boiler turbine emergency

1. 1. BOILER TRIP A “boiler trip’ command stops all fuel inputs by
tripping all of the pulverizers and feeders and closing all heavy oil
nozzle valves on all elevations. There are two separate “boiler trip”
commands in this unit. Both “no boiler trip” command signals must
be established before a furnace purge cycle can be initiated. A
“boiler trip” command will establish a “master fuel trip” memory
signal. This is indicated by the (red) “ MFT TRIP” light being on and
the (green) “MFT RESET” light being off. When a “master fuel trip”
memory signals established (red, “MFT TRIP” light is on), The
following events occur: 1. The (red) “MFT A TRIP” and MFT B TRIP”
lights come on and the associated (green) “MFTA RESET” and
“MFT B RESET” lights go off. 2. The Data Logger receives a “MFT A
TRIPPED” AND MFT B TRIPPED” SIGNALS.

2. 2. 3. The “boiler load greater than 30 %” memory signal is removed.
When the “master fuel trip” memory signal is established (red, “MFT
A TRIP” or MFT B TRIP” LIGHT IS ON), the following events occur:
4. Both of the (red ) “BOILER TRIP” light come on and the “PUSH
TO PURGE” AND “PURGING” light are “armed”. 5. The PULV
MODE (green) “MANUAL” light comes on, if it was off. 6. All
pulverizers are tripped as indicated by the PULV START PERMITS
(white) “NO PULV TRIP” lights going off. 7. A five minute counting
period is started. Five minutes latter, all cold air dampers are opened

The unit critical power is available for more than six seconds AND B. 18.A.) fans are tripped. 3. The “loss of fuel trip arming” signal is established. When the thirty second counting period expires.The “permit to start P. 17. the “feed forward to furnace draft control” signal is removed. 12. The primary air (P. A five second counting period is started. 4. The “oil elevation trip” memory signal is established at all oil elevations. The heavy fuel oil trip valve can then be reopened after all heavy fuel oil nozzle valves are closed and the heavy fuel oil recirculation valve is opened. The CAUSE OF TRIP memories cannot be reset. The auxiliary air control is transferred to MANUAL control and all auxiliary air dampers are opened. item “B” is no longer required to keep this signal established.A. the “loss of fuel trip arming” signal is removed. 10. 13. If all heavy fuel oil nozzle valves are not closed. Thirty seconds later. the heavy fuel oil trip valve is closed. The upper and lower fuel air dampers are opened. the furnace pressure Recorder will remain at the higher speed if a “high furnace pressure alarm” or a “low furnace pressure alarm” signal is . Five seconds later. 3. The “feed forward to furnace draft control” signal is established for thirty seconds if the following conditions are satisfied: A. 14. When this signal is established. to the “100 % pulverizer air flow position”. The furnace pressure recorder changes to a higher speed for thirty seconds. 4. 8. 9. fans” signal is removed. 11. 15. 16. All feeders are shutdown.

D. 32. The air flow is less than 30 % before the boiler load exceeds 30 %. 34. A “boiler trip signal is established if any of the following conditions exist: 19. 25 All boiler feed pumps are off. (Forced Draft) fans are off. “Inadequate water wall circulation” signal exists. At least two of the three pressure switches indicate a “high furnace pressure trip” condition. Both BOILER TRIP (emergency) push buttons are depressed simultaneously. (Induced Draft) fans are off. established. 20 Loss of customer’s 220 VDC Battery power for more than 2 ) seconds. 26. Note : The “loss of fuel trip” signal becomes “armed” when the first oil elevation that is placed in service has at least three of the four heavy oil nozzle valves proven fully open (OIL VALVE COR (green) “CLOSED” lights are off). 21. All I. the furnace pressure recorder reverts to its original speed. 24. 22. Loss of ACS power for more than two seconds. 33. A “simulator trip” signal exists. ALL F. At least two of the three pressure switches indicate a “low furnace pressure trip” condition. . 5. The water drum level is high” for more than ten seconds. 23. All feeders are off and loss of power exists at the elevation that is in service. 27. 31. Loss of unit critical power for more than two seconds. The deaerator level is “low-low”. When both of these signals do not exist for more than thirty seconds. 35. 5. The recorder will revert to the higher speed if either of these signals are established. 30.D. 29. The water drum level is “low” for more than ten seconds. A loss of reheat protection occurs. 28. 36 A “loss of fuel trip” signal is established (see Note below).

This condition exists for more than two seconds AND At all four oil elevations all oil nozzle valves are closed or an “elevation trip” signal is established at the associated oil elevation. AND The heavy fuel oil trip valve is not fully open AND At all four oil elevations. this signal is removed. all oil nozzle valves are closed. After the “loss of fuel trip” signal is “armed”. 37. the “fireball” flame scanners do not take part in the overall flame failure protection systems. The Data Logger’s “LOSS OF ALL FUEL TRIP” signal will remain established if item B above is satisfied. B. When the “master fuel trip” memory signal exists for more than five seconds the “loss of fuel trip arming” memory signal is removed. When any feeder is “proven” for more than two seconds. A “unit flame failure” signal is established (see Note below). 7. the feeder is off or loss of elevation power exists. This condition exists for more than two seconds. At all coal elevation. 7. the system automatically changes from . The “loss of fuel trip” signal is proven established when the Data Logger receives a “LOSS OF ALL FUEL TRIP” signal. At all coal elevations.6. a “loss of fuel trip” signal will be established if all of the following conditions occur simultaneously: A. NOTE : During light off and before any feeder is “proven” for more than two seconds. 6. the feeder is off or loss of elevation power exists. When the heavy oil trip valve is proven fully open (for oil recalculation).

This condition exists for more than two seconds. OR 2. This signal causes a “master fuel trip” memory signal to be established (both (red) “BOILER TRIP” lights come on). After this light is on. less than three of the four heavy fuel oil nozzle valves are fully open or fuel flow is not adequate at the associated oil nozzle valve or elevation AB power is not available for more than two seconds and less than two of the four “fireball” flame scanners indicate flame on elevation “AB” OR . After any feeder is “proven” for more than two seconds. the associated UNIT FLAME FAILURE (amber) light comes on at the associated fireball flame scanner elevation. At elevation AB. Listed below are the conditions that will cause this (amber)light to be illuminated for the various fireball flame scanner elevations. Feeder A is off or loss of elevation A power and Feeder B is off or loss of elevation B power. the UNIT FLAME FAILURE (amber) “ARMED” light comes on. Elevation “AB”: 1. a “unit flame failure “signal is established when all five UNIT FLAME FAILURE (amber) “GH” and “FG” and “DF” and “BC” and “AB” lights are all on simultaneously. This is indicated when the Data Logger receives a “FLAME FAILURE TRIP” signal. The system is designed to initiate a “boiler trip” when any feeder is “proven for more than two seconds and all five fireball flame scanner elevations vote “no flame” simultaneously. 8. When each fireball flame scanner elevation votes “no flame”. flame failure protection of an individual fuel nozzle to a “FIREBALL” supervision of the furnace. 8.

9. 2. 2. Feeder G is off or loss of elevation G power and Feeder H is off or loss of elevation H power. Less than two of the four “fireball” flame scanners indicate flame on elevation “DE”. This condition exists for more than two seconds. 3. 2. OR 2. Feeder D is off or loss of elevation D power and Feeder E is off or loss of elevation E power. Elevation “FG”: 1. Less than two of the four “fireball” flame scanners indicate flame on elevation “FG”. Elevation “DE”: 1. At elevation GH. 3. Less than two of the four “fireball” flame scanners indicate flame on elevation “BC”. Elevation “GH”: 1. This condition exists for more than two seconds. Feeder B is off or loss of elevation B power and Feeder C is off or loss of elevation C power. any heavy fuel oil nozzle valve is not closed or elevation GH power is not available for more than two seconds. less than three of the four heavy fuel oil nozzle valves are fully open or fuel flow is not adequate at the associated oil nozzle valve or elevation GH power is . This condition exists for more than two seconds. 9.At elevation AB.10. Feeder F is off or loss of elevation F power and Feeder G is off or loss of elevation G power. Elevation BC: 1. 10. This condition exists for more than two seconds. One elevation GH. less than three of the four heavy fuel oil nozzle valves are fully open or fuel flow is not adequate at the associated oil nozzle valve or elevation AB power is not available for more than two seconds and any elevation AB heavy fuel oil nozzle valve is not closed or elevation AB power is not available for more than 2 seconds.

During the Furnace Purge Cycle. When the furnace purge cycle is successfully completed (PURGE CYCLE (yellow) “PURGE COMPLETE” light is on) and a “ no master fuel trip” memory signal is established (both (red) “BOILER TRIP” lights are off). All heavy fuel oil nozzle valves are closed C. The Data Logger will also receive a corresponding signal. CAUSE OF TRIP SYSTEM A “Cause of Trip” system has been incorporated which allows the Operator to determine the cause of a master fuel trip which was initiated by a boiler trip command.12. The first boiler trip command that causes a master fuel trip (both (red) “BOILER TRIP” lights come on). will illuminate the appropriate indicator in the CAUSE OF TRIP section on the console insert. POST PURGE EXCURSION PROTECTION A post purge excursion circuit has been designed into the Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System. all CAUSE OF TRIP memories are reset and there are no illuminated indicators.11. not available for more than two seconds and less than two of the four “fireball” flame scanners indicate flame on elevation “GH” OR 11. There will be only one indicator that is illuminated. 3. At elevation GH. The boiler trip commands that can cause a “master fuel trip” memory signal to be established . the following conditions are satisfied: A. Any successive boiler trip commands to the other indicators are blocked. The mode permit is satisfied B. The heavy fuel oil . It operates as described below: 1. less than three of the four heavy fuel oil nozzle valves are fully open or fuel flow is not adequate at the associated oil nozzle valve or elevation GH power is not available for more than two seconds and any elevation GH heavy fuel oil nozzle valve is not closed or elevation GH power is not available for more than 2 seconds. 12.

a five second counting period is started. When the heavy oil trip valve is moved form the closed position (for oil recalculation). The “open upper fuel air dampers” memory signal is removed.14. Simultaneously. This is indicated when the Data Logger receives a “FURNACE PRESSURE HIGH” or a “FURNACE PRESSURE LOW” signal. closing the upper fuel air dampers. After the five minute counting period expires. and F. B. the “open lower fuel air dampers” memory signal is removed. a five minute counting period is started. a thirty second counting period is started. 2. the “post purge time expired” memory signal is removed which will now prevent the “post purge fan trip” signal from being established. . When any heavy fuel oil elevation has at least three of the four oil nozzle valves fully open.13. Simultaneously. the auxiliary air dampers are now released from manual to the auxiliary air control system and the “open auxiliary air dampers” signal is removed. the following events will occur: A. the five minute counting period is reset. All pulverizers are off E. 14. A “post purge time expired” memory signal is established and a “post purge fan trip” signal is established if a “high or low furnace pressure trip” signal is established. The “post purge fan trip” signal is proven established if the Data Logger receives “POST PURGE FAN TRIP” signal. Air flow is greater than 30 % 13. closing the lower fuel air dampers. When all of these conditions are satisfied simultaneously. All flame scanners (discriminating and fireball) indicate no flame G. When the five second counting period expires. trip valve is closed. D.D. fans are tripped.D. All feeders are off F. If this signal is established. When the thirty second counting period expires. the I.

Reheater Protection Trip 16. The accumulated fuel is ignited resulting in a greater than normal pressure increase. c) If the fuel is not burning as rapidly as rapidly as it is entering the furnace.16. 3. explosions can occur. Boiler Implosions 3. Low Water Level 4. Boiler Tube Leaks 6. Boiler Emergencies Procedures during the following emergency conditions 1. 17. 4. b. Boiler Emergencies Emergency boiler procedures : A) Boiler explosions a. Furnace explosions can be caused by an accumulation of unburned fuel in the furnace due to incomplete combustion. Boiler Explosions 2. If the fires are lost. Master Fuel Trip 7. or fuel valve leakage. With a mixture of unburned fuel with air in explosive proportions. loss of ignition.17. Causes 1. if difficulty is experienced in establishing ignition. 2) Be sure that the main fuel and ignition fuel inlet valves on idle fuel compartments or burners are closed tightly and do not leak. High Water Level 5. 3) Watch the fires so that the fuel may be shut off without delay if extinguished unexpectedly. Boiler Emergencies b) If the fires are extinguished and the if the fuel is not shutoff promptly.15. to avoid dripping. It is advisable to remove idle oil guns from the guide pipes. The fuel may enter the furnace in the unburned state in a number of ways. 2. d) In starting up. trip all main and ignition fuel immediately.15. Prevention 1) During start- ups maintain a high air flow (up to 30% of full load air flow) to ensure an air rich furnace atmosphere and prevent accumulation of explosive mixtures. for instance: a) Through leaky main fuel or ignition fuel inlet valves on idle wind box/burner compartments. and the application of heat sufficient enough to raise the temperature of the mixture to the ignition point. Close all trip and fuel .

Causes 1) Tripping or sudden loss of fuel results in mass temperature reduction resulting in rapid decrease in furnace pressure. 19. Be sure that the warm up fuel firing rate is high enough to produce a flame not easily extinguished. 3) Failure of fan controls. Action 1) Compare indication. 20.19. Purge the furnace at least for 5 minutes after shut down with 30% (minimum) air flow. 4) Further prevention of implosion can be accomplished by keeping protective control systems in proper working order and well tuned.18. Low Water Level a. Tube leaks b. trips) B) Boiler Implosions : Destructive negative pressure. Boiler Emergencies. due to failure of the feed water supply or neglect of the operator. b. 2) Rapid evacuation of heated gases by ID fans. purge the furnace before putting igniters in service. 6) Regularly check proper function of FSSS or BMS (interlocks. Prevention 1) The air flow to the furnace must be maintained at its pre trip value and must not be prevented from increasing by following natural fan curves. except in cases of momentary fluctuations . 3) If the removal of fuel from the furnace can be over a 5 to 10 seconds period (rather than instantaneously) there will be a reduction in the magnitude of a furnace pressure excursion that follows a unit trip. a. Boiler Emergencies – water levels 2) The flow of combustion products from a furnace must be reduced as quickly as possible following a unit trip.20. but positive control action to increase air flow is not allowed.water levels 2) If the water level falls out of sight in the water gauge. Causes 1. BFP failure 3. C. Boiler Emergencies 4) When a boiler has been idle. shut off valves. 5)Always use an associated igniter to light off a main oil or gas nozzle. 18. Control failure 2.

) c) Simultaneously. b) Shut off all steam discharged from the unit( trip turbine. If the water . Any decision to continue to operate. reduce the air flow. As the boiler cools. even if only for a short time at a reduced rating. D. 21. Drain the boiler when the drum metal temperature is 93C. that might occur with extraordinary changes in load. Shut down the fans as soon as the unit is cool enough for a man to enter. High Water Level :Water impingement may cause turbine damage. The feed water regulating valve should be closed completely when all the steam flow from the unit has ceased. Determine the cause of low water and examine the boiler for the effects of possible overheating such as leaks and distortion of pressure parts. appropriate action should be taken at once to trip the fuel. In the absence of such a decision : a) Trip all fuel immediately. steam driven auxiliaries etc. This will avoid quenching of hot pressure parts with relatively cold water. reduce the main steam pressure gradually by opening the super heater startup drain. Action 1) Abnormally high water level should be avoided as it may lead to carryover and even priming.75 bar. a. if feed water has become available and the operator is assured that no pressure parts have been damaged. Causes 1) Feedwater control malfunction 2) Operator error b. Open the drum vents when the pressure drops below 1.21. gradually reduce the flow of feed water to the boiler by manual regulation. would have to be made by someone in authority who is thoroughly familiar with the circumstances that led to the emergency and positively certain that the water level can be restored immediately without damaging the boiler. Boiler Emergencies-water levels d) Maintain a high air flow at first to hasten the cooling process. e) If pressure parts damage is suspected.

a tube failure can alter boiler circulation or flow and result in other circuits being overheated. 2) If priming should occur. An investigation of tube failure is very important so that the conditions causing the tube failure can be eliminated and future failures prevented. b) If the water level is abnormally high.22. as indicated by rapid fluctuations in outlet steam temperatures in outlet steam temperature. . the length of time the unit has been in operation. if necessary. if reignition occurs. This information should include the location of the failure. start up and shutdown conditions. reduce the level by opening the intermittent blowdown valves and place feedwater control on manual. By the loss of water or steam. 23. a furnace explosion. and place feedwater control on manual. c) Investigate the water condition (alkalinity and solids) d) Investigate the condition of the drum internals as soon as an opportunity is afforded. proceed as follows: a) Reduce the steaming rate. load conditions. A tube leak can also cause loss of ignition and. b) Reduce the steam rate. In some cases a laboratory analysis or consideration of background information leading up to the tube failure is required. Steam or water escaping from a small leak can cut other tubes by impingement and set up a chain reaction of tube failures. Boiler Emergencies-water levels a) Reduce the water level immediately by opening the intermittent blowdown valves. level rises above rises above the recommended normal operating range proceed as follows 22. The investigation should include a visual inspection of the failed tube. Boiler Emergency-Tube failure Boiler tube failures : Operating a boiler with a known tube leak is not recommended. and feed water treatment.23.

f) If the tube failure results in a loss of water so great that the water level cannot be maintained with the feedwater supply available. 4) Leave the fans in service until pressure is off the unit. Action 1) Furnace tube leaks a) The action taken is dependant on the size and location of the tube leak 1) A large leak may extinguish fire or cause loss of drum level. the water level should be maintained and the unit taken out of service in the normal manner.25. b) If at all possible locate the leak c) In the vent of failure of one or more water carrying tubes. 25. 3) Maintain only enough air flow to carry the escaping steam up the stack. Indications of the tube leaks are 1) Feedwater flow greater than steam flow 2) Excessive desuperheater flow 3) Wetted insulation of water running down casing with no apparent cause.24. Boiler Emergencies-tube leaks 3) A small leak may allow continued operation after considering its consequences on continued operation. d) The following instructions regarding tube failures are of general nature. 2) A medium size leak may force an immediate shut down. Boiler Emergencies-tube leaks 2) Shut off feedwater to the boiler.24. Tube Leaks a. 5) Noise from the boiler (Acoustic noise level indicators) b. g) After the unit has cooled enough to permit a man enter it. use the method outlined below. 1) Trip all fuel 26. . 4) Excessive make up. Boiler Emergencies-tube leaks 5. e) In case of a leak or tube failure which does not involve a serious drain on the feedwater supply. It must be understood that conditions may arise which will require exercise of judgment by the operators.26. the best method of shutting down the unit will be dictated by the size of the failure. the ability to maintain normal water level and the demands for the service of the unit.

Master Fuel Trip a) Under conditions requiring a master fuel trip through normal interlocks or operators action (manual trip). 6. Boiler Emergencies-tube leaks 3) Super heater Tubes a) A small leak in a superheater element should be investigated at the earliest possible time. Any decision to continue operation with leaks should be made this in mind. start the ID and FD fans and purge the furnace for five minutes. and the unit should be shut down in a normal manner. 2) Economizer Tubes a) An economizer tube leak can be detected by sound and/ or increased make up water requirements. Water carried over from economizer tube leak may cause plugging of hoppers and airheaters. The leak should be detected at the earliest possible time and the unit shutdown in the normal manner. Other boiler . 1) Maintain the unit air flow at the pre-trip value for at least 5 minutes to purge the system. Boiler Emergencies-tube leaks 3) If all auxiliary power sources are lost during a trip. b) The following steps should be taken immediately following an emergency fuel trip. b) Water leaks in the economizer can cause considerable erosion damage to the adjacent tubes. Steam leaks in the superheater can cause considerable erosion damage to the adjacent tubes. After the necessary repairs have been made. 28. upon restoration of power. all fuel should be tripped instantaneously. make a thorough inspection of pressure parts for any indication of damage resulting from loss of water level. 27.27. apply a hydrostatic test and obtain the approval of the proper authorities before putting the unit back in service.28. b) A major superheater tube failure may require an emergency unit shutdown. 2) Check to ensure that all the fuel nozzles shut off valves are closed.

Reheat Protection will act. Arming of Reheat Protection -Once HP & LP Bypass are open 2 % and steam flow increases beyond 200T/hr Reheater protection will be armed . Any successive boiler trip commands to the other . 30. BOILER TRIP Causes With the exception of the operator push button trip. following conditions will automatically generate Master Fuel Trip (MFT) • Loss Of All ID Fans •Loss Of All FD Fans •Less Than Two Circulating Pumps Running •Circulating Δp Less Than 0. emergencies Air preheater fires/tripping of APH ( one fan operation) Coal mill explosions ( may lead to boiler trip) Loss of furnace seal Loss of scan supply of any elevation Loss of instrument air Loss of cooling water to scaffold door Bending of long retractable soot blower / furnace probe 29.29.30. Turbine working (control valves >2 %) and Load shedding relay actuated and if HP or LP Bypass opening is < 2 %. delay. If Turbine is not working (HP or IP control valves < 2%) and boiler working (No. Cause of trip system : The first boiler trip command that causes a MFT will illuminate the appropriate indicator in the cause of trip section on the console insert. 3. •Furnace Pressure More Than 330 Mmwc Or Less Than -250 Mmwc •Loss Of All Fuel •Air Flow Less Than 30% •Turbine Trip •Reheater Protection Trip •Unit Flame Failure •Loss Of Unit Logic Power •Emergency Push Button. contact of loss all fuel arming relay from FSSS) and HP or LP Bypass valves < 2 % with a time delay of 5 Sec. 2. Reheater Protection Boiler will trip when any one or more of the following conditions occur : 1. Turbine Tripped or Gen CB open and HP or LP Bypass valves opening < 2% then after 5 sec of Time delay.6 Bar •Drum Level Low-low (-330 mm). Reheat protection will act after 10 sec.

HIGH BEARING VIBRATION ( A 35 mic.T 45mic) 3.3bar) 2.32. HIGH AXIAL SHIFT ( 1.HIGH DRUM LEVELTurbine protections . LOW LUBE PRESSURE( A 4.8 bar. HIGH SHAFT VIBRATION / ECCENTRICITY ( A 120mic. HIGH BEARING METAL TEMPERATURE ( A 90C.FIRE PROTECTION 1 & 2(PUSH BUTTON) 10.T 120C) 4. Turbine protections 1.T 2. electrical trip >3330 rpm) 4. CONTROL OIL PRESSURE( T 3.LP -3/30mm) 5. electrical trip > 0. HIGH/LOW MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE 6.T 200 mic) 2. indicators are blocked. LOW VACUUM ( Hyd trip > 0. MAIN OIL TANK LEVEL LL( fire protection 2) ( 1030 mm from top) 5. C.2 bar) 7.TURBINE REMOTE PUSH BUTTON TRIP 9.BOILER TRIP LEADING TO TURBINE TRIP 11.IP -2/7mm.31. F.5 bar) 8. OVERSPEEDING OF TURBINE ( Mechanical Trip3330 rpm. TURBINE ADVISORY TRIP 1.GENERATOR TRIP LEADING TO TURBINE TRIP 32. TANK LEVEL LL( fire protection 1) ( -115 mm ) 6. There will be only one indicator that will be glowing 31.0 mm) 3. HIGH DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION (HP -3/5mm.3 bar.