ADDIS ABEBA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

UNIVERSITY

ELECTROMECHANICAL ENGINEERING

INTERNSHIP PROJECT

PROJECT TITLE: AUTOMATIC SWITCH FOR
MOTOR

PREPARED BY: GELETA GIRMA

SUBMITTED To: Melaku Desta

Methodology 11. References 16. Problem statement 2. Theoretical framework 9. Literature review 10. Hypothesis 6. June 2016 Table of content Title page 1. Project contribution 7. Abstract 3. The project duration and schedule 13. Objective 5. Introduction 4. Nomenclature 14. Abbreviations 15. Abstract . 2 Cost for rewinding the motors 3 The quality of rewinding motors less than the previous one. Budget for the Project 12. Project limitation 8. Recommendation Problem statement 1 The problem of motor switches in managing the variation of power from the source.

For winding of a motor a lot of many wasted.. time of production . So this small project proposal I have planned to build simple Automatic switch control system for motors in the company. So if we can manage speed of induction motor.. Motors always burned because of electric power variation from the source. Introduction Most problem of motor can be solved. In our world we have many complex speed control system for motor especially for dc motor like Brushless dc motor . microcontroller.etc.. At the moment almost all experiment are focused on making sophistication instead of making a simple Automatic switch for small sector which use motor like ''wefcho bet''. The best solution for this is keeping the motors in safe way. As we know induction motor in flour factories main part or it is 'heart' of the machine.. switch like triac. We can solve all most all problems which are caused by this motor in the factories. filter and same passive device. onion grinding house.etc. In our country Ethiopian there is mostly no simple control system for motors. because of this we have face a lot of problem. machine life .etc.. motor winding sector. So in this project proposal we plan to build simple automatic switch control system.. But we don't have simple automatic switch control system for induction motor.servo motor . if we control the speed of the motor on the machine with automatic switch. This will be done from the complex control system model but the working principle is the same and to minimize the cost of control system with high efficiency and solve the whole problem caused by lack of . This automatic switch control system function by using sensor.. This project will be done by using complex switch control system as model and make it simple by extracting components but both govern by same principle we expect the project to solve problem which caused by lack of switch control system and income .

 It will have long working time.  To make simple automatic switch control system for machine in need of this device.  The device operating temperature range of 30-40 ⁰C.. Hypothesis  I except from the lab result the circuit will be High efficiency.speed control system like quality. crack ..  To increase machine life and to give full data about the machine for the owner to use for many thing like calculating annual gain and loss and to control labour outside working... power. health . etc.  We expect theoretically result should be 1-5% tolerance difference to practical result (the value we get in the lab if the instructor allows this proposal).etc. Objective  To change current mechanical switch with simple automatic switch. machine life.  The TRIAC has Minimum noise. income. Project contribution  In this Project we try to increase machine life when the power drop as you know the speed of the motor also drop so in this inappropriate speed of motor cause wear of teeth.  It will minimize human labour. so if we can stop this machine before this happen by using automatic switch control system we have solved huge disaster  This Project contribute for factories in power consumption  This Project has huge benefit for owner like  by using the memory in the circuit they can calculate annual benefit and loss  he can predict the machine life  from the memory you can get full information about the machine like working time so the owner can control the labour .

I get the system error. The sensor samples the system output and converts this measurement into an electric signal that passes back the controller.in the feedback signal is subtracted from the set point at the comparator (just ahead of the controller). Project limitation This project used for machine that needs to indicate the use to shut down (switch off) if there is a problem in the production otherwise this automatic switch control system is not the appropriate device If there is a problem in the production otherwise this automatic switch control system is not the appropriate device. In a closed loop control system. the output of the process (controlled variable) is constantly monitored by sensor as shown in figure. By Subtracting the actual position (as reported by the sensor) from the desired position (as defined by set point). and the signal from the Sensor to the controller is the feedback (which closes the loop). Because the controller knows what the system is actually doing. It can make any adjustment necessary to keep the output where it belongs. he shouldn't have to start from scratch he can use this project as standing stone. Theoretical framework Closed loop systems A closed loop system is a system that uses a measurement of the output and feedback of the signal to compare it with the desired output (Reference or command). outside the working place so he don't have to depend on the behaviour of the labour whether he is cheater or not if you have memories that tells all about the working place  From I have got practical value anyone who is interested to add something on this. This project use c++ program but I write the code and I plan to use microcontroller. The signal from the controller to the actuator is the forward path. The error signal represents the .

Few scientific publications are available that concern automatic switch for big sectors rather for small. They are equipped with larger. The first switch employing “quick break technology” was invented by John Henry Homel in2000 in shield field district of Newcastle upon Tyne the “quick break switch.” overcame the problem of a switching contacts developing arcing whenever the circuit was opened or closed. repeatable performance even when the System components themselves (in the forward path) are not absolutely repeatable or precisely known. Literature Review The problem on switch of motor was considered by many investigators and researchers. The action of this “quick break” mechanism meant that there was insufficient time for an arc to form and the switch would have long working life. The controller is always working to minimize this error signal. The quit switch mechanism still possess a form of snap action but it is very weak as compared to its predecessor.J Newton design the toggle switch mechanism was almost quit switch. high quality contacts that are capable of switching domestic loads without damage. The following programs give a quick summary of the important previous publications.Difference between “where you are” and “where you want to be”. A zero error means that the output is exactly what the set point says it should be. Most of the project work concentrated on mechanical switch system. In 2004 William . By constructing the circuit and measure the whole parameter which is important to calculate like:- . Methodology The method I plan to use is experiment in lab. despite the less positive action. The self-controlling feature of closed loop control makes it more preferable over open-loop control systems provides reliable.

Microcontrollers usually have special internal register for pulse counting process the sensory information and compute the control command for Triac to carry out specified tasks (switch on or off). The microcontroller was programmed by the commercial software "MIKROBASIC" .  Efficiency  Heat dissipation(P=I^2*R)  Temperature  Filter using oscilloscope and function generator 1) Memory: Storage devices: e.g. . memory to store the control program and the state of the control system obtained from the sensors It is used to save vehicle speed at each stage Figure 1 Memory storage 2) Microcontroller: It is the most important component of the circuit.. It is programmed to control the action of the motor to perform the necessary operation to limit the working of the motor. The microcontroller is a microprocessor capable of generating steps pulses and direction signals for the driver (amplifier).

so the input Electromagnetic interference(EMI) filter should be connected to the board as well (But it is optional) because when I use in 'wefcho bet' It is a lot noise more than this so it is depend on the situation to use . Figure 2 Microcontroller circuit 3) DC Battery (12V): It provides the DC current to the control circuit. . The TRIAC produces a noise when it is turned ON or OFF . The current flowing through the TRIAC increase its temperature if the current is to high it is necessary to use a heat sink. 4)Triac is turned ON by the control signal coming from the microcontroller with some delay after zero crossing and automatically turned off when its current reach a zero values. The 'heart ' of this application is the microcontroller which control the triac .

8) Encoder sensor: signals are connected to microcontroller like 2 binary sensors (digital input lines). Figure 3 TRIAC symbol and schematic diagram 5) Filter: used to reduce the noise coming from the board but we decide this filter is necessary after the proposal has acceptance effect and I will decide. 6) Screen: It shows the data of the operating conditions. 7)Amplifier: They amplify the signal that comes from the remote- control unit and convert the microcontroller command signals into the power necessary to energize the DC motor windings.It convert the value of volt into a parallel digital signal corresponding to a binary coded version of the decimal number .

Figure 4 Encoder sensor using hole Figure 5 Encoder sensor using colour Programming of the Microcontroller The microcontroller was programmed by the commercial software" MIKROBASIC. This software was developed as a simple programming tool of microcontrollers.0" [25]. test and deploy BASIC programs. Generally. Also. V. The binary "based. a series of commands to control the program flow and I/O operations are implemented in its interpreter engine.exe" and "mbasic.exe" is the editor environment and can be used to edit and run MIKROBASIC . the software disk contains two binaries: "based. MIKROBASIC allows math and string operations. Its language is similar and has characteristics of many BASIC implementations with an editing environment to allow the user to create.5.exe" and a set of example programs.

exe" is the actual interpreter engine and it is necessary to run the developed programs. 5. Such functionality makes very easy to develop and test applications inside the editor environment. the microcontroller gives the correct order to the motor to rotate by the proper amount. The microcontroller checks the new position and makes necessary adjustments until reaching the correct pre-set . The signal is received to the electronic circuit by the receiver and amplified by the amplifier. 4. This order is given based on the pre-programming of the microcontroller 6. The software engine is automatically called by the editor environment. 3. 2. Operation Steps of the switch Control System The automotive switch control system can be operated by carrying out these steps: 1. The binary "mbasic. Switching on the electronic circuit.programs. Pressing one of the buttons of the remote-control unit. The microcontroller compares the previous value of speed that is stored in the circuit memory with the new value that was received from the remote-control unit. As a result of this comparison.

Budget for the project N Material No of material Cost(birr) o 1 Resistor 4 25 2 Capacitor 3 20 3 TRIAC 1 55 4 Inductor 3 10 5 Battery(5volt) 2 15 6 Wire(1meter) 2 20 7 Soldering iron(1 meter) 1 15 8 Microcontroller(MLT002N3000B5 2 500 C) 9 Screw 7 10 10 Motor 1 110 11 Encoder sensor 1 50 Table 1 Material for the circuit From the table we see it need 1200 birr to build the circuit. (The current ) .

Nomenclature I current R Resistor C Capacitor V Volt P Power ⁰C Degree Celsius Abbreviations . And it takes less an hour for assembly of the switch for motors. Equipment or tools I need for the circuit 1) Oscilloscope 2) Function generator 3) Digital Malty meter 4) Screw Driver 5) Soldering 6) Drill 7) Tape (white and black) The project duration and schedule N Time duration Task o 1 4 days Collecting material and buy 2 1 days Build the circuit 3 3 days Collecting data and data analysis 4 2 days Compare theoretical result with experiment result 5 1 day Result 6 4 days Discussion 7 1 days Conclusion 8 5 days Manual for the circuit Table 2 Time duration need for the project So we need three week to complete this project and to give the result of the model for production.

References Ahmed Farouk AbdelGawad and Talal Saleh Mandourah (2014) Proposed Simple Electro-Mechanical Automotive Speed Control System.Bishop (2008).vol 2. Thomas L. United States of America. Richard C. it may save a lot of many.Hongping Zhu and Dansheng Wang(2014)A Study of Concrete Slab Damage Detection Based on the Electromechanical Impedance Method. United States of America.Dorf and Robert H.Pearson Prentice Hall. DC Direct Current RPM Engine rotational speed IR Infrared Waves PLC Programmable Logic Controller LED Light emitting diode Recommendation In most factories motors need more power than other devises need power. United States of America. The switches that current factories use are more available for damages of motor.Huazhong University of Science and Technology.Floid (2006) Digital Fundamentals. If motors able to use low power in the factory. Modern Control Systems. . 1-10. Xianyan Hu. pp.Pearson Prentice Hall. Pearson Prentice Hall.China. Using automatic switch for factories is the best way for company owner. American Journal of Aerospace Engineering. Thomas L.Floid (2012) Electronics Devices. Sensors.