x +ν v. (8). respectively. xy + N y . Ny0 and Nxy0 refer to the pre-buckling force E E Φ Nx = 1 2 (u. Substituting w0 + w1 into Eq. yy ) − resultants. results in the N ij = ∫ σ ij dz M ij = ∫ σ ij z dz (8) following stability equation: −h / 2 −h / 2 1 Substituting Eqs. one obtains： q + N x w. the pre-buckling forces can be h/2 obtained using the equilibrium conditions as [13]: (E1 .3 Mechanical Buckling Analysis My = (ν u. yy ) − directions. 2. yy ) = 0 (17) Using Eqs. y +v. (16) into Eq. xx . yy = 0 (11) (14). ξ1 and ξ2 are the (Φ. z 2 ) E ( z ) dz N 0x = ξ1 P1 . respectively. M x . the critical σy = E (ε y +νε x − (1 +ν )α T ) (7) equilibrium method is used. Nx0. (11) D . E 3 ) = ∫ (1. γ xy0 = u. yy + 2 N xy w. xy + M y . yy + 2 N xy0 w1. Assuming that the state 1 −ν 2 E of stable equilibrium of a general plate under τ xy = γ xy 2 (1 + ν ) mechanical may be designated by w0. The The forces and moments per unit length of the plate displacement of the neighboring state is w0 + w1.x . Also. k xy = 2w.x +v. y +υ.E 2 .xx +ν w. may be reduced to of one equation as: 1 ∇ 4 w − ( N x w. and c is a constant coefficient. 1−ν 2 1 −ν 1 −ν E2 E3 Θ 2. z . y ) + 3 2 (w. n are number of half waves in the x and y Mx = (u. 1−ν 1−ν 1 −ν For the solution of Equation (14) the Navier method E E Φ N y = 1 2 (ν u.xx +ν w. xx + N y0 w1.x +ν v. y . The displacement function is selected as the 1 −ν 1 −ν 1−ν following Fourier series: E1 E2 Nxy = (u. zero following form: N x . N 0y = ξ 2 P1 . xx + 2 N xy . yy + 2 N xy w. yy ) − is used. the equilibrium Eq. Substituting Eq. yy ) − 1 −ν 2 1−ν 2 1−ν E2 E3 Consider a rectangular plate with the length a and M xy = (u.xy w1 = c sin (mπ x / a ) sin (n π y / b) (15) 2(1 +ν ) (1 +ν ) (9) E2 E Θ where m. z) E(z)α(z)T(x.xy 2(1 +ν ) 2(1 +ν ) width b which is subjected to in-plane loads as shown where in Fig. Θ) = ∫ (1. z) dz −h / 2 (10) load parameter which indicate the loading conditions. Buckling of Thin Plates under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression 489 ε x0 = u. ε y0 = υ. yy . xx + ξ 2 w1.xx + w. y ) + 2 2 (ν w. xy = 0 1 ∇ 4w1 − P1 ( ξ 1 w 1. (12) and h/2 h/2 subtracting the original equation. y ) + (ν w. (9) and (10). (1) and (7) into Eq. xy (6) D Hooke’s law for a plate is defined as: where E E − E 22 (13) σx = E (ε x +νε y − (1 +ν )α T ) D = 1 3 E 1 (1 − ν 2 ) 1 −ν 2 To establish the stability equations. xx + N y w. gives the ∇ 4 w1 − ( N x0 w1. xx + 2 M xy . Negative values for ξ1 and ξ2 indicate that plate is The equations of equilibrium for the plate are in the subjected to biaxial compressive loads. xy + q ) = 0 (12) k x = w. xy ) = 0 (14) D constitutive relations as: where.x .

06993 4.4784 39. [13] Present study 0.27971 4. and substituting in order to compare with Refs.68689 0.01).33953 3.83488 3.3 and for alumina: 380 GPa and 0. the present results have a good agreement with ξ1 (mπ / a) 2 + ξ2 (n π / b) 2 Refs. 2 The rectangular plate subjected to in plane loads. Therefore: the obtained critical buckling load of simply supported [ D ( π / a ) 2 + (π / b ) 2 ]2 (19) FGM plates in Table 2 and the results of Meisam.26716 1.35717 0. P1 cr = − ξ 1 (π / a ) 2 + ξ 2 ( π / b ) 2 [13]. ξ2) Ref. As table P1 = − shows.71658 0.5 0. [9. known previous works has been carried out. Note that the Poisson’s ratio is chosen to be 0. ξ2) = (-1. [9.85594 1 1 0.3370 1 (-1.686896 1. (17). in the thickness direction z for the functionally plates in mechanical.4213 (-1.24727 0. el al. Part (a): Isotropic Plates In order to validate the results. 13] for an isotropic for the buckling load P1 D[(mπ / a) 4 + 2(mπ / a) 2 (n π / b) 2 +(n π / b) 4 ] (18) plate (k = 0) with different aspect ratios.23 39.66791 2 1 0. -1) (ξ1. 3 shows the variation of the volume fractions of program is developed to study the behavior of FGM ceramic.5 (-1.49609 0. ξ2) = (-1.3.74300 0.3 for simplicity.14655 2.5 1. (15) into Eq. The FGM plate considered here consists Table 1 Comparison of the non-dimensional critical buckling load (Picr·a2/D) for an isotropic plate (k = 0).53433 0.4784 (-1.37379 0. [9] Ref.27871 0.53432 0.7392 Table 2 Comparison of the critical buckling load (MN/m) for a FGM plate (b = 1. The critical buckling load. P1cr. Validation of the Results 4. for aluminium-alumina FGM. ξ2) = (0.5 0.0) 39.7392 19. a computer Fig.80363 0. -1) Ref[13] Present study Ref[13] Present study Ref[13] Present study 0.33953 0. On the other hand.68475 0. 0) (ξ1. the non-dimensional critical buckling load is presented Substituting Eq.66791 0.-1) 12.0) 15.71724 1. a/b (ξ1. is the smallest value Part (b): FGM plate of P1 which is obtained when m = 1 and n = 1.37379 1.42 15.19295 .85594 0.19295 0. In Table 1. a comparison with the Fig.27871 0.4212 15.34238 1.71658 0.5 2.68475 0. Results Based on the derived formulation. (k).33 12.57978 0.37379 1.62709 0.58619 8.53432 0. h = 0.3370 12.24727 0. The analysis is performed for graded plate.06993 1. 13].35717 0.-1) 19.74 19. They are in excellent agreement.53433 0.14655 8.49609 0.83488 0.26716 0.34238 0. Critical buckling load K a/b (ξ1.490 Buckling of Thin Plates under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression pure materials and different values of volume fraction exponent.49066 1.61230 0. 3.58619 1.6847532 0. respectively.6847532 0.27971 0.71724 0 1 1.37379 1. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio for aluminium are: 70 GPa and 0.5 0.5 1. to validate the derived equations.

5 shows the critical buckling load P1cr versus the z/h power of FGM.0 (4) Geometric parameter a/b is increased.01 parameter ξ1 and ξ2 or the aspect ratio a/b.01 1.0 0. International Book Compan. the critical k buckling load decreases. 1961. pp.4 0. J.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 investigated by the classical plate theory. The thickness -to-side ratio h/a is assumed to be 2.8 The buckling analyses of fully simply supported 0.ξ2=0 h/a=0. Gere.5 buckling mode varies with respect to the load 3. 4 with Fig. 4 Critical buckling load for a plate versus the power of compression. the 2. 0. 4 illustrates the variation of the critical buckling [1] S. the critical load 2. Marshall. however. The thickness -to-side ratio h/a is [2] G.01(a/b = 1.3 k=1 buckling load decreases as the power of FGM increases. The 0.0 0. 5.ξ2=-1 2.J. the critical 0. classical plate theory.6 0. types of in-plane mechanical loading based on the 348-439. uniaxial Fig. and biaxial compression.5 compression.2 0. under different McGraw-Hill. I.ξ2=-1 a/b=1. Conclusions 1.4 ζ1=0. Theory of Elastic Stability.8 k=5 Because high powers of FGM correspond to high 0.6 portion of metal in comparison with the ceramic part. Also. 0. Buckling and Postbuckling of . ceramic decreases.P. P1cr (MN/m) 1. Comparing Fig. numerical results. Based on the FGM.0 ζ1=-1.5 buckling increases.5).2 buckling load of the plate under uniaxial compression is greater than the one under biaxial compression. 3 Volume fraction of ceramic along the thickness mechanical loading based on the classical plate theory. This is because as volume Fig.01 (a/b = 1.0 assumed to be 0. Turvey. of aluminium and alumina.4 apparent when the power of FGM is small. when the geometric parameter a/b is 1. 1.5 ζ1=-1.4 Fig.6 ζ1=-1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 (5) Volume fraction index k is increased. It is shown the critical k=0. load of FGM versus the power of FGM.M.2 0. Buckling of Thin Plates under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression 1.0 (1) In the case of mechanical loads. under different types of in-plane Fig. ζ1=0.8 a/b=1. The k mechanical loadings is assumed to be. the variation of critical buckling load is more Vc 0.0 h/a=0. Timoshenko.5 (2) The buckling load of the plate under uniaxial P1cr (MN/m) 2.4 rectangular FGM plates under mechanical are 0.H.ξ2=-1 1.ξ2=0 increased.25). the following conclusions are reached: 4. direction. 5 Critical buckling load for a plate versus the power of fraction index is increased.2 5.0 compression is greater than the one under biaxial 1.4 -0. the critical 3.0 -0. the contained quantity of FGM.25 change increases.ξ2=-1 ζ1=-1. References Fig.2 responses are nearly similar.

81-93. Mirzaeifar.. Qatu. E. M. Compos Struct 6 (1986) shear deformation plate theory. Leissa. .N. 160. Praveen. S. Reddy. [5] M. Astronautics 31 (1) (1993) 189-94. Chung. U. Rasouli. Chung. Buckling or transverse [12] R. Chapman and Hall. A. A. [15] G. Struct. Off. Tounsi.S. Y. Struct. Tounsi.H. Wang.L. S. [16] S. Buckling of rectangular plates on an 3657-3674. 1969. Vibration of Plates.A. Amabili. Computational Materials rectangular plates. Springer 15 (8) (2011) 669-680.A. A.H. H. NASA. E. Bahai. solution for linear buckling of rectangular Mindlin plates. Y. elastic foundation using the Levy solution.R. [7] M. Chi. [8] M. approach to the buckling of simply supported rectangular Journal of Materials Science and Technology 18 (3) (2010) plates under arbitrary loads. Bouazza. 30 (2008) 155-170 1346-1359. J. J. Mechanical behavior of Thermal buckling of simply supported FGM square plates. Megueni.Y.G. American Institute of Aeronautics and frequencies and buckling loads of thin rectangular plates.W. Adda-Bedia.H. London. [18] A. Shell-like Structures-Advanced Structured ceramic-metal plates. American [17] S. Adda-Bedia. A. Axisymmetric 396. E. A. An approximate deflections of unsymmetrically aminated plates subjected method for simultaneous modification of natural to in-plane loads. Mohammadi. Bouazza. bending and buckling analysis of thick functionally [3] A.492 Buckling of Thin Plates under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression Composite Plates. Mechanical behavior of Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 46 (2008) functionally graded material plates under transverse load: 3163-3167. Levy Thermoelastic stability analysis of functionally graded solution for buckling analysis of functionally graded plates: An analytical approach. Conditions for laminated plates to remain graded circular plates using unconstrained third order flat under inplane loading. Khorshidi.Tounsi. p. Mater.L. Sound Vib. Leissa. Bouazza. Part 2.S. 1995. Hosseini-Hashemi. p. Megueni. 43 (2006) [9] L. Govt. A generalized analytical Thermal buckling behavior of functionally graded material.W. Pavlovic. A. 89 261-270. Part 1. A.R. K.N. Int J Solids Struct 43 (2006) [10] S. Numerical results. Saidi. Megueni. 10 (2009) Science 49 (2010) 865-870.. Struct. Leissa. [14] Y. [11] A. Adda-Bedia.A. Chi. Bouazza. Print. Nonlinear transient Stability analysis of functionally graded plates subject to thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded thermal loads. functionally graded material plates under transverse load: Applied Mechanics and Materials 61 (2011) 25-32. [6] M. Structures 35 (1998) 4457-4476.A. A. Appl. Saidi. 31 (2009) 208-215. Adda-Bedia.N. E. Int. Eng. Yu. J. Megueni. [13] M. [4] M.W. Liu. A. Exact 3675-3691. Int. Compos. Jomehzadeh. J. M. Shahab. Analysis. 315 (2008) 318-342. International Journal of Solids and Materials. Eng. Solids Struct. C. Tounsi. (2009) 110-119. A. E. A. Sahraee. Compos.

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