HRSG Inspection Tasks

Presented By:
Bryan F. Craig, P.E
HRST Inc.

8/10/2009 Columbus, OH AEP / BRO Forum 1

HRSG Inspection
Goals:
1. Document condition of equipment
2. Identify items that need immediate 
maintenance
3. Identify items that need budgeting and 
planning for maintenance next year
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4. Identify problems early, allowing time for  
scrutiny and analysis
5. Due diligence…..show stakeholders you have 
proactive approach.
8/10/2009 Columbus, OH AEP / BRO Forum 2

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HRSG Inspection
Key Elements
1. Dedicated inspectors
• Good inspections take days not hours!
Good inspections take days not hours!
2. Recording observations (facts)
• Photos, measurements, notes
3. Organize facts logically
• Every fact should be accurately linked to a specific location.
4. Measurements at critical areas
• Thickness (UT), Gap distance, crack length
5. Three location types
• Gas Path
• Steam/Water Side
• Exterior
8/10/2009 Columbus, OH AEP / BRO Forum 3

HRSG Inspection
Gas‐Side Inspection Areas
• Access Lanes (inlet duct, firing duct, SCR, 
l
lanes between tube bundles, stack)
b t t b b dl t k)
• Crawl spaces under and above tube 
headers
• Important to document locations clearly for 
future reference
future reference
• Best to prepare in advance, rather than 
identify problem locations “on the fly”

8/10/2009 Columbus, OH AEP / BRO Forum 4

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8/10/2009 Columbus, OH AEP / BRO Forum 5

Gas‐Side Tasks
Inlet Duct Items:*
1 Liner System
1. Liner System
– Loose plates, spinning washers, exposed insulation, 
failed studs.
2. Flow distribution plates or vanes
3. Tubes & Fins
– corrosion warping vibration wear
corrosion, warping, vibration wear
4. Baffles & Tube Ties
– vibration damage, wear, expansion interferences, weld 
cracks.
8/10/2009 Columbus, OH AEP / BRO Forum 6

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OH AEP / BRO Forum 7 Inlet Duct Liner Spinning Washers 8/10/2009 Columbus. Inlet Duct Liner Loose & broken components 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 8 4 .

Inlet Duct Liner Liner Gaps. Exposed Insulation 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 10 5 . OH AEP / BRO Forum 9 Flow Distribution Grid 8/10/2009 Columbus.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 12 6 . Tube Ties Tube & fin wear at tube tie 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 11 Failed Tube Ties 8/10/2009 Columbus.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 13 Reheater upstream of duct burner 8/10/2009 Columbus. Liner System (same as inlet duct. Location of firing duct thermocouples 8/10/2009 Columbus. Tubes & Fins (same as inlet duct. Gas‐Side Tasks Firing Duct Checklist 1. plus) – Evidence of flame impingement or local hotspots Evidence of flame impingement or local hotspots 4. Duct Burner: – Sag in elements or baffles – Nozzle plugging – Coke buildup – Burner “wing” condition 3. plus look for oxidized  components) p ) 2. Baffles & Supports 5. OH AEP / BRO Forum 14 7 .

8/10/2009 Columbus. Burner Baffle Failures Coen baffle weld seam cracks & failures Coen fix for baffle weld seam cracks & failures. OH AEP / BRO Forum 16 8 . OH AEP / BRO Forum 15 8/10/2009 Columbus. some cracking still being found. May not be enough.

Build up has fractured the gas pipe. Carbon Buildup Carbon inside gas pipe. Coking: Usually due to olefins in refinery gas. 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 17 Oxidized Liner Components 8/10/2009 Columbus. Sometimes coking occurs with natural gas due to poor air/fuel mixing at burner. OH AEP / BRO Forum 18 9 .

 warping 3. Liner System (same checks as inlet & firing  y ( g ducts. Local Burner Hotspots 8/10/2009 Columbus. problems less prevalent) 2. Catalyst – Foulingg – Gas bypass around perimeter – Packing between blocks 8/10/2009 Columbus. Baffles & Supports (same as previous) 4. Tubes & Fins: corrosion. OH AEP / BRO Forum 20 10 . OH AEP / BRO Forum 19 Gas‐Side Tasks Tube Bundle Access Lane Checklist: 1.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 22 11 . OH AEP / BRO Forum 21 Tubes & Fins Tube Buckling – Superheaters & Economizers 8/10/2009 Columbus. Tube & Fin Fouling 8/10/2009 Columbus.

Tubes & Fins Cracking – HPSH Tube 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 23 Gas Baffles  Exhaust flow into page Sidewall Baffles Upper Header Center (Laning) Baffles Tubes Lower Header Header (Bulkhead) Baffles 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 24 12 .

OH AEP / BRO Forum 26 13 . Baffle Failures 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 25 Baffle Gaps Decrease Performance 8/10/2009 Columbus.

Catalyst Fouling Catalyst Gas Bypass 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 28 14 .

Gas‐Side Tasks Crawl Space Checklist: 1. Header corrosion 8. Floor debris 3. Baffles 6 Bent piping 6. Liner condition 4. Bent piping 7. Liner fit‐up around piping and hanger  penetrations 5. OH AEP / BRO Forum 29 Spray pattern is a leak indication 15 . Tube/header joint condition (if visible) 8/10/2009 Columbus. Water from tube leaks? 2.

Fin scale debris on crawlspace floor Oxidized carbon steel debris on crawlspace floor 16 .

holes.Accelerated corrosion Roof debris blocks drainage near penetrations. trapping rainwater. OH AEP / BRO Forum 34 17 . probably caused by rain water leaking past penetration seal. 8/10/2009 Columbus.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 36 18 . allows gas bypass. Bulkhead Gas Bypass Hot Exh 8/10/2009 Columbus. 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 35 Gap between baffle and floor is too large. decreasing performance.

Bent Drains Indicate Stress 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 38 19 . Casing hotspots. Access door condition 4 Foundations 4. OH AEP / BRO Forum 37 Exterior Tasks Exterior Inspection Checklist Exterior Inspection Checklist 1. 8/10/2009 Columbus. cracks 2. Piping penetration seals 3.

Look for hot spots. and nearby insulation “fur. bellows are compressed when off line. OH AEP / BRO Forum 39 Penetration Seals Bellows cracks can be difficult to see. Casing Access Doors – Hot Spot 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 40 20 .” 8/10/2009 Columbus. Tight cracks.

8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 42 21 . it took some extra effort to climb up on the roof casing to inspect. OH AEP / BRO Forum 41 HRST Upgraded Pipe Penetration Seal PROBLEM: T Tears in i Fabric F bi Cracks in Bellows Delay box SOLUTION: HRST Pipe Penetration Seals 8/10/2009 Columbus. These bellow cracks were easy to see! However.

Casing Stress & Cracks Expansion Stress Points (Typ) 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 43 Casing Stress & Cracks 22 .

Casing Crack Hotspots 23 .

Drums are often also inspected by the water  chemistry dept and insurance inspector. drawing 6. Mechanical Integrity g y 5. Signs of distress on steam separation  equipment & belly pan 3. Thickness of belly plates and steam  separators 4. 8/10/2009 Columbus. Approximate waterline vs. Debris 8/10/2009 Columbus. Drum surface condition 2. HRSG Inspection Water/Steam‐Side Tasks Steam Drums are the only non‐intrusive access  y to the water/steam side in a modern HRSG. OH AEP / BRO Forum 47 Water/Steam‐Side Inspection Tasks Steam Drum Checklist 1. OH AEP / BRO Forum 48 24 .

 condition. Drum Surface Condition 1. pits) – Color – Red is good in an oxidizing environment – Red is bad in a reducing environment – Condition – Keep track of surface defects from manufacture – Track whether smoothness (roughness) is changing – Pits  Pits – Do you have them?   – What do they look like underneath? 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 49 Oxygen Attack in Steam Drum ‐ Offline 25 . Drum surface details (color.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 52 26 . HP Drum Condition Surface defects in an HP drum from rolling steel 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH  NOT a significant issue AEP / BRO Forum 51 Signs of Distress 2. Signs of distress on steam separation  equipment & belly pan equipment & belly pan – Cracks in the belly pan – Cracks in the final separator corners – Weld seams in the shell and shell to head – Downcomer indications 8/10/2009 Columbus.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 53 HP – Belly Pan Cracks  (or baffle plate) 8/10/2009 Columbus. Signs of Distress Cracks? Baffle Cracks? 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 54 27 .

 etc – Belly Pans – Cyclones (F/W = horizontal. OH AEP / BRO Forum 56 28 . Alstom. OH AEP / BRO Forum 55 Thickness of Belly Pans  and Steam Separation Equipment 3. Aalborg. others = vertical) – N/E and Cerrey – Belly Pans (no cyclones) 8/10/2009 Columbus. Deltak. NEM. UT test – F/W. Downcomer Indications 8/10/2009 Columbus. Vogt.

Ultrasonic Thickness Measurements – Thickness measurements are a useful tool to  document condition of drum internals. phased array 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 58 29 . OH AEP / BRO Forum 57 8/10/2009 Columbus. – Be specific about locations & documentation – Most measurements are simple thickness for  general documentation or to track Flow  Accelerated Corrosion – More sophisticated UT used for crack detection:   h d df kd shear wave. tubes and  . piping.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 59 Belly Pan Thinning – Check here! UT in LP & IP 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 60 30 . Cyclones worn through  from FAC 8/10/2009 Columbus.

Integrity of Internals i f l – Piping – Broken ‘U’ Bolts – Missing nuts – Plugged Chem Feed Lines – Separators – Failure – Plugging – Missing hardware 8/10/2009 Columbus. LP Belly Pan Hole (FAC) 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 62 31 . OH AEP / BRO Forum 61 Mechanical Integrity 4.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 63 HP Drum – Chem Feed Line 8/10/2009 Columbus. HP – Fallen Chem Feed Line U bolt broke off 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 64 32 .

OH AEP / BRO Forum 66 33 . HP Drum – broken cyclone attachment 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 65 Deltak – Perforated Plate Above  Mesh Separator 8/10/2009 Columbus.

Water Line Readings i di – The water line is often falsely reading low due to – proximity of the downcomer or pump suction to the  level transmitters.  The suction effect of those large  lines ‘pulls’ on the level sensing lines. OH AEP / BRO Forum 67 Approximate Water Line  vs. Deltak ‐ Mesh Separator Failure 8/10/2009 Columbus.  – Plugging of the lines is problematic if they are  positioned off the bottom of the shell.   – The number one cause of faulty level indication or  control is calibration or compensation 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 68 34 . Drawing 5.

OH AEP / BRO Forum 70 35 . OH AEP / BRO Forum 69 LP – level transmitter proximity  to pump suction 8/10/2009 Columbus. LP – water level 8/10/2009 Columbus.

bi – Amount – Color – Magnetite vs. Debris in level tap Lower level tap magnetic debris 8/10/2009 Columbus. Powder? 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 71 Debris in Drums 6 Debris 6. OH AEP / BRO Forum 72 36 . Hematite? – Flakes vs.

 between tube  bundles. Debris in drum 8/10/2009 Columbus. SCR. firing duct. SCR. between tube Access Lanes (inlet duct. OH AEP / BRO Forum 74 37 . firing duct. stack) – Crawl spaces under and above tube headers • Exterior – Casing hotspots. cracks – Piping penetration seals – Access door condition – Foundations • Steam/Water Side – Steam Drums are the only non‐intrusive access to the  water/steam side in most HRSGs 8/10/2009 Columbus. OH AEP / BRO Forum 73 Summary • Gas Side  – Access Lanes (inlet duct.

– Common techniques: 1. or Shear Wave) 2. OH AEP / BRO Forum 76 38 . Eddy Current Testing 5. UT tubes and piping beyond spot checks (A Scan. Desuperheater removal & inspection 8. casing cracks. g . P. Tube samples 8/10/2009 Columbus. Piping Assessment 6. Hardness and Replication (P91) 7. OH AEP / BRO Forum 75 Any Questions? Bryan F. HRSG Inspection Further Work • Online or “Hot” Inspection – HRSG inspection while unit is operating – Ideal for finding hotspots.com 813‐855‐4688 (office) 612‐743‐1009 (cell 8/10/2009 Columbus. quantity & severity of cycles and history of issues. bcraig@hrstinc. penetration seal failures g p .  more intrusive inspection techniques may be best to quantify condition. Dye Penetrant or Magnetic particle testing of suspect areas 3. Craig. Conventional and Digital X‐Ray (Radiography) 4.E HRST Inc. Phased Array.p – Can check hot position of spring hangers • “Extended Scope” offline inspection – Depending on the age. Borescoping 9.