Abstract of Electrooculography

Electrooculography (EOG) is a new technology of placing electrodes on
user's forehead around the eyes to record eye movements . This technology is
based on the principle of recording the polarization potential or corneal-retinal
potential (CRP), which is the resting potential between the cornea and the
retina. This potential is commonl y known as electrooculogram. (EOG) is a
very small electrical potential that can be detected using electrodes.
The EOG ranges from 0.05 to 3.5 mV in humans and is linearly proportional
to eye displacement.

Compared with the electroencelography (EEG), EOG signals have the
characteristics as follows: the amplitude is relatively the same (15-200uV), the
relationship between EOG and eye movements is linear, and the waveform is
easy to detect. Considering the characteristics of EOGmentioned
above, EOG based HCI is becoming the hotspot of bio-based HCI research in
recent years.

Basically EOG is a bio-electrical skin potential measured around the eyes but
first we have to understand eye itself:

Introduction of Electrooculography

The electrooculogram (EOG) is the electrical signal produced by the
potential difference between the retina and the cornea of the eye. This
difference is due to the large presence of electrically active nerves in the retina
compared to the front of the eye. Many experiments show that the corneal part
is a positive pole and the retina part is a negative pole in the eyeball. Eye
movement will respectively generates voltage up to 16uV and 14uV per 1° in
horizontal and vertical way. The typical EOG waveforms generated by eye
movements are shown in Fig 3.2 .

In Fig 3.2 the diagram top figure shows the three types of eye movements and
the bottom figure shows the original EOG waveform.

Positive or negative pulses will be generated when the eyes rolling upward or
downward. The amplitude of pulse will be increased with the increment of
rolling angle, and the width of the positive (negative) pulse is proportional to
the duration of the eyeball rolling process.

When the eyes are stationary or when the eyes are looking straight ahead,
there is no considerable change in potential and the amplitude of signal
obtained is approximately zero.

as these muscular activities will not interfere with the EOG signals and can be filtered easily.thus during the process of measurement of the EOG signals . EOG Detection : . then there results an action potential. because when EOG is measured using precision electrodes. it does not interfere with the EOG signals. The important factor regarding the EOG signal is that it does not fall in the amplitude or frequency range of the EMG signal .the head or other parts of the body can be moved .06v. and as ECG is generated by the heart it does not get detected by the electrodes placed near the eye. One more interesting factor regarding the ECG signals are that. which when measured will give a value of -0.2 EOG generation using the eye movements and EOG waveform When the eyes are made to move upwards.06v to +0. The ECG signal can be easily filtered out from the EOG signals by using a low pass filter. Fig 3. Similarly a downward movement of the eyes will give a similar voltage with opposite polarities to that obtained due to the left movement. as the ECG signals have a higher bandwidth.

The primary function in EOG signal estimation and processing is the detection of the EOG signals. The detection takes place as shown below. . The derivation of the EOG is achieved placing two electrodes on the outer side of the eyes to detect horizontal movement and another pair above and below the eye to detect vertical movement. In the process of detection. the electrodes act as a transducer converting the ion current obtained at the skin to electron current. The below figure shows the method of detection of EOG signals using electrodes Fig 5.1: Electrode placements for EOG detection As it can be seen from the above figure. four to five electrodes are required for the detection of the EOG signals.