Experiment No.

3:
To study characteristics of flow over
rectangular notch.

Objective:
1. To calculate values of discharge (Q) experimentally.
2. To calculate coefficient of discharge (Cd) for rectangular notch.
3. To plot graph between QEXP versus H3/2.
4. To plot graph between log QEXP versus log H.
5. To plot graph between QTH versus QEXP.

Apparatus description:
1. Hydraulic Bench
2. U-Notch / Rectangular Notch
3. Scale
4. Stop Watch

Theory:
Notch:
A notch is, usually made of a metallic plate and is used to measure the discharge of
liquids in open channels. They are also known as weirs.
Types of Notches:
There are many types of notches, depending upon their shapes. But the following are
important.
1. Rectangular notch:
It is rectangular or U shaped, also known as U-Notch.

2. Triangular notch:
It is triangular. It is specified by its angle.

Stepped notch: It is made up in shape of steps. It is specified by both width and angle.3. 4. Trapezoidal notch: It is trapezoidal. PAGE 1 . First step has smaller width and second step has more width.

may be found out by integrating the above equation within the limits 0 and H. PAGE 2 . Theoretical Discharge: H = Height of water above sill of notch b = Width or length of the notch Cd = Coefficient of discharge Let us consider a horizontal strip of water of thickness dh at a depth of h from the water level as shown in figure. (2) Discharge through the strip: The total discharge over the whole notch.Discharge over Rectangular Notch: 1. Area of the strip: (1) We know that the theoretical velocity of water through the strip. Experimental Discharge: The actual discharge which takes place during experiment is called as actual discharge or experimental discharge.

Measure the initial height of water in channel “H1”.7251284 9 11 2 5. 2. 9. 7. Now change the discharge by rotating flow control valve.000467 0. 4. Note the increase in volume of water in volumetric tank in specific time.0003389 0. Now close the dump valve.6 cm Theoreti S cal Actual Coefficien No. 12.9 2 48 8 6 PAGE 3 . Switch on the Hydraulic bench.000467 0. 10. Qexp CD= QTH Procedure: 1. the discharge coefficient (also known as coefficient of discharge) is the ratio of the actual discharge to the theoretical discharge. Open the flow control valve.0002857 9 11 2 7 2 48 1 0. ∇∀ exp=¿ t Q¿ Coefficient of discharge: In any discharge measuring device. 3. 8. Observations and Calculations: Width of Notch. First dump valve should remain open. 5. 11. Fix the rectangular Notch in main flow channel. Head Over the Tim Volu Discharg Discharg t of Notch e me e e discharge H1 H2 ∇H t V QTH QEXP Cd cm cm Cm sec Dm3 m3/sec m3/sec 1 0. Now find the new height of water in main flow channel “H2”. 6. b = 5. Now again note change in volume of water in volumetric tank. Find the width of the Notch “b”. Let the flow to become stable.6111797 2 0. It is represented by CD.

codecogs.0003846 9 11 2 5.0003773 0.0003636 0.9 2 48 6 6 8 0.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/notches/rectangular- notch.2 2 48 2 0.5 2 48 4 7 7 0. 3 0.000467 0. www.0004 8 6 0. 2.7778650 9 11 2 5.8 2 48 3 7 5 0.000467 0.000467 0.6385459 9 11 2 6.000467 0.8731138 9 11 2 4. Don’t close the flow control valve completely.000467 0.000467 0.8227419 4 0.com.000467 0.google.0004081 0.3 2 48 6 7 10 0.0003508 0. References: 1.7505715 9 11 2 5.0002985 0.7 2 48 8 6 Graph: Precautions: 1. http://www.0003448 0.8556515 9 11 2 5 2 48 0. 3.7376306 9 11 2 5.000467 0.8072184 9 11 2 5.php 2. Let the flow become stable then take the reading of height.pk PAGE 4 . Keep the safe distance from the apparatus.7 2 48 1 5 9 0.