International Journal of Mineral Processing, 29 (1990) 249-265 249

Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam

Simulation - the m o d e m cost-effective way to
solve crusher circuit processing problems

R.P. King
Department of Metallurgyand MaterialsEngineering, Universityof Witwatersrand,
1 Jan SmutsAvenue, Johannesburg (South Africa)
(Received April 11, 1989; accepted after revision January 30, 1990)


King, R.P., 1990. Simulation- the modern cost-effective way to solve crusher circuit processing prob-
lems. Int. J. Miner. Process., 29: 249-265.

Simulation is an effective technique for the improvement of crusher plant performance, and it is
now used routinely by some crusher manufacturers for both plant design and trouble shooting. MOD-
SIM is probably the most versatile ore dressing-plant simulator in general use in the mineral-process-
ing industry today. A case study using MODSIM applied to the crusher circuit of a major uranium
producer is described in this paper. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of simulation to im-
prove plant performance when reliable and effective models of the unit operations are available.
The study was commissioned to investigate a 2000qon/h 4-stage crusher plant to identify a strategy
to increase production at a finer product size. After an intensive technical audit on the plant, success-
ful simulation was achieved for the existing operating conditions. The simulator was then used to
identify the production bottlenecks and to establish plant modifications to meet the required produc-
tion objectives in a cost-effective manner.


Plant simulation techniques are becoming increasingly effective and there-
fore more frequently used as tools to assess and improve plant performance.
This is particularly so with crushing plants because the unit operations of
crushing and screening can be described by reliable and accurate models. The
study reported here was undertaken to establish cost-effective modifications
to the fine crushing plant of Rossing Uranium Ltd., and the application of
simulation to address some of the possibilities is described. The study was
undertaken by a team consisting of personnel from Nordberg (Pty) Ltd., the
Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the University of
Witwatersrand, and Rossing Uranium Ltd.
The objectives of the study were: ( 1 ) to investigate and establish all process
and operating parameters under the current operating conditions; (2) to es-

0301-7516/90/$03.50 © 1 9 9 0 - - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

Great care was taken to ensure that all samples were representative of normal oper- ating conditions. When necessary. For example. steel. have pioneered this approach and their Circuit Analysis Program (CAP) is now in use worldwide for the development and analysis of crusher circuits. 1987). This study afforded the oppor- tunity to use both MODSIM and CAP within the context of a real major plant analysis. The first objective was addressed by undertaking a detailed technical audit on the plant which included the measurement and recording of all relevant engineering parameters. DATA COLLECTION The data collection was undertaken over a period of five days during which the plant was operated sunder conditions close to normal. The existing plant flowsheet is shown in Fig. flow of material in portions of the plant was stoppexi to allow the sampling of only one of the parallel streams.5 m m as in the exist- ing circuit to 80% passing 7 mm. The key process variables measured were the tonnages and size distribu- tions in those streams that were diagnostic of the operation of each of the units in the plant. and other cost reductions expected from any proposed plant modifications. The application of simulation to crusher flowsheet design has been well described by Mage- rowksi and Karra (1982) and there is no doubt that simulation techniques will play an ever-increasing role in the future. of Milwaukee. The size distributions and tonnages were measured by stop- ping the appropriate conveyor belts in the plant in the plant and carefully cutting 1-m sections from the belt load. Nordberg Inc.P KING tablish the complete mass balance and size distribution flowsheet for the pres- ent configuration and for the plant under various proposed alternative flow- sheet configurations. interrupted to permit the necessary sampling to be undertaken. both east and west secondary crusher products . Simulation effectively addresses the second and fourth of these objectives and provides the necessary information to permit the calculation of energy and other cost savings to meet the third of the objectives.250 R. together with tonnages and size distri- butions of key process streams. Significant improvements in worker proouctivity and the quality of flowsheet design have been reported (O'Bryan. and the streams from which samples were taken are identified in Table I. Production was. and (4) to back up all pro- posals by basic engineering information and detailed flowsheet calculations. however. Total mass and size distributions of these samples were determined in the usual way. l. The application of MODSIM to this problem is discussed in detail in this paper. The most important plant improvement required from this study was the reduction of the final product size from 80% passing 10. (3) to estimate energy.


2 8.east 31 Tertiary screen under size .01% open area 6. 1 3 4 m 18 ° inclination Lower deck: 15.9ram east: No.0-mm square opening s~'eens 11.1 ram.1 mm.west No flow through east secondary 35 Tertiary screen under size .6 m m Quaternary 7-It short-head cone crushers Closed-side settings crushers No.486 m × 2 . No. east 51.east No flow through west secondary 37 Tertiary crusher product . 1 13.6 m m Quaternary 6 X single-deck polyurethane 20.west 5 Secondary crusher product .east 4 Secondary crusher product .17 ram.252 R.5-mm ribs 27.west 3 Secondary crusher feed .7 m m Tertiary screens Double-deck polyurethane Topdeck: 49-ram square opening 4 l-ram ribs 23. 1 8. No.7% open area 5.7 ram.east No flow through west tertiary 45 Quaternary crusher product 46 Quaternary screen underflow 36 Final mill-feed product 10 Tertiary screen top-deck overflow 17 Tertiary screen lower-deck overflow 40 Quaternary screen overflow TABLE 1I Important operating variables in existing plant Unit Type Operating parameters Secondary 7-ft standard Symons Closed-side settings: crushers cone crushers west 49.2-mm square opening i ¢ 10.west No flow through east tertiary 25 Tertiary crusher product . K I N G TABLE I Stream identification and sample point location Stream Identification Comments number 1 Coarse ore reclaim conveyor 2 Secondary crusher feed .0 m m 18 ° inclination .134 m 18 ° inclination Tertiary 7-ft short-head cone crushers Closed-side settings crusher west:No. No.48 m X 2. 3 13.3-ram ribs 25.4% open area 5. 4 12.P. 2 11.094 m × 2.

4 95.5 99. .5 99.3 55.9 .3 6.4 59.7 80.1 37.0 58. .0 100.4 91. 100.2 51.0 12. .SIMULATION OF CRUSHER CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROBLEMS 253 TABLE III Measured size distributions (percent passing indicated size) Size Stream Stream Stream 1 Stream Stream Stream Stream Stream Stream Stream Stream Stream (ram) 2 3 reeonstr.2 100.0 43.9 94. .6 33.0 - 25 40.2 27.5 100. .1 38. . .8 .6 87.6 42. .7 29. .1 43.1 22. . 70 66. Screen dimensions and screen apertures were measured by direct observa- tion.9 90. 50 57.4 23.6 59. SIMULATION OF THE EXISTING FLOWSHEET MODSIM is a modular simulator that can simulate any or dressing-plant flowsheet.1 82.0 48. Models are required for the description of the operation of each unit in the plant.5 71.6 27.6 .6 51.3 99. .4 25.8 20.3 100.6 88. 93. Only one of the parallel crusher lines was operated while loading the belt for sampling.6 40. as well as under no-load conditions.5 78. . The measured size distributions and tonnages are given in Table III.0 37.4 24. 4 5 31 35 37 25 45 46 36 from 2&3 150 88. .3 81. .4 75. The key operating variables that were measured are listed in Table II.4 50.0 99. .0 20. . . and when necessary.0 .0 .6 Flowrate 1071 933 2004 1150 970 366 366 856 724 677 1403 2270 (tons/ +352 +724 h) 718 1580 were sampled on the conveyor indicated as stream 35 in Fig. Screen vibration amplitudes and motions were recorded for each screen.6 56.3 22. .2 96.2 30. For use within MODSIM.5 70. a model must be capable of ac- cepting as input the complete description of the feed to the unit and calculat- ing the nature of the product stream in detail sufficient for the needs of the simulation.6 94.0 100.6 35.9 52.7 26.1 100.9 30.7 20.7 53.2 29.0 39.2 73.9 47.0 97. Crusher gaps were determined by leading. Conveyor belt speeds were determined from measurements of the drive drum diameters and rotational speed.6 64.0 .5 48.7 100. .3 44.1 29.4 79.8 32.5 33. The parameters that described the size and operating conditions . .3 .4 99. .0 50. .1 61.6 100.0 4.0 80. Current drawn by the crusher motors under operating load. 37.7 81. 63 63. . 100 76. . . .4 25. gaps were adjusted to ensure uniform operation during the entire the entire audit pe- riod. 1. 99. Samples of screen overflows were taken by the manual lunge method and are consequently less reliable than the belt samples taken.1 69.0 - 19 35. . was determined from existing plant instrumentation.7 85.0 . .5 48. .

The behaviour of the crusher is modelled through a classification function and a breakage function. is presumed to be dis- charged directly through the crusher into the product stream. Material that is not crushed.2% as the size in- creased by a factor of 2. Karra ( 1982 ) has demonstrated that this model can be used to describe the operation of the short-head cone crusher as well as the standard cone crusher. 1979 ). Intermediate sizes ( 10 m m to 50 m m ) favoured the west side to the extent of 20%. produces an entire spectrum of particle sizes.0 x>d2 . The operation of the crusher can be completely described by the classification function and the breakage func- tion. these operating parameters must match the values actually set up on the plant. for the standard and short-head cone crushers. The measured flowrates and size distributors in the prod- ucts permitted the development of a simple empirical model.x <~d2 (1) = 1. The forms of these functions used are given by: C(x) =0 x~d~ =1 kd. When simulating an existing plant. and for the double. Larger sizes (over 50 m m ) favoured the east side increasingly as size increased.and single-deck screens. The classification function defines t h e chance that a particle of a given size will actually be crushed during the nipping period of the crusher cycle.. Whiten et al. For the Rossing crusher circuit. dl <<. The daughter particles are them- selves subject to further classification to select those that will be broken fur- ther during subsequent crusher nips. A model was developed to describe the measured segregation in the coarse ore bin because the segregation was too large to be ignored. Tow effects were modelled: the unequal discharge rates caused by variations in the operation of the two apron feeders under each discharge and the tendency of coarser particles to discharge preferentially to the east side stream because of segre- gation in the bin. The fine mate- rial (up to 10 m m ) splits in direct proportion to the overall mass flows.254 R P KING of each unit must be supplied to the simulator. models were required for the segregating action of the 1000-ton coarse ore bin. 1973. The size distribution of the products of breakage is described by a breakage function B (x.y) which is defined to be the fraction of daughter particles smaller than size x that re- sult from the breakage of particles on size y. Material that is crushed. Thus the function C(x) is the fraction of material of size x that will be crushed during a nip. The model used for the cone crushers is based on the well-known classifi- cation and breakage-zone developed by Whiten at the Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre (Whiten. The recovery to the west side decreased by 7.

= 0. (1979) and Karra (1982) have found a linear dependence between those variables.518 short-head and: n2 = 4. dl represents the smallest size that the crusher can nip and therefore break.5 for the short-head cone crushers used in the tertiary and quaternary stages. Careful ex- perimentation by Whiten et al. and 3.y) = G(x/y) "l + ( 1 . (1979) has revealed a weak inverse depen- dence of dE on the feed rate to the crusher. 2 are also machine-specific.475 short-head The parameter G represents the fractional production of fines from single- particle breakage events within the crusher.7 for the standard cone crushers used as secondaries.5 standard = 2. 1.SIMULATION OF CRUSHER CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROBLEMS 255 and: B(x. while d2 represents the largest particle that can pass through the crusher during the fully open part of the cycle. We have accordingly modelled dl and dE by: dl =0. MODSIM does not offer an automatic parameter estimation mode although its companion pro- gram MICROSIMI~ does The values used are given below: .653 CSS (3) dE = a CSS (4) The value of a was found to vary with crusher type.5 standard = 0. being close to 1. (1979) for the standard cone crusher and by Karra ( 1982 ) for the short-head crusher. Values of a and G were found for each crusher in the circuit to match the measured size distributions in the streams that were sampled. Whiten et al. The value of this parameter is assumed to be a function of the machine type and of the ore. dl and dE are affected largely by the closed-side setting of the machine. No special pa- rameter estimation procedures were used. The parameters were simply varied until a good fit was obtained with the measured data. and n = 3 for the short-head crushers. The parameters in the breakage function eq.G ) ( x / y ) n2 (2) The parameters in these functions must be related to the way the crusher is set up. n l and n2 were fixed at the values suggested by Whiten et al. A value of n = 1 was used for the standard cone crushers. but is assumed to be independent of the crusher setting. In eq. but our data were not sufficiently comprehensive to reveals this effect. Thus: n.

... _==. s=. ...5 Quaternary crushers G = 0. Karra was able to establish the parameters in the model using the accumulated experience of screen performance available within his company.. This is a predictive model of screen behaviour and is based on the conventional description of screening behaviour through a set of capacity factors which depend on the tonnage and size distributions of the material fed to the screen and on the nature of the screen itself.... .. The model is considered to be robust and reliable and is "'0 ..~. a=3.<. . The model used to describe the operation of the screens in the plant was adapted from a model described by Karra ( 1979 )... .S l P i l i 1 I / 0 ...~/ < __ > .. .5 These parameters are entirely reasonable. . and the crusher model used can be regarded as reliable.32....' .... l i</®/li. Consequently. .32..... -='=''. .+.7 1 I " X t ~ i ~ .. .." ~.... & ~ ~s~'eu a "] ~ ~Sl:rieu 3 i I0 E] .~ .. st. . .8 East G=0.... .s ~> ~ _ _ s l ..* .... .... . 4 . * e:~ v .-/" ..... .. . / '" /Z/ l ' Z D'/ 1 ° '° ~. a = 1.. 1. ...... The stream numbers correspond to those in Fig.. . I iO tOO tO00 Particle size mms Fig. Karra's model can be related directly to well-established industrial practice..~" + ...... .. The agreement can be considered to be very satisfactory. KING Secondary crushers West G = 0. .......P. and the correspondence between the predicted size distributions and those measured can be seen in Fig... 2.. I 20 ~ t . a=l. Simulated and measured size distributions in several streams in the plant. ... The model can be evaluated using well- understood procedures... . /' ~v..20../... The size distributions that were measured during the plant audit are shown by means of the plotted symbols. . a = 3.6 Tertiary crushers G=0. Karra's model is based on considerable operating data and was developed to provide a description of screening behaviour that is as close as possible to conventional industrial practice for the design and assessment of screening performance.//...15. The correspondence between the measured and simulated size distributions is good. ..~.. z.. 2.. ::::: 4 o 4o = c_ ..256 R. ~ p / ' o~...

975(1 . He defines an additional near-size capacity factor Gc and calculates it from X. MODSIM supplies all information about the feed for every screen in the circuit. and ma- terial bulk density (factor F). Thus Karra's model can be selected for use in a MODSIM simu- lation only if the physical characteristics of the screen have been completely specified. This basic factor is increased or decreased depending on the nature of the feed and conditions on the screen. B . G ¢ X screen area A screen will be well designed to handle its duty in the circuit if Th is approx- imately equal to the quantity of undersize in the feed. These formulas re- late the factors to the physical characteristics of the screen and to the nature of the feed. In practice. D . and those aspects of the model that can be specially exploited by MODSIM are highlighted. Thus the model makes use of an index that defines the duty of the screen in its position in the flowsheet. which defines the tonnage of un- dersize that a particular screen can transmit per unit screen surface area. A. the check location (factor D). C .SIMULATION OF CRUSHER CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROBLEMS 2 57 used in MODSIM without change. F . and these are programmed into the MODSIM screen model. The model is based on the well-known procedure for assessing the capacity of a vibrating screen through the basic capacity factor. This effect is described by . A brief description of the model is given here.1--~/ (6) where Xn is the percentage of near-size material in the feed. Gc =0. This index which Karra designates as K is de- fined as: tons of undersize in the feed/unit area of screen K. not all of the undersize is transmitted because of various phys- ical factors that impair the efficiency of the screen. It was found to be entirely satisfactory for the present study and was very effective in allowing a useful characterization of the behaviour of the screens in the Rossing circuit. ABCDED (5) Karra gives formulas for the calculation of each of the factors A to F. Thus the theoret- ical amount of undersize that can be transmitted by the screen is given by: T h = A . ~o51. These factors all have a value of unity at the nominal standard operating condition and move down or up as the screen duty becomes more or less arduous. A number of capacity factors allow for the amount of oversize in the feed (factor B). Karra has found that the capacity of a screen is reduced if there is a consid- erable quantity of near-size material in the feed. the amount of half-size in the feed (factor C). E . wet or dry screening (factor E).

693 (d/dso) 5. His formula for the calculation of capacity A is based on industrial light-medium woven wire mesh. Several standard functional forms are available to describe this effect.K 0"148 (9) A further refinement must be added to Karra's model before it can be used as a general simulation model for operating screens. Values of dso smaller than the screen mesh size will lead to low efficiencies. the actual oper- ating efficiency can be calculated from: Simulated efficiency = tonnage in underflow tonnage of undersize in feed The effective utilization of the screen area can be calculated from: Area utilization factor = A U F tonnage of undersize in feed . the screen partition function.exp [ ( . In particular. A must be adjusted in proportion to the open area. For other screen cloths and surfaces. The throughfall aperture is in turn related to the actual mesh size. h. This performance can be compared with the design capacity of the screen and the screen performance evaluated. Karra's analysis of experimental data from an extensive test program pro- duced the following relationship for the prediction of dso: dso Gc hv . Karra makes no allow- ance for the percent open area of the screen cloth used. and Karra uses the function: Partition factor = 1 . and values ofdso greater than the mesh size give high efficiencies.5 (with h in meters) (10) Thus capacity A must be adjusted to: A X actual % open area OA The model provides a simulation of the actual performance of the screen in the circuit. The percent open area for light-medium wire mesh is related to the mesh size h by: OA=21. and dw is the wire diameter.0.258 kp KIN(. The actual dso achieved will depend primarily on the effective throughfall aperture of the wire mesh used on the screen.9 ] (7 ) The parameter that will determine the screening efficiency is dso. by: h-r = ( h+ dw )cosO-dw (8) where 0 is the inclination angle of the screen.5 logl0h+ 101.theoretical ability of the screen to pass undersize .

. 100 "/7 ~ ' "/'® 90 .l 390 235 158 34 47 No. 2 396 235 148 80 42 . A U F ~< 1 indicates that the screen is underloaded. The simulated and measured size distributions in the overflow streams from the top deck of a tertiary screen (stream 10) the lower deck of a tertiary screen (stream 17 ) and the overflow from the quaternary screens... ao /l / 20 // /° A -. ... . TABLE IV Simulated ~rformance of crushers in the existing flowsheet Unit Design Simulated Installed Measured Simulated tonnage tonnage net power net power net power (kW) (kW) (kW) Secondary crushers: West 1000 1069 171 126 130 East 1000 935 158 136 167 Te~iarycrushers: Westl 445 354 151 108 102 West2 440 354 108 113 Eastl 464 289 145 86 76 East2 450 289 96 84 Quaternarycrushers: No. ~_ __.. __Strsam 40 • / O . 50 i~ L 4o i/° ~...// / 80 /I i 70 i1°i ° i m 60 A // /o O. __Stream 17 _____Streallt t0 o® / ¢ . 3....4. while A U F >I 1 indicates that the screen is overloaded. 0 10 100 tO00 Particle size mms Fig..SIMULATIONOF CRUSHERCIRCUITPROCESSINGPROBLEMS 259 An A U F equal to unity indicates that the screen capacity is exactly balanced to the required duty.

260 RP./'so the 80% passing size in the product from the crusher and Fso the ~ passing size in the feed to the crusher.8 95.4 mm against the measured value of 10.7 1. The summarized simulator data in Tables IV and V identify the important operating characteristics immediately.0 1.94 A particular advantage of the Karra screen model is that no free parameters are required to be estimated from operating data.9 82. 3.8 1.8 0. With the exception of the overflow from the lower deck of the second- ary screens. A summary of the simulated behaviour of all of the units in the flowsheet is given in Tables IV and V.0 1.40 lower deck 293 179 12. The power drawn by each crusher was calculated by the simulator using the known impact work index of the ore (9kWh/ton) using formula: Power= TW. ( 1 IP~so . The simulation of the existing flowsheet pre- dicted an 80% passing size of 10.1 IF~so) where T= tonnage handled by the crusher.04 Quaternary screens 293 214 15.8 86.5 mm.60 lower deck 317 180 12.6 84.4 94. ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING FLOWSHEET OPERATION The models used for the crushers and screens in the simulation required very little tuning to achieve a very good match between the simulator output and the observed behaviour of the plant. The adequacy of the model for the screens in the Rossing plant can be judged by comparing the measured and predicted size distributions in the screen overflow streams as shown in Fig. The models provide he necessary information that is required to diagnose the plant bottlenecks and to suggest modifications to enable the plant to meet its operating objective of 80% pass- ing 7 mm in the final product. KING TABLE V Simulated performance of screens in the existing flowsheet Unit Simulated Simulated Calculated Simulated Area tonnage tonnage to dso efficiency utilization (tons/h) underflow (mm) (%) factor (tons/h) Tertiary screens: West top deck 534 317 34.14 East top deck 468 293 35. IV~the impact work index. It is evident from Table IV that all the crushers in . the agreement is remarkably good.

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT Strategy A. particularly on the upper decks. The plant feed on the coarse ore reclaim conveyor has a large quantity of fine material with aproximately 50% smaller than the closed-side setting of the secondary crushers. the simulated efficiency is quite high. However. The sec- ondary crushers are working just within capacity. Screening efficiencies are relatively low.5 m m and 15. All of this material must be handled by the secondary crushers and the tertiary screens before leaving the plant in the tertiary screen underflow. the tertiaries on the east side at about 65% of capacity. Install secondary screens ahead of the secondary crushers to remove final product-size material before it enters the crusher circuit and uti- lize the released crushing and screening capacity to produce a finer product. and the qua- ternary screens and quaternary crushers become overloaded.4 on the top decks and this indicates that the screens are being required to transmit 60% more material than their design capacity. The latter condition increases the circulating load from 37% to 89%. Table V shows that the tertiary screens are overloaded. and that would be consistent with the sim- ulated overloaded conditions. but in spite of this. and the pertinent data are summarized in Table VI in lines 1. the measured size distribution of the lower deck overflow. Strategy A The circulating load in the quaternary circuit is increased if the mesh size of the quaternary screens is decreased. The calculated area utilization factors are 1. This effect is shown by the simulator. Even modest increases in the circulat- ing load lead to an overload condition on the quaternary screens. All material that leaves in the tertiary screen underflow reduces the load on the tertiary crushers and the quaternary circuit. The calculated load on the quaternary circuit was found to be 1286 tons/h with a circulating load of 37%. The reason for the overloading of the front end of the circuit is not difficult to see.SIMULATION OF CRUSHER CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROBLEMS 261 the plant are operating at or within their installed design capacity. indicates some carry over of undersize material. 2 and 3. The lower decks are operating in a slightly overloaded condition. 3. It is necessary . Two strategies for the improvement of plant performance immediately sug- gest themselves. as shown in Fig. for simulations of the existing flowsheet with the qua- ternary screen mesh reduced from 20 m m to 17. Strategy B. Increase the circulating load in the quaternary circuit and uti- lize the existing quaternary screening and crushing capacity more effectively to produce a fine product.6 and 1.2 ram.

to reduce the closed-side setting of the quaternary crushers ot keep the qua- ternary circuit in balance. The settings chosen for each unit in the modified plant are summarized in Table VII.13 m are re- quired.7.5 40 72 No overloads 6 15.6 56 68 Screens are overloaded 3 15. These screens remove product-size mate- rial.262 R P KIN(I "FABLE VI Simulation of effect of finer crushing in the quaternary circuit Simulation Quaternary Quaternary Circulating % . MODSIM provides detailed operating information on the operation of the screens so that it is easy to select screens appropriate to the duty to be per- formed. a further two screens can be installed in the quaternary circuit. .5 8. allowing the secondary crusher to be set finer.6 37 63 2 17.17 and 8.4 mm is produced by the circuit. The apertures were chosen to balance the load on each deck so that the AUF is approximately equal to 1. so that a product having 75%~< 7. In this case two pairs o f double-deck screens 6. 4. and the simu- lator confirmed that no unit was overloaded in the circuit.4 mm can be produced without additional screening capacity in the quaternary circuit.5 45 74 No overloads. the apertures and other information are specified in Table VII.17 and 8.1 m × 2.17 and 8.0 for each.5 28 66 Screens are overloaded 5 17 6. Strategy B A modified circuit having additional secondary screening capacity installed is shown in the flowsheet in Fig.1 20 8. The addition of the secondary screens reduced the load on the quaternary circuit from 1286 to 1186 tons/h.2 6.6 89 74 Screens and crushers are overloaded 4 20 6. Quaternary screens increased from 6 to 8 *~Existing flowsheet base case.5 48 75 Screens are overloaded 7 15.2 8.2 6. screen crusher CSS load mm in final aperture (ram) (%) product (mm) 1. and the effect of this can be seen in rows 4. To relieve the overload on the quaternary screens.41 Comments Nr. and a product having 74% of material ~<7. 5 and 6 of Table VI.

7. .~ e'~ O O *-' aa~ ¢a"~ o b- .SIMULATION OF CRUSHER CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROBLEMS 263 'X~ 0¢ .

1 3 m 18 ° inclination Lower deck: 1 2 . 1 3 m 18 ° inclination Lower deck: 1 6 .46 m × 2. Improved . The introduction of additional secondary screens has apparently very little poten- tial for increasing the capacity of the plant. 1 3 m 18 ° inclination Secondary 7-ft standard Symons cone Closed-side setting: 35 m m crushers crushers Tertiary D o u b l e . It is necessary to utilize both screening and crusher capacity in this section of the plant in an optimal fashion to achieve the best product.2-mm square opening screens 1 0 .m m ribs 6.h e a d Closed-side setting: 6.m m ribs 5.1 m X 2 . The reduction in load on the qua- ternary circuit from 1286 to 1186 tons/h cannot be regarded as a very attrac- tive incentive for the introduction of four large double-deck screens.5 m m crushers DISCUSSION The main observation to be made from the simulations is that the product size distribution is determined primarily by the set-up of the quaternary crushing circuit.m m square opening 1 2 .1 m x 2 .0 m 18 ° inclination Quaternary 7-ft s h o r t . 1 3 m 18 o inclination Tertiary 7-fi short-head Closed-side setting: 8 m m crushers Quaternary 6b'ingle-deck polyurethane 15.1 m × 2 . 3 .m m square opening 8 .m m ribs 6.m m square opening screens 1 0 .d e c k polyurethane Topdeck: 1 5 .1 m X 2 .264 RIL KING T A B L E VII Settings o f operating p a r a m e t e r s in m o d i f i e d flowsheet Unit Type Secondary Double-deck polyurethane Topdeck: 7 0 . The simulations indicate that this can be done by appropriate choice of mesh size on the quaternary screens and settings in the quaternary crushers.m m ribs 6.m m ribs 6.m m square opening screens 5 0 .

pp. The Fine Crushing Circuit of Rossing Uranium Ltd. Toronto.P. 167-171. 262 pp. Application of Computers and Mathematics in the Mineral Industries. 2. N. p. REFERENCES Karra. April 1979.. The expert assistance and co-operation o f these companies is greatly appreciated. Society of Mining Engineers. R.. V. Society of Mining Engineers. New York. University of the Witwatersrand. V. Rept.. Design and Installation of Comminution Circuits. 167-178. 66 pp. 1987.K. GEN/2/83. 1987c. which is very voluminous. APCOM 87. N. 77 pp. Simulation of the Ex- isting Flowsheet. 811-825. Karra.. GEN?l/86. Mu- lar and G..Y. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The opportunity to participate in this important plant study was made pos- sible by Rossing U r a n i u m and by Nordberg Manufacturing Company. A User's Guide to MODSIM. Johannesburg. 1979.K. The Fine Crushing Circuit of Rossing Uranium Ltd. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Minerals Industry. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. 1989. A process performance model for cone crushers. Johannesburg. Magerowski. Stange Wayne. GEN/13/87. Balancing and Simulation of Ore Dressing Plant Flowsheets. Rept. CIM Bull. 288. 21st Int. Johannesburg. King. University of the Witwatersrand. 1982. Development of a model for predicting the screening performance of a vi- brating screen. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. University of the Witwatersrand. and Karra. Mining Congr.. King.. Johannesburg..1-6.. MODSIM: A Modular Method for the Design. 1987b. Department of Metallurgy and Materials En- gineering.P. Rept. A complete set o f data from the study is available in King..P. Continuing development of modelling and simulation techniques has been made possible by a grant from the Foundation for Research Development.. 14th Int. 1982. Johannesburg. Jorgensen (Editors). In: A. Strategies for more flexible sequential-modular simulation. pp.L. 1987b and c. University of the Witwatersrand. Simulation of Modified Flowsheets. Symp. Weiss (Editor). King. Symp.Y. A. Proc. SAIMM. Vol. Proc. Crushing flowsheet simulation: increased productivity and improved flow- sheet design. V. O'Bryan.K.P. R. III: 6. R. Computer-aided crushing circuit design. R. 262 pp.SIMULATION OF CRUSHER CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROBLEMS 265 plant operation should be sought first by exploiting the capacity o f the qua- ternary circuit to the greatest possible extent before additional secondary screening capacity can be considered. 20th Int.. In: A. 1987a. GEN/8/87. King. 1986. K.J. Proc. Space does not permit a comprehensive presentation o f all the data ob- tained from M O D S I M .. .14. Rept.V. pp. New York.