HANDNOTE - SCIENCE - CLASS 8 PAGE 1

National Curriculum English Version
Chapter 1 – Classification of Animal Kingdom

Knowledge based questions and 08. What do you mean by vertebrate and
Comprehensive questions: invertebrate animals?
Answer: Animals that neither possess nor develop a
01. What is Classification? vertebral column are called Invertebrates. On the
Answer: Classification is the systematic other hand, animals having vertebral column are
arrangement of animals into different groups on the called Vertebrates.
basis of their characteristics.
09. What are the nine phyla of the kingdom
02. What is Taxonomy? Animalia?
Answer: Taxonomy is the branch of biology in Answer: The nine phyla of the kingdom Animalia
which the system of classification of organisms is are: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda,
discussed in detail. Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata
03. Who is called the Father of Taxonomy? and Chordata.
Answer: Carolus Linnaeous is called the father of A mnemonic to remember the sequence of these
taxonomy. phyla is: PCP, Noodles And Milk Are Excellent
04. What is Binomial Name or Scientific Name? Choices.
Answer: Scientific name is the name of an 10. What are Sponges?
organism that is recognized by the international Answer: Animals of the kingdom Porifera are
consortium of biologists. called Sponges. They are the simplest among the
05. Mention three characteristics of Scientific multicellular animals.
Name. 11. What do you mean by Embryonic layer/Germ
Answer: Three important characteristics of layer?
Scientific Name are: Answer: Cellular layers of embryo are known as the
a) There is only one recognized scientific name for Embryonic layer or the Germ Layer.
each species of organism. 12. What is Coelenteron?
b) A Scientific name must be in Latin or Latinized Answer: The gastrovascular system of Cnidarians is
language. known as the Coelenteron.

c) It should consist two parts - one part belongs to 13. What is Cnidoblast?
its Genus name and another part belongs to its Answer: Cnidoblasts are the stinging cells produced
Species name. in the body of Cnidarians.

06. What is Species? 14. What is Coelom?
Answer: Species is the fundamental and lowest Answer: Coelom is the main body cavity in most
rank of classification. animals. It is located between the digestive tract
and the body wall.
07. What is the scientific name of human?
Answer: The scientific name of human is Homo
sapiens.

Tape etc. beginning stage of its life and stays in land in their adulthood. Example: Spongilla. Body wall contains numerous 3. cycle. No compact tissue. Flame cells act as the excretory pores. covered with cuticle. 4. 22. Through these pores food called Cnidoblasts. The term Cycloid refers to smooth and Answer: Chordates are a group of animals which rounded scales of fishes. 2. Scypha 4. Example: Liver fluke. body system is present. That is why frog is called amphibian. Molluscs and in many animals just after hatching from the Arthropods. What is Taxa? 18. For example. Body consists of three having one embryonic layer. fertilized egg. They are actually modified teeth covered with hard 17. scales found in the skin of sharks and rays. known as Coelenteron. locomotion. What is Larva? Answer: Nephridia are tube like organs that Answer: Larva is the young immature stage found performs excretion in Annelids. What is Nephridia? 19. What do you mean by ICZN? Answer: ICZN is the acronym for International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Cycloid and Ganoid? filled with blood and acts as a part of circulatory Answer: The term Placoid refers to the tiny tough system. Answer: The features of the nine phyla of kingdom Animalia are mentioned below: Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes 1. What is Placoid. Jellyfish etc.PAGE 2 HANDNOTE . embryonic layers. Larva differs appreciably from the adult in structure. tadpole is the larval 16. organ or 2. This cavity is 20. . What are chordates? enamel. embryonic layers. worm etc. Contains a type of body cavity 2.SCIENCE . Obellia. The term Ganoid refers to possess notocord at some or all stages of their life ridged and rhomboidal scales of fishes.CLASS 8 15. 4. defense and capture of prey. Example: Hydra. Body structure – flat. 3. helps in organ. Why is frog called Amphibian? Answer: Taxa is the codified units or ranks used in Answer: Frog stays under water during the taxonomy. external suckers are present. Simplest multicellular animal 1. 21. 23. Mention the features of the nine phyla of kingdom Animalia. A special type of stinging cells 3. What is Haemocoel? stage of frog. Answer: Haemocoel is the main body cavity of the members of the phylum Arthropoda. and oxygen enter into the body. Body consists of two 1.

Digestive system is complete. Nephridia are present as 3. present. are present at some or all stages in the life cycle. 2. toad. Example: Starfish.CLASS 8 PAGE 3 Nematoda Annelida Mollusca 1. symmetrical. contains spine. cucumber etc. Generally unisexual. Example: Earthworm. 1. Circulation by water vascular 3. Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata 1. Exmple: Round worm. Muscular foot is used for locomotion (exception . 1. etc. sea 4. or gills. Body is tubular and segmented. locomotion. joint 1. 3. Respiration takes place by lungs excretory organ. Dermal skin (exoskeleton) 2. 2. Example: Butterfly.leeches). Leech 4. Body is tubular. 4. Soft body is covered with hard shell. worm etc.SCIENCE . system. all stages in the life cycle. Body is pentaradially 1. Example: Carp fish. Each segment contains setae for 2. Notocord is present at some or appendages. 3. Segmented body.. Example: Snail. Pharyngeal pouches (Gill slits) antenna. Dorsal tubular nerve cord is exoskeleton. Oyster etc. 2. Body covered with chitinous 3. . etc. 3. Locomotion by tube feet. 4. A pair of compound eyes and 2. Filaria 4. HANDNOTE . human etc. cockroach 4.

. human etc. True jaws and paired 1. Notocord. covered by operculum. Frontal part of the nerve cord and fish like. 1. Answer: The features of these three classes are mentioned below: Cyclostomata Chondricthyes Osteichthyes 1. Example: Carp fish. heterocercal tail and the homocercal tail and the skin bears skin bears Placoid scales. Example: Branchiostoma 4. 3. 3. Body has cartilaginous 3. etc. appendages are present. (Amphioxus). Most of them are fresh water appendages are absent. Notocord and nerve cord is 1. Example: Hilsa fish. 3. 2. Body has bony skeleton. Salpa etc. Example: Ascidia. 25. 2. Answer: The features of these three sub-phylums are mentioned below: Urochordata Cephalochordata Vertebrata 1. No operculum but 5-7 pairs of 2. Gills are gills are present. True jaws are paired 1. Body is semi-transparent. 3. Respiration by gills. Chordate characteristics persist throughout their life. Mention the features of the classes Cyclostomata. Body is slender and eel-like. Four pairs of gills. Cycloid. All are marine. Example: Petromyzon. toad. forms brain and rear part forms brainstem. by vertebral column in adults. fishes. 2. Mention the features of Urochordata. narrow 2. Example: Shark. Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. 4. 4. gill slits and nerve 1. 4. body. skeleton. 4. Body contains two apertures. Ctenoid or Ganoid scales. Notocord is present during chord are present only the early distributed along the entire length of embryonic stages and replaced stages in their life cycle. Sea horse.PAGE 4 HANDNOTE . Cephalochordata and Vertebrata. Hammer fish 4.CLASS 8 24.SCIENCE .

Body is covered Body is covered with hair. Lay eggs in water. cycle. Viviparous . toes. Answer: The features of these four classes are mentioned below: Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia 1. snake etc. Reptilia. no 2. 4. scales.Give birth to paired limbs with five with lungs. Mention the features of the classes Amphibia. Aves and Mammalia. 2. system are present. soft. duck. . 1. child (with few exceptions). etc. Teeth are heterodont. Two wings. 3. moist 1. HANDNOTE . Law eggs on land. Air sacs are present 3. 3. 4.SCIENCE . animal. with glands and without scales. Example: Frog. human Salamander etc. Four chambered heart tadpole larval stage larval stage in their life and one beak are and double circulatory observed in life cycle. with feather. Example:Camel. Skin is dry and with 1. Cold blooded animals. Example: Wall lizard. 4. Example: Crow. 4. Warm blooded 1. two legs 2. Move by crawling. present. Warm blooded animal. Crocodile. Skin is thin. Magpie etc. 3.CLASS 8 PAGE 5 26.

What is cell division? chromosomes of the mother cell. That is why Answer: The process of multiplication of cells of Mitosis is known as the Equational division. Prokaryotes where the nucleus directly divides into 11. What is Mitosis? Answer: The intermediary stage between the two Answer: Mitosis is a process of cell division in consecutive cell divisions is known as the Eukaryotes where the nucleus and chromosomes Interphase or Resting phase. Mention three features of Mitosis. the number of chromosomes of the daughter cells remains same as the number of 01. It also takes place in the developing 03. . In the mother cell. animal body. 13. What are the five stages of Karyokinesis? daughter cells. Answer: Mitosis doesn't take place in the nerve 04. On the nucleus and Cytokinesis is the process of division other hand. living organisms is called cell division. permanent tissues of plants. What is Chromosome? 1. What are daughter cells and mother cell? 12. Eukaryotes where the nucleus is divided twice and 15. Answer: Three major features of Mitosis are: 16. Mitosis and Meiosis. Metaphase. The two daughter cells contain equal number of chromosomes of the mother cell. What are the three types of cell division? Answer: Mitosis takes place in the meristematic Answer: The three types of cell division are tissues of the plant and the somatic cells of the Amitosis. Answer: Chromosomes are the rod shaped 2. Answer: The five stages of Karyokinesis are - 07. 3. This division takes place in somatic cells. In which cells Mitosis does not occur? two parts. a dividing nucleus. What is Interphase? 06.SCIENCE .CLASS 8 National Curriculum English Version Chapter 2 – Growth and Heredity of Living Organisms Knowledge based questions and 09. platelets of mammals and the cells of has neither a nucleus nor special organelles. What is Meiosis? Prophase. are divided only once to produce two similar 14. What is Prokaryotic cell? cells and matured red blood corpuscles (RBC) of Answer: A Prokaryotic cell is such type of cell that animals. What do you mean by amitosis? embryos and during asexual reproduction in lower Answer: Amitosis is the process of cell division of animals and plants. resting nucleus is called the nuclear chromatin or 08. 10. Where Mitosis takes place? 02. nuclear reticulum or nuclear fiber. 05. the previous cell which was divided of Cytoplasm. the nucleus and the structures which are made up of DNA and visible in chromosomes divide once. Why Mitosis is called Equational cell division? Comprehensive questions: Answer: In Mitosis. Anaphase Answer: Meiosis is a process of cell division in and Telophase. during cell division is called the mother cell. What is nuclear chromatin? the chromosome is divided once to produce four Answer: The diffused threads present inside a haploid gamete cells.PAGE 6 HANDNOTE . Pro-metaphase. What are Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis? Answer: The new cells produced after the process Answer: Karyokinesis is the process of division of of cell division are called the daughter cells.

It contains 2. heredity? Answer: DNA is the biochemical molecule that 26. That is why Mendel is known as structure that forms during cell division to separate the father of Genetics. 25. What is Gamete? are given below: Answer: Gamete is either a male or female germ cell. Why the Chromosome is known as the physical basis of heredity? 3. Where Meiosis takes place? Chromosome is known as the physical basis of Answer: Meiosis takes place in the reproductive heredity. sugar. 2. when a chromosome divides longitudinally microtubules seen during mitosis of an animal cell. Write down three differences between DNA Answer: Cleavage furrow is the groove produced and RNA. Answer: Haploid cells are cells containing one 2. Why DNA is known as the chemical basis of testes and ovary of higher animals. What is gene? cells of diploid organisms and in the zygote of Answer: Small parts of DNA which are located in haploid organisms (lower plants). Answer: Mendel conducted valuable experiments about how the traits of the parents are transmitted to 18. 1. What is Aster Fiber? Answer: A chromatid is each of the two thread like Answer: Aster Fiber is a star shaped cluster of strands. DNA is only of one 3. Answer: Three differences between DNA and RNA 22. respectively. DNA is double 1. What is heredity? determines the hereditary characteristics. 21. 20. diploid cells are cells that contain double sets of Deoxyribose sugar. stranded. It is a protective covering that Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Ribonucleic Acid surrounds the cellular contents. RNA is single 23. In the mother cell. mother cells of plants and animals. known as the chemical basis of heredity. What is Centromere? 27. . Mention three features of Meiosis? type according to its types according to its Answer: Three major features of Meiosis are: function. 28. What is Spindle Apparatus? the offspring. What is Plasmalemma? 29. What is Chromatid? 19. The four daughter cells contain half the number Answer: Chromosomes are the physical organelles of chromosomes of the mother cell. What is the full form of DNA and RNA? Answer: Plasmalemma is another name for the Answer: The full form of DNA and RNA are plasma membrane. Meiosis occurs inside the stamen and carpel of plants and inside the 33. 32. from the parents to the offspring. from the plasma membrane in the dividing cell. What is Cleavage furrow? 30.SCIENCE . What do you mean by haploid and diploid? stranded. He also postulated two fundamental Answer: Spindle Apparatus is a cytoskeletal laws of Genetics. In contrast. which is haploid and capable to take part in DNA RNA sexual reproduction. function. Meiosis takes place in the reproductive mother 31. the chromosomes to control the characteristics of organisms are known as gene. sister chromatids between daughter cells. Why is Mendel known as the Father of Answer: Centromere is the part of a chromosome Genetics? that links its sister chromatids. That is why the DNA is from the parents to the offspring is called heredity. It is found Answer: The process to inherit the characteristics inside the chromosomes. during cell division. It contains Ribose complete set of chromosomes. chromosomes. 1. that carry the genes to transfer the hereditary traits.CLASS 8 PAGE 7 17. HANDNOTE . For this reason. the nucleus divides twice and the chromosomes divide once. RNA is mainly of five 24. 3.