Theory has had a huge impact
on education
Piaget's research methods were
-Instructional strategies
A. Theory of Cognitive not reliable and was formed from
Development a biased sample
-Supportive environment, social
-Researched on his children
1. The Sensorimotor -Only researched children form a
-Many educational programs
Stage high SES
believe that children should be
2. The Preoperational
taught at the level they are
Cognitive Jean Piaget Stage Piaget underestimated children's
developmentally prepared
3. The Concrete abilities
Operational Stage -Most children possess abilities
4. The Formal Piaget's theory has improved
an earlier age than he believed
Operational Stage the understanding of cognitive
-Some children can view others
perspective, not egocentric
-Ability to communicate with
-Some children belong in more
children has increased
than one stage
-Methods for studying children
have increased
Four different stages of
speech development
1. Primitive speech stage
2. Naïve psychological
Lev Whether language is
Vygotsky Encompasses a range of independent of other areas of
Language 3. Egocentric or private
distinct theoretical perspectives cognition, or is it dependent upon
speech stage
more general cognitive abilities.
4. Ingrowth or inner
speech stage
Nativist Approach
Moral Lawrence Stages of Moral Cross-cultural studies confirm Cultural Bias

i. wrong mic Freud forces that motivate (Development theory) -It is deterministic-suggests that behavior. -Another criticism of Kohlberg’s moral development theory is the that children of various cultures cultural bias problem.e..Ego. it is a “lesser of two evils” theory.) society they live in and the established laws of that country.e. and therefore cannot traumatic events in childhood be tested. and these usually Super Ego/ Nurture: Parents. Theory reinforces the fact that as our thinking matures.. occur in early childhood Childhood experiences) Psychosexu Sigmund Psychosexual Stages Freud’s theories have had His theories are difficult to test al Freud contributions to society as it scientifically. -It is unfalsifiable because the psychological forces. i. developed moral reasoning. (or even if) the same norms can Development effectively be applied to a Kohlberg -How individuals different culture. the progress through Kohlberg’s consideration of a set of cultural pre-conventional level into the norms in one society without stages of the conventional adequate consideration of how level. and -Led to other psychologists assumptions cannot be abnormality is caused by an including Piaget developing scientifically measured or proved Psychodyna Sigmund imbalance in the internal theories on childhood. our Kohlberg’s theory insinuates that behavior becomes less selfish people can place their own moral and more caring (more principles above the laws of the “moral”. Concepts such as has drawn attention to the the libido are impossible to possible long-term effects of measure. Psychodynamic approach -Focused on the effects that -Behaviour is childhood experiences have on motivated by internal or the developing personality. The research that has . He believed that behavior is predetermined and mental illness arises from -Takes both nature and nurture people do not have free will unresolved conscious into account (Nature: ID . (Freud’s psychosexual stages) conflicts.

Mistrust they can relate to his theories experiences must people have in 2. Autonomy vs. Industry another? (competence) vs. Freud based his theory on the recollections of his adult patients. How can we know that a current behavior was caused specifically by a childhood experience? The length of time between the cause and the effect is too long to e. Psychosocial Erik Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Erikson’s theory has good face Vague about the causes of Development validity. resolution. 6. not on actual observation and study of children. Freud's theory is based upon case studies and not empirical research. Many people find that development. Role development across the entire universal mechanism for crisis Confusion lifespan. Stagnation . child abuse & parental assume that there is a separation. and move from one stage to 4. Initiative vs. Intimacy vs. Also. Trust vs. It has ability to tie together Inferiority important psychosocial The theory does not have a 5. Identity vs. Shame about various stages of the life order to successfully resolve and Doubt cycle through their own various psychosocial conflicts 3. Generativity vs. Isolation 7. been conducted tends to discredit Freud's theory. Guilt experiences. What kinds of 1.g. relationship between the two variables. Future predictions are too vague.

Despair . Ego Integrity vs.8.