# Chapter 1

Data and Statistics

1.1 Using Data to Answer Statistical Questions
1.2 Sample Versus Population
1.3 Using Calculators and Computers

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errors and so on… 2 Copyright © 2013. and 2007. runs. 2 . Pearson Education. Inc. 2009.What is Statistics To baseball fans. a ball player’s statistics is the numbers on the back of their cards. These numbers may be the players’ hits.

. 3 . 2009. Inc. statistics may refers to sale charges or business expenses. and 2007..What is Statistics To business people. 3 Copyright © 2013. or shown graphically using charts or diagrams. Pearson Education. These statistics can be in the form of numbers.

4 . Inc. analyzing the data produced by these studies. Components of Statistics  Design: Planning how to obtain data  Description: Summarizing and analyzing X i the data obtained n  Inference: Making decisions and predictions • Estimation • Hypothesis Testing 4 Copyright © 2013. translating data into knowledge and understanding of the world around us. Pearson Education. 2009.What is Statistics Statistics is the art and science of designing studies. and 2007.

Why is Statistics important?  Health study Does a low-carbohydrate diet result in significant weight loss?  Market analysis Are people more likely to stop at a Starbucks if they’ve seen a recent TV advertisement for their coffee?  Heart health Does regular aspirin intake reduce deaths from heart attacks?  Cancer research Are smokers more likely than non-smokers to develop lung cancer? To search for answers to these questions. Pearson Education. 2009. Inc. we need … Statistics! 5 Copyright © 2013. and 2007. 5 5 .

6 .7% for those taking placebo Can you conclude that it is beneficial for people to take aspirin regularly? Yes ? 6 Copyright © 2013.9% for those taking aspirin • 1. Example: Harvard Medical School study of Aspirin and Heart attacks Study participants were divided into two groups  Group 1: assigned to take aspirin  Group 2: assigned to take a placebo Results: The percentage of each group that had heart attacks during the study: • 0. Inc. and 2007. Pearson Education. 2009.

Population & Sample Population: All subjects of interest Sample: Subset of the population form whom we have data Subjects: The entities (individuals. (the education level for each individual. the average class size for each school. Pearson Education. schools. 7 . rats. countries or days) that we measure in a study.  The information we gather with experiments and surveys is collectively called data. and 2007. 2009.…) 7 Copyright © 2013. Inc.

Pearson Education. Inc. Important! Question: Why consider “Sample”? Sample Population Copyright © 2013. Example: Preferred Car Color The purpose was to discover the typical color of cars that is preferred by Singapore residents. 2009. • We could define the population as Singapore adult residents OR… • The sample of residents we surveyed should be a representative of the population. and 2007. 8 8 .

Summaries consist of graphs and numbers such as averages and percentages. Pearson Education. Inferential statistics refers to methods of making decisions or predictions about a population based on data obtained from a sample of that population. Inc. and 2007. s s 9 Copyright © 2013. 2009. Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics Descriptive Statistics refers to methods for summarizing the collected data. 9 .

Correct? • Or… 10 Copyright © 2013. Inc. and 2007. 2009. Pearson Education. Example: Preferred Car Color Descriptive Statistics • About 42% residents preferred the color “silver” • Pie chart • Or… Inferential statistics • Singapore residents preferred blue cars. 10 .

Based on a Sample of 50.S. 11 Copyright © 2013. Example: Descriptive Statistics Types of U. 11 . Inc.000 Households in the 2005 Current Population Survey. and 2007. Households. Pearson Education. 2009.

Pearson Education.0% of the sampled subjects said they favored controls over the sales of handguns.  In that poll. 2009. Example: Inferential Statistics Suppose we’d like to know what people think about controls over the sales of handguns.  We are 95% confident that the percentage of all adult Floridians favoring control over sales of handguns falls between 50. 12 .4%. Inc.6% and 57. We can study results from a recent poll of 834 Florida residents. 12 Copyright © 2013. 54. and 2007.

Pearson Education. To predict the sample data we will get when we know the population. Class Problem #1 Inferential Statistics are used: 1. To describe whether a sample has more females or males. X 2. X 13 Copyright © 2013. √ 4. 13 . X 3. To reduce a data file to easily understood summaries. and 2007. Inc. 2009. To make predictions about populations using sample data.

Inc. 2009. 14 . Pearson Education. A statistic is a numerical summary of a sample taken from the population. 14 Copyright © 2013. Parameter & Statistic A parameter is a numerical summary of the population. and 2007.

• Measurements may vary from person to person. Randomness is also crucial to performing experiments well Measurements may vary from sample to sample. • Predictions will therefore be more accurate for larger samples. Pearson Education. 2009. and just as people vary. Inc. so do samples vary. 15 . and 2007. 15 Copyright © 2013. Randomness and Variability Random sampling allows us to make powerful inferences about populations.

16 . Using Technology  The problem is that a computer will perform the statistical analysis you request whether or not its use is valid for the given situation. You. not technology. and 2007. Pearson Education. must select valid analyses. Inc. Using Calculators and Computers Using (and Misusing) Statistics Software and Calculators  MINITAB and SPSS are two popular statistical software packages. 16 Copyright © 2013. 2009.

Pearson Education. Before you give credence to such data.  Each column contains measurements for a particular characteristic.  Each row contains measurements for a particular subject. Databases  An existing archive collection of data files. Using Calculators and Computers Data files  Large sets of data are typically organized in a spreadsheet format known as a data file. verify that the data are from a trustworthy source. Inc.  Not all databases give reliable information. 17 Copyright © 2013. 17 . and 2007. 2009.