THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS TRANSLATED BY :LO NARAYANASVAMI AIYAR mmmtm .

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THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS .

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MADRAS 1914 . "o.Vdsutfevamanana "c. "o.nshtha. THIRTY J MINOR UPANISHADS TRANSLATED BY K. NARAYANASVAMI AIYAB Translator of Laghu Yoga Vd.

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TO THE RSHIS OP INDIA WHO BY TEEADING THE PATH OP THE UPANISHADS HAVE PERFECTED THEMSELVES AND REALISED THE GOAL THIS HUMBLE EFFORT To SPREAD THEIR ANCIENT TEACHINGS IN A MODERN. G-ARB IS DEDICATED BY ONE WHO LOVES AND WORSHIPS THEM AND TO WALK IN THEIR FOOTSTEPS TRIES % As THEIR HUMBLE AND DEVOTED DISCIPLE .

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7.. YEDANTA-UPANISHADS: 1. Garbha-Upanisha4 Do. 12. . 13 3. . Atmabodha-Upanishad ofRgveda . 6. Skan4a-Upanislia(jl of Krshna-Yajurveda 41 .. H6 . 61 . Adhyatma-Upanishad Do. Sarvasara-Upamshad of Krshna-Yajurve^a . Vajrasuchi-Upanishad of Samaveda HO . Niralamba-Upanishad ^ of S'ukla-Yajurveda . ... . 78 13. Kaivalya-Upanishad of Krshna-Yajurveda 31 . ^5... Muktikopanishad of S'ukla-Yajurveda .. xll. 113 16.. . 34 .. S'ariraka-Upanishad of Kyshna-Yajurve^a . Subala-Upanishad Do. ^9. 1 2. Tejobindu-Upanishad of Kyshna-Yajurveda . 55 . PHYSIOLOGICAL UPANISHAD8 : 15. 37 8. 14.. II. .. 10. . 18 4.... . CONTENTS PAGE I. Amrtabindu-Upanisliad Do. 106 . Mai$reya-Upanishad of Samaveda 24 . . Brahmopanishad Do. Paihgala-Upanishad of S'ukla-Yajurveda 43 .

28. Yaj arveda 192 . . . . IV.. Kalisan^arana-Upamslia^ Do.. Vlll PAGE i III. YOGA-UPANISHADS : " 22. S'andilya-Upamshad of Atharvanaveda i 173 . . . . Amrtanada-Upanishad of Kyshna-Yajurve^a 216 . Nadabindu-Upanishad ofRgveda . 23. Yogatattva-Upanishad of Krshna. MANTRA-UPANISHADS : 17. 132 21. V.. 18. Yogakundali-Upanishad of Kysliiia-Yajurveda 260 ". . Varaha-Upanishad Do. 27. Hamsa-Upanishad of S'ukla-Yajurveda . 130 . . 25. 212 26. . Naradaparivrajaka-Upauishad of Atharvanaveda 134 .. Mandalabrahmana-Upanishad of S'ukla-Yajurveda . Tarasara-Upanishad of S'ukla-Yajurveda ^ 124 . 19. . . Bhikshuka-Upanishad of S'ufcla-Yajurveda . . 243 29. . SANNYASA-UPANISHADS : 20. INDEX 273 . 254 30. . Narayana-Upanishad 1 of Krshna-Yajurveda 128 . 24.. 220 .. phyanabindu-Upanishad of Samaveda 202 .

95 in number.. the mastery of the Universe only which is certainly inferior to Atma. since the word Vedas means according to its derivation ' knowledge \ Rightly were the Upanishads so considered. Of the rest. up " as or the end or final crown of the Vedas. The Upanishads which are culled from the Aranyaka-portions of the Vedas " so-called because they were read in the Aranya (forest) after the learner had given the life of the world are regarded the Vedanta. Samhi^as and Brahmanas. Vedanta is also the end of all knowledge. the Vedas iiold the pre-eminent place. so far as I am aware. viz. The other portion of the Ve(jas. a good Sanscrit Scholar and myself worked together to put into English garb the Upanishads that had not been attempted before. if he should conform to the upon requisite conditions. There are now extant. since their knowledge led a person to Atma. in all. It is these Upanishads that to the western philosopher Schopenhauer were the " solace of life ". of which the principal major 12 Upanishads commented by S'ri S'an- or upon karacharya and others were translated into English by Dr. the late Sundara S'astri. many Many years ago. the goal of life. Among the Hindu Scriptures. FOREWORD FOR the first time it is. conferred a man. two or three Upanishads have appeared in English to but up now. I believe. 108 Upanishads. Roer and Raja Rajendra Lai Mitraand re-translated by Max Muller in his " Sacred Books of the East. that the English translation of so many as 30 Upanishads is being put forth before the pub lic in a collected form." together with one other Upa- nishad called Maitrdyanl. and . never so as are here presented to the public.

Poona.which were nearly the same in Telugu or G-rantha characters. which may induce real Yogins and scholars to come into the field and brin" out a better translation. I was able to revise them as well as add a few more. South India and other places. " ' There are many editions of the Upanishads to be found in Calcutta.were in many cases ful ler and more and intelligible significant. Transliteration In the transliteration of Sanscrit letters into the English alphabet certain difficulties present themselves. But for the second one we . There are three letters in Sanscrit ^ ^ and q\ They are differently pronounced and one should not be con founded with another. The edition of the 108 Upanishads which the late Tukaram Tatya of Bombay has pub lished in Devanagari characters approaches the South Indian edition.Hence we adopted for our translation South Indian editions. For the first letter we have the English f equivalentS and for the last Sh. Let me take first the letter ^\. upon up worldly business of pleadingthe cause of clients before the my bench for that of pleading the cause of Grod before the public. 11 succeeded in publishingmost of those which are here gathered in the monthly issues of The Theosophist. Bombay. so that even those that have a little knowledge of Sanscrit may be able to follow the originalwith the help of this translation.I intend to have the recensions of that edition printedin Devanagari characters. But we found that the South Indian editions. But when this year a little rest was afforded me. The EJarmic agents willed that late co-worker should abandon his physical gar my Then I resolved throwing ment at a premature age. As the South Indian edition of the Upanishads is not available for the study of all. The incessant travel in that cause since then for over 18 years from place to place in all parts of India left me no leisure until now to republishall the above translations in a book form. I am conscious of the many faults from which this book suffers and have no other hope in it than that it will serve as a piece of pioneerwork.

(3) Mantra.Varna-Hajtya-J)osha or the sin of the murder of letters or words. (2) Physiology. Other transliterations are :-" * It would be well if our a j u R N f leaders of thought conferred together and came to some agree ment upon the questionof transliteration. They utter it also in the same manner. But these are not hard and fast divisions. or four means of salvation. there is committed according to Sanscrit writers. But in the Mantric Upanishads. mantras also are given. man. (4) San- nyasa and (5) Yoga. But it is the latter Upani shads that are most occult in their character. since it is they that give clues to the mysteriousforces located in nature and well as to the by which they may be conquered.ftieosophy have been this transliterating letter into Sh. Ill have none whatsoever. For instance in the Sannyasa and Yoga Upanishads. since I con sider the latter to be a mistake. Hence in writing the word ^flftrthey made it Kashi in the " " English language. The prominent writers in the field of r. the ancient teachers thereof have rightlyordained that none has the rightto enter upon a study of it. Vedanta and Toga Upanishads The Upanishads that come under the headings of Vedauta and Yoga are the most important. When we therefore utter the words wrongly. The mantras espe cially depend for their efficacy upon proper pronunciation. To a South Indian ear. unless he has mastered to a slight degree at least xthe Sadhana-Chatushtaya. He should not only be convinced in theory of the fact that A^ina . In my translation I have representedthe letter ^ by S' and not by Sh. as ways With reference to Vedanta. Mantras alone are given. it is rather grating. The Order of the Upanishads The Upanishads translated have been classified under the headings of (1) Vedanta.

We have wade one same to through a mass of materials and a number of Upanishads. only then the Atma in the heart will be truly realised : and then it is that the Atma in all uni verse is realised also.are made light of. pilgrimagesto holy places. or as Upanishadic writers put it. In such Upanishads as Maitreya and others. and " " God everywhere will be but in words. etc. But not so in the Upanishads. In modern days when a subject is taken all the available information is in up. Hence Upanishads are not meant for persons of this stamp. Some of us are aware of the manner in which men with brains alone have made a travesty of the doctrine of Maya. But so long as the Atma in the heart is not realised through living the life. . and are immersed in the things of the world. To the orthodox that are blind and strict observers of rites and ceremonies. ere we can have a connected view of a subject. ceremonial impuritiesat the time of birth and death. Not a few clever but unprincipledpersons actually endeavour to justifyarguments of all kinds of dis and sipations wrong conduct by the assertion that it is all Maya. A non-compliance with these precedent conditions leads men into anomalies. statements like these give a rude shock.. the universe being then seen as Maya.nd the heart is made pure. and all else are but the ephemeral things of the world. The old Rshis were fullyaware of the fact that Vedanta would be desecrated by those that had not complied with its precedent conditions. but he should also have outgrown in practicethe craving for such transitoryworldly things: besides hevshould have developed a fair mastery over the body and the mind.the rituals of the Hindus. the heart-knot is broken. Nor are they intended for mere intellectual people who have no knowledge of practiceabout them. Only when the desires and the self are overcome ". given one' place in a systematic manner.the universe will not be realised as Maya. Mantras. IV is the only Reality. One special point worthy of notice in the Upanishads is that all the knowledge bearing subject is not for upon a put ward in and the place. The orthodox and the clever without any many practice are placed in a bad predicament through a study of these Upanishads.

Take the subject of Pranas which refer to life itself. probably because they wanted to draw out thereby the intellectual and spiritualfaculties latent in the and disciple. one in and And unless read them all to another so on. In one piece of information is given. As an illustration. The function of the teacher was not only to explain the difficult pointsto the taught. When therefore the disciplewent in the ancient days to the teacher for the solution of a having difficulty. In these days when knowledge is presented in a well-assimilated form. been unable to find it ftimself after hard thinking. we cannot have a complete and clear 'knowledge of the subject. . we might take the case of the soul. not to make him a mere automaton. we find certain peculiaritieswhich throw a light on their greatness. As we cannot get such Grurus in the outer world nowadays. and was also reverently appreciatedas a boon and godsend. while the Yoga Upanishads treat of many centres including the heart. Both of them lay stress upon certain centres in the human body for development. ^ all the centres may be divided under the main headings of head. heart and the portion of the body from the navel downwards. we gether and reconcile the seemingly discrepant statements. For the purpose of simplification. This process was adopted by the Rshis. The Guru not only explained the difficult passages or pointsrelating to the soul. it is no doubt taken up easilybut it does not evoke the latent reasoning power so much. the only thing left to do instead is to secure the publicationof simple treatises on matters of Vedanta and Yoga for the benefit of the public. it was understood easilyand per manently because of the previous preparation of the mind. because of the difficultypreviously experienced. In studying the Upani shads on Vedanta and Yoga. but also made the discipleleave the body or bodies and realise himself as the soul. I shall before long be able to make a start in this direction. I hope. but also to make him realise those things of which understand ing was sought. another Upanishad. The 12 major Upanishads as well as the Vedanta Upanishads herein published deal with the heart and the heart alone .

through the three main centres of head. it rises beyond it through its highestseat. discovers its delusions and finds itself to be of the same nature as the God above. They are eterne" existence. Hinduism says that Jivatma (the human soul) is an Ams'a or portion of Paramatma. Through the heart. VI But why ? The key which will unlock these secrets seems to be this. and compares it with a ray of the sun of God. In all there religions. all-knowing and all-powerful.. and which confers upon it an unlimited power " that force being mastered only when a man arises above Kama or passion. heart and navel. Hinduism tran slates these ideas into Sat. in which it is functioning. cooped up by the brain. it whirls about in the midst of them as if they constituted the Real Bliss. having God's in latency to be unfolded hereafter. The k"ul identifying itself with the body thinks it lives for the life-term of the body only . it has only the knowledge circumscribed by the brain . or a spark out of the fire of God. and obtains its omniscience . viz. Chit and Ananda.* development of will. and that the soul has to reach God.And this discovery has to be made by each soul in the human body. which is to eventually unfold the powers of God. Psychologists tell us that desires when conquered lead to the. is an un animity of opinion that the soul is a likeness of God. and unlimited power. who is eternal. carried away by the of pleasures the senses. All religionspostulatethat the real man is the soul. or God. through the brain. Let us there powers fore first understand the attributes of God. . Christianity states that God created the soul in His own image and that the soul has to rise to the full stature of God in order to reach Him. He is said to have omnipresence. according to the Upanishads " it obtains a mastery over that mysterious force called Kundalini which is located therein. it imagines. it cuts the heart-knot and realises its all- pervading character when it realises its eternityof existence . But when it wakes up from the dream of the lower things of the body and glances upwards to the higher world of it Spirit. infinite knowledge. through the navel. When will is developed to a great degree. omniscience and omnipotence.Sahasrara which corresponds to the pineal gland in the physical body.

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It that at the end of each Pwapara Yuga. Just before this Kali Yuga began. the Vedas were " " one alone though voluminous. t ADYAK. incarnates as an Avatara of Vishnu minor one" to compile the Vedas. vm Vedas and others not. says a Veda-Vyasa. NARAYANASWAM^ . after with drawing the Vedas that were not fit for this Yuga and the short-lived people therein. or compiler of the Vedas. K. made with the aid of his disciples a division of the remaining portions into four. Hence perhaps unable to trace the Vedas of which some of the extant we are Upanishads form part. In the Yugas " a preceding the Kali Yuga we are in. March 1914. Pur ana about the Vedas. Why is this ? In opinion this but my corroborates the statement made by the Vishnu. and. Krshna-Dwaipayana Veda-Vyasa incarnated.

" (SVi-Rama replied :) " 0 mighty-armed one. well asked : hearken then to the truth uttered by Me. eulogised day and night by Sanaka and other hosts of Munis. O foremost of the family of Raghu. I make prostrations to Thee again and again. in the midst of Sita. I wish to know for the sake of emancipation. 0 Rama. be Thou gracious enough to tell me that by which I shall be easily released from the bondage of mundane exis tence and by which I shall attain salvation. what are Vedantas ? where do they abide ? Pray enlighten me. listen to Me. Have thou recourse to Vedanta well. S'uka. asked : " 0 Rama." (Hanuman again asked :) " 0 foremost of Raghus. I shall truly describe . and other devotees of Vishnu " Hanuman. Thy nature as it really is. after praising them." (SVi- " Rama replied :) 0 Hanuman. MUKTIKOPANISHAD OF S'UKLA-YAJURVEDA ADHYAYA I ADDRESSING with devotion and obedience SVi-Rama " the Lord Hari. as well as by Va- sishtha. and who ever rests in Swarupa-Dhyana (the meditation on Reality) while seated under the bejewelled dome of the palace in the lovely city of Ayodhya. at the end of His Samadhi. 0 Rama. Thou art Paramatma of the nature of Sachchidananda. Bharata and Sou- mitri (Lakshmana) S'atrughna and others. who being Himself changeless is the witness of the thousands of changes of Buddhi. I am well established in Vedanta (or the end of Vedas or knowledge).

attains My Swarupa (Form). So also the Upanishads. Like the oil in the sesamum seeds. 0 conqueror of enemies." (S'rl-Ramasaid :) " Through the divisions of Rgveda and others. Whoever wj^li devotion to Me studies even one of the Rks (hymns) in t"ese. the Vedas were generated as many. others through the Yoga of Devotion . Such a person attains salvation without any rebirth . 21 in number. In each branch. some excellent Munis have said there is one kind of salvation only.Mahes'wara initiates him by whispering My Taraka (Mantra) into his right ear. The twice-born who is of virtuous conduct and who. Such freed from all sins. 0 Kapi (Monkey). this that is termed Salokya-Sarupyasalvation. . 0 best of Monkeys. In Rgveda. what are the Upanishads ? Please. Vedanta is well established (or latent)in the Vedas. tell me truly. Salvation is stated to be of four kinds through the divisions of Salokya and others.1he attains My Taraka (Mantra). Should one die in Brahma-nala (thelotus-stalk " also street)in Kas'i. attains the state of absorption." (Hanuman asked again :) 0 Rama. Through the expiratory breath of Myself " -Vishnu. there are 1. through Thy grace. other Maharshis through the meditation upon the meaning of Maha- vakyas (the sacred sentences of the Vedas).rare for the Munis to attain. wherever he may die in Kas'i. the Vedas are said to be four in number. there are 50 branches in Atharva- naveda. It is person. 2 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS to you the nature of Vedanta. without diverting his." (SVi-Rama replied:) " There is only one true emancipation. there are branches. 0 son of Vayu. Their branches are many. there is one Upanishad .000 branches in Samaveda. " how many are the Vedas and their branches ? O Raghava. while others [statedthat salvation is attained]through the uttering of Thy name or the initiation into Taraka (Om) at Kas'i (Benares)." (Hanuman asked :)"0 Rama. others through Sankhya-Yoga. even a person addicted to evil practices attains the salvation of Salokya (My world) through the uttering of My name. there are 109 branches in Yajurveda. but not of other worlds. 1 There is a street in Kasi called Brahma-nala.

Kshurika. S'andilya. Yoga-Tattwa. Akshi. S'wetas'watara. Avyakta. Bhikshu. Brahma. I will trulystate in order the (names of the) Upanishads with their S'anti (purificatory Mantras). . Kena.Parabrahma. " The only means by which the final emancipation is at tained is through Mandukya-Upanishad alone. Mantrika. Munda.Vasudeva. Pas'upata.Kara. Tarasara. Adhyatma. If thou longest after Videhamukti (or disembodied study salvation). (Brhat)'Jabala. Mandala-(Brahmana). Arum. (Rama) -Tapani. ai^i then My Seat.(Yoga)-S'ikha. like the into* caterpillar the wasp. the All-A^ma. Thou shalt get release. 0 son of Anjana. thou shalt soon attain Jnana. Tripura. (Amrta)- Nada. lAtma. Mahat-Srariraka. meditates upon My immutable Reality attains Sayujya (absorption)into Me. (Rama)-Rahasya. Hamsa.Chhandogya. Tripuratapani. Atmabodhaka. Garbha.(Tr^-S'ikhi. (S'uka)- Rahasya. Ganapati. meditates upon Me. (Narasihma) -Tapani.study the ]0 Upanishads. Dhyana- (Bindu). Skanda. Tittiri. (Paramahamsa)-Parivrajaka. pakshina-(Murti). Bhasma-( Jabala) ^udraksha. Paingala.Akshamalika. this "Itfis that is termed Salokya-Sarupya-Samlpya salva tion. This is the Sayujya salvation which is productive of Brahmic bliss and auspicious. (Tripadvibhuti)-Maha-Narayana. (Yoga)-Chuda-(Mani) Nirvana.Sita. (Rudra)-Hrdaya.'Furiyatlta.(Brahma) -Vidya. (Anna)-Purna. Farivrat (Narada-Parivriijaka). Kundika. (They are:)Is'a. Niralamba. Surya. (Atharva)-S'ira.Kaushitaki. Kaivalya. (AtharvaJ-S'ikha. if thy Jnana is not made firm. Kiilagnirudra. Mudgala. Sarvasara. Savitr. which is enough for the salvation of all aspirants. Sannyasa. MUK^JKOPANISHAp OF S'UKLA-YAJCJEVEpA 3 intelligence on any other. Brhadaranya- ka. Narayana. attains Samipya (nearness)to Me. (Parama) -Hamsa. Katha. The twice-born who according to the path opened by the teacher. Hearken to them. the 108 Upanishads. Thus these kinds of salvation arise through the Upasana (worship)of Me. Subala. Vajrasuchika. Qe vi. Avadhuta. S'arabha. If Jnana is not attained thereby. Jabala.Tejo-(Bindu).Adwaya-(Taraka). Dars'ana. Alandukya. Maitrayani. (Yoga)-Kundalini. (Amrta)-Bindu.Nada-(Bindu). practise (study) well the 32 Upanishads.Maitreyi. Ekakshara. Bhavana.Aitareya. Pras'na.

Hayagrlva.an ungrateful person. Vidya relating to Vishnu to one after well ex amining him. these 108 Upanishads. or one who loses his path in the cave of books. is an occult one.This science of the 108 Upanishads taught by Me. and destroy ing the three Vasanas [of book-lore. and Vairagya. rahasya. and are capable of destroyingall 'sins through their mere study. following good obser vances. is alert. Do not confide me to the envious. Then I shall be potent/ Impart this Atmanishtha. There is no doubt of it. to gether with the S'anti as prescribedboth before and after from the mouth of a Guru well versed in the observances of Vedic knowledge and study " become Jivanmuktas tillthe destruction of their Prarabdha . Yajnavalkya. in course of time as Prarabdha is destroyed. Datta- Krshna.a kingdom be given or wealth. and false thought] conferringJfiana . On no account shall they be given to one devoid of devotion. (Prana)-Agnihotra.4 THIRTY MINOK UPANISHADS Mahavakya. whether they read them with or without knowledge. and will free persons from bondage. Soubhagya. Bahvricha. or to the rogue. Kali-(Santarana). Saraswati- treya.and being of good intelligence. Gopala-Tapani. Whoever studies or hears the 108 Upanishads attains Me.intelligent. Satyayani. one intent on vicious actions. but never may shall the 108 Upanishads be imparted to an atheist." . or to one devoted to Me.and vow serving [the Guru] . 0 Maruti. There is no doubt of this. Garuda. To gratifythe desire of a supplicant. which are the essejx/e of all the Upanishads. it is only after a thorough examination that they should be imparted to a discipledoing service (to a Guru).Jabala. 0 son of Vayu. Panchabrahma. have been imparted by Me to you as a disciple. Varaha.one having no devotion towards Me. These 108 (Upanishads)are able to do away with the three Bhavanas [of doubt. to one not treading the right path. I shall be thy treasure. world and body] . " The twice-born " after learning the 108 Upanishads. to a well- disposed son. belonging to a good family. who had studied much. and Muktika. they attain My disembodied salvation. vain thought. This is stated in the Rk (verse) thus " Vidya (Saraswati) went to a Brahmana (and ad dressed him) thus : ' Protect me. obser vant of the of celibacy.

. (Rudra)- Hrdaya. Akshi. Tripuratiipani. (Prana)-Agnihotra. Tris'ikhi-Brah- mana.Krshna. S'ari- raka. Tripura. Maitrayani. Mahat-Sannyasa. (Atharva)-S'ira. S'wetas'watara. Nirvana. Dattatreya. S'ukarahasya.Rudraksha. Atma. Tarasara. Mundaka. Avadhuta. etc '. (Amrta)-Bindu. and Garada. Soubhagya and Bahvricha " these 10 Upanishads are of Rgveda and have the S'antibeginning with c Vanme-Manasi. Ekakshara. Savitri. l^rayana. and Muktika " these 19 Upanishads are of S'ukla Yajarveda and have the S'anti beginning with ' Purnamada. Vasudeva. Garbha. Sarvasara. Hayagrlva. " Persons desirous of emancipation and having developed the four means of salvation should. and Jabali. " these 31 Upanishads of Atharvana-Veda have the Sranti commencing with * Bhadram- Karnebhih.Maitreyl. Mahavakya. Byhadaranyaka. " Katha. Jabala.Panchabrahma.Ganapati.. (Atharva)- S^ikha. Jabala. S'andilya. Yoga-Tattwa. Akshamalika. Adwaya-Taraka. (Amrta)-Nada. Bhikshu. " these 16 Upanishads are of Samaveda and have the S'anti beginning with ' Apyayantu. Kali-(Santarana). Varaha. Chhandogya. (Nrsihma)-Tapani. Nada-(Bindu). Kshu- rika. Maha-Narayana. " Kena. Devi. Tejo-(Bindu). Subala. (Yoga)-S'ikha. etc '. To which S^ri-Rama replied: "Aitareya. Kalagnirudra.(Brhat)-Jabala. Kaivalya.and Saraswatirahasya. these " 32 Upa nishads are of Krshna Yajurveda and have the S'anti beginning with ' Sahanavavatu. Bhasma-( Jabala). (Yoga)-Kundalini. (Yoga)-Chuda-(Mani). Surya. Kundika. Niralamba.Skanda. (Rama)-Rahasya. (Parama)-Hamsa. Kara. "Pras'na.(Rama) -Tapani. Mantrika. etc '. Dakshina-(Murti). Aruni. MUKTIKOPANISHAp OF S'UKLA-YAJURVEDA Then Hanuman asked S'ri-Ratnachandra to relate the of each Upanishad according to the divisions of Rgveda and others pto which they belong. Dars'ana.(Narada-Parivrajaka). Pas'upata.S'arabha. Yajnavalkya. (Brahma) -Yidy a.Dhyana-(Bindu).Vajra- suchika. etc '.Brahma. with presents in their hands. Atma-Bodha. Parabrahma. Hainsa.(Paramahamsa)-Parivrajaka. Turiyatita. S'atyayani. Avyakta. Tittiri. Is'a. Sita. (Anna)-Purna. Bhavana. etc . Paingala.Adhyatma. Mudgala. Mandala-Brahmana. Gopala-Tapani. Kaushitaki. Mandukya.

ax/d " other Upasanas. and after studying under him. Hence to all these is stated the final emancipationthrough the Jfiana path. Thus is the Upanishad. of good family. or heaven through the Jyotishtoma sacrifice. and riot through Karma. Like progeny obtained through the Putrakameshti wealth sacrifice. ApHYAYA II Again Maruti (Hanuman) addressed S'ri-Rarnachandra thus : " What is Jivanmukti ? what is Videhamukti ? what is the autho rity therein ? what about its perfection? what is the objectof " such a perfection? (8Vi-Rama replied:)"The Dharma of a man's Chitta that has the characteristics of agency and enjoyment is fraught with pains and hence tends towards bondage. This is the embodied salvation. scripture-loving. Sankhya-Yoga. Therefore even those in Brahmaloka through the studying of Vedanta from the mouth of Brahma attain with Him the final emancipa tion. etc. the 108 Upanishads. With the cessation of the three bodies through the destruction of Prarabdha. and accomplished through human efforts. This has to be achieved through human efforts. The authority on the points of Jivanmukti and Videhamukti is the 108 Upanishads. intent upon the welfare of all beings. he should ever be going through the process of studying.there are verses . in trade.this is the final emancipation. so Jivanmukti is gained through Samadhi arising through Vedantic study. and an ocean vofcom passion. It has to be won througlj the extinction of all Vasanas.6 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS approach a Guru full of faith.thinking and reflecting upon them. Its object [of perfection]is the attainingof eternal bliss through the removal of the pains of agency.proficientin Vedas. straightforward.of good qualities. they attain the state of Plenum without any Upadhis like the ether in the pot (afterthe pot is broken). Videhamukti follows when through the extinction of Prarabdha. the removal of the vehicles [ofthe bodies] takes place like the ether in the pot [afterthe pot is broken] . Regarding it. according to the rules. The control of it (the Chitta) is Jivanmukti.

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0 Maruti. then dawns the state of mindlessness which confers the . the eye and other organs are involuntarilyprompted to their external (respective) objects through habit. Vasana does not arise. Whether Samadhi and Karma are performed or not. Through the com plete giving up of Vasana. Through the actions of the world being done without attachment. both perish soon. To the tree of Chitta. the Munis know that as Vasana which is manifested through the conscious ness of objects. Though devoid of Vasanas.or Samadhi or Jnana.which is of the nature of the and objectitself.there are two seeds : the vibration of Prana and Vasana. 0 Maha-kapi [great Monkey] practisethe state of a mind devoid of Vasana. When the mind does not think at all.^bhe objects] Supreme Seat is not attained. Through the absorption of Vasanas. is no other than Myself of the nature of Sachchidananda. which is the cause of the and origination absorption of Chitta. due to the identification of itself with objectspractis ed firmly [for a long time] . He whose mind is freed from Vasanas is not subjectto the fruits arisingfrom the performance or non-performance of actions. is [centred] on Me as of the nature of Chinmatra [consciousness alone]. so also the undaunted man of intelligence enters into the affairs [of the world] without any desire. one who has a supreme Chitta with a heart devoid of all desires is an emancipated person. devoid of destruction. Should either of them perish. Manas attains quiescence like a He lamp [without oil]. Like the analogy of the seed and the tree.8 THIRTY MINOE DPANISHApS Vasana is said to be an emancipated one. being completely devoid x"f Vasana.' whose mind. Just as the eye without any desire sees without any effort the objectsthat fall on it. through the abandoning of the [thought of the] realityof the universe and the conviction of the destructi- bilityof the body. abandoning the Vasanas. dotage and death. the vibration of Prana arises through Vasana and (viceversa) the Vasana through the former " these forming the seed of Chitta. This excessivelyfluctuatingChitta is the cause of birth. Except through the entire giving up of Vasanas and through Mouna [the observance of silence towards . Chitta becomes not-Chitta. Vasana perishesthrough well-conducted deliberation and truth.

he should first conquer his mind. The Vasanas of enjoyment of one who has destroy ed the egoism of Chitta and controlled the organs. It is Manas that is the root of the tree of Samsara with its thousands of shoots. dry up its root through the quiescenceof Sankalpa. When your sins are burnt up and you are a knower of the Reality without any anxiety. there is the destruction of Manas without form. In order that the tree of Samsara may wither soon. " The destruction of Chitta is of two kinds. the enemies. (the destruction of). That is to destroy the mind as soon as it rises. so in the matter of the control of the mind. There is only one means to control one's mind. As a vicious ruttingelephant is not sub ject to control except through the goad. In the case of the wise.that without form being of the Videhamukta. Then the Manas of a Jivanmukta is free from fresh rebirth . That is the (great)dawn. decay like lotuses in mid-winter.that with form and that without form. then all the good Viisanas even should be given up.so long as Viisanas are prancing about in the heart like Vetala (goblin)in the night-time. [The destruction of] that with form is of the Jivanmukta. So long as the mind is not destroyed through the firm practiceof the One Reality. So long as you are without a mind of [true]dis crimination and are not a knower of the Supreme Seat. it is indeed a fetter. I think it to be Sankalpa alone. associated with all the attributes of Maitri (friendship)and others. so long should you follow whatever has been decided by the teacher and the authorities of the sacred books. But to the Videhamukta. tender leaves and fruits. to him. branches. MUKTIKOPANISHAD OF S'UKLA-YAJURVEDA 9 great peace. becomes quiescent [without any There resurrection] . is no doubt of it. That is said to be the destruction of Chitta when it. hearken to [the means of] the destruction of Chitta. setting teeth against teeth. 0 son of Vayu. and forcingone limb againstthe other. " It is not possible on the part of the one-thoughted to control the mind by sittingup again and again except through the approved means. Pressing one hand against the other. the effective means are the attainment of 2 . there is the destruction of Manas with form. the mind is destroyed: but in the case of the ignorant.

and that is of the nature of Chit (conscious ness merely) is styled by the Munis Atadvyavrtti Samadhi (a Samadhi that does not care or require the aid of another). " The clinging to objects without previous or subsequent deliberation through intense thought [or longing] is stated to be Vasana. they are like those that search in darkness. while the mind with the utter quiescence of modifications that confers upon one supreme bliss is said to be Asampraj fiat a. Manas and Buddhi. OnlTis~tae~ftuc^ation of Prfma. spiritual association with the wise. The [One] All-pervadingConsciousness is agitated by the fluctuation of Prana. wise say that the interval experienced by Yogins after the inspirationand before the (next) expirationis [the internal]Kumbhaka (ces sation of breath) . The means of Dhyana by which [the one] Jnana is attained through the one-pointednessof the mind is now im parted to you.10 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS knowledge. the current of the modification of Manas devoid of Self that is of Brahmic nature is said to be Samprajnata Samadhi. This [state]that is devoid of light. the entire abdi cation of all Vasanas and the control of pranas. Through the force of the practiceof Dhyana. which is also Chidananda The (conscious-bliss). To the tree of the mind having the ever-growing branches of modifications.]. While such are the [prescribed]means. whatever is meditated upon by a person with ardent impetuositywithout other Vasana any . while the interval of complete equilibrium after expirationand before the next is inspiration the external Kumbhaka. and is of the nature of S'iva (auspiciousness). below and in the middle.meditate upon that which remains " Chinmatra [w'z.This noumenal (or occult)Samadhi is itself Vidhi-Mukha (sanctionedby books or Brahma). Those who endeavour to control the mind through force are but trying to bind a mad elephantwith the filaments of a lotus-stalk. O chief of Monkeys. (the consciousness alone). there are two seeds. and the other is the firmness of Vasana. After duly resolving back the things or^gi- nated [in the universe] with all their changes. having thrown aside the light(intheir hands). It is Plenum above. should persons try to control the mind through violence. Samadhi that is dear unto Yogins.

is as the One alone is not a mere knower of Brahman but is Brahman itself. give up even the desire for salvation. mayst thou now left alone become firm in Me in Samadhi. 0 tiger of Monkeys. destruction or smell. attract unto the thyself pure Vasanas associat ed with Maitri and [friendship] others. O Maru^i ! giving up that also associat ed as it is with Manas and Bucjdhi. Because of the many strong Vasanas. Though engaged in the world with these Vasanas. One who having studied the four Vedas and the various books does not cognize the realityof Brahman is like the ladle ignorant of the taste of the dainty. associated with the great Aharikara and generative of rebirth. while the pure are the destroyersof it. When the differences be tween the two are [thus]known. A person that is entirelysubjectto Vasana becomes of the nature of that. he does not abandon the nature of the universe.then he is subjectto delusion. taste. while the destruction of Vasana is salvation. what then may be ordained as the ? purification The bondage of Vasana is the [real]bondage. decay. MUKflKOPANISHAp OF S'UKLA-YAJUBVEpA 11 " that he soon becomes.having turned it into a burnt one? 0 Marut^i. Vasanas are of two kinds " the pure and the impure. After wholly abandoning the Vasanas.thou shouldst with effort seek the effulgencewithin. When he regardsthis [universe]as Sat [theReality]. whoever. and without name and . Therefore what other advice of indifference can be imparted to a person that has not attained the indifference to the impure Vasana of delusion [or body] ? This body is very impure while the one [A^ma] that dwells in it is very pure. After first giving up the Vasana of objectsdependent upon the Vasana of the mind. Of what avail is the chewing again and again of the many S'astricstories to one that has abandoned the seed of re birth.without sound. touch. form. This person of wrong vision sees everything under infatuation like one deluded. The impure ones are the cause of rebirth. Then. The impure are said by the wise to be of the nature of intense Ajnana. give up them too and retire with pure in the quiescent desires and become of the form of the longing after Chit alone. after having abandoned the visible and the invisible. 0 son of Vayu ! always worship My Reality that is destructive of pains.

up Also meditate Me thus e I am birthless. I pure. of changeless nature and have really no objects in Me. I am that non-dual One (Brahman) that is of the nature of the visible (Jfiana). . without destruction. " The following is said in the Rg [-Veda] also Like the : which is spread in the Akas' (seeing all things without eye any obstacle). One should ever meditate Me thus f I am of the form of the visible [ Jfiana] the upon : . always shining. beyond the effect (of the universe) and ever content/ pure When one's body becomes a to time. as the wind attains the motionless state. The Brahmanas that have ever the Divine vision praise in diverse and illumine the Supreme Seat of Vishnu. all-pervading.12 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHA^S Gotra [clan]. I am the All. and of the nature of salvation. so the wise ever see the Supreme Seat of Vishnu. self-shining. non-dual. supreme. he gives the state prey up of Jivanmukti. like unto the Akas'. destructionless. cause less." ways OM-TAT-SAT is THE UPANISHAP. transverse and and down/ am across. immortal. without attachment and pervading all. deathless. without birth. the ever-full Brahman. upon : age less.

1 This Upanishad and the next form a glossary of some of the terms of ' ' Vedanta. 2 They are the 5 organs of sense. etc.. the 5 organs of action and the 4 of Antah- karana (the internal organ). What is Avidya (Nescience) ? That which causes this identification " that indeed is Avidya. Sarva-Siira is the all-essence or quintessence. 3. What are (meant by) the states of Jagrat [the wak ing] . having the sun and the rest as their presiding deities. But the following arrangement is adopted to facilitate reference. Sushupti [the dreamless sleeping] and Turiya [the fourth] ? Jagrat is that [state] during which Atma enjoys the gross objects of senses as sound. etc. Chitta and Ahankara. Each is animated by a Devata or intelligential principle. Manas. . Swapna is that [state] during which Atma experiences. Swapna [the dreaming] .. and identifying Himself with them " this identification forms the bondage of the Self. 5. Buddhi..] 1. 4. 2. What is Bandha (bondage). Atma [the Self] falsely superimposing the body and others which are not-Self upon Himself. through the 14 organs associated with the Vasanas [affinities]. What is Moksha [emancipation] ? The freedom from that [identification] is Moksha. all the questions are given first and then the answers follow. What is Vidya (knowledge) ? That which removes this identification is Vidya. viz. ' SARVASARA-UPANISHAD OP KRSHNA-YAJURVEDA [In the text. through the 14 organs2 as Manas.

then it is called Manomaya sheath. 7. even in the absence of [the gross] sound and the others. then it is called the Pra- namaya sheath. The idea of pain is . though it is in it self without (their)existence and non-existence and daring which it is one uninterruptedChai^anya (consciousness)alone.Kshetrajna (thelord of the place).. 6. Turiya is that state during which Atma is a witness to the existence of the above-mentioned three states.Sakshi [the witness]. sound and other objects which are of the form of the Vasanas created for the tinae being. etc. flow through the Annamaya sheath. When the self-cause Jnana is in its Self-bliss like the banyan tree in its seed.Kutastha and Antaryamin (the latent guide) ? Kar^a (the actor) is the one who possesses the body and the internal organs through their respectivedesires proceeding from the idea of pleasure and pain. which is associated with the Upadhi [vehicle]of these sheaths is called figuratively Kos'a.though associated with these four sheaths caused by Ajnana. What is meant by Karta (actor). And that Chaitanya is that which is connected with the three states.through the 14 of Manas and others. about the peculiarities of the sheaths. Manomaya. Atma experiences Sushup^i when it does not experience sound and other objectsof sense from the cessation of the functions of the 14 organs. What are the Annamaya. Pafichavarga [thefive groups].Pranas and others.14 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS of the waking condition.which is without the three states. Atma. Pranamaya.. etc. When the ten Vayus (Vitalairs). then it is called Vijnanamaya sheath. there arise the modifications of contem plation. organs When in the internal (Antafy-karana) organs connected with the above three sheaths. there being no specialenjoying consciousness on account of the absence of these organs. When Atma connected with the above two sheaths performs the functions of hearing.meditation. and which is pure. Vijna- namaya and Anandamaya Kos'as (sheaths)? Annamaya sheath is the aggregate of the materials formed by food. then it is called Anandamaya sheath.Jiva. The idea of pleasure is that modification of the mind known as love.

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being all full and without . 9. It is that which cannot be said to be Asat (not-Be-ness) ... matter. or it is that which is the source of all ideas. It is that which continues to exist during the three periods of time.omniscience. It is that which does not perish even though space. It is itself differenceless and is seen as the Seat of everything. which is bliss and which is Maya-less. time. It is that which is. It is that which is not affected by the three periodsof time. It is one without a second. It is that which is not subjectto the six changes (viz. etc. decay.perish. and who is the meaning of the word Tat (or ' That in " Tattwamasi"). It is that Consciousness which. old age and death). in " Tattwamasi ").growth. who is subject to the vehicle of Maya " " . bliss. which is Sat (Be-ness).16 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS subject to the vehicle of Avidya and is the meaning of the word " Twam " ('Thou . It is the pure. then He is Pratyagatma. It is that Consciousness which has no beginning or end.. manhood. the true and the indestructible. which is without a second. It is different from characteristics of that " expressed by the word " Twam (Thou) subjectto Upadhis (vehicles). birth. And what is Ananta (the eternal)? It is that which is without originand destruction. eternity.It is that which illuminates all. It has not the differences of similarityor dissimilarity . And what is Satya (thetrue) ? It is the Sat (Be-ness) which is the aim pointedout by the Vedas. Who is Paramatma ? It is He who is associated with truth. 10. cause. which is perpetualand which is the witness to all modifications and their opposites. wisdom.or the characteristics of 'That' expressed by the " word " Tat subjectto Upadhis. It is that Absolute Consciousness which is without any obscuration. What is Brahman ? Brahman is that which is free from all vehicles.which i^ the Absolute Consciousness devoid of particularities. It is free from all Upadhis. the noumenal. And what is Jnana (wisdom) ? It is self-light. etc.

3 . Mulapsakrti is called by the different names of Maya. is eternal. She has no beginning but has an end. the Sat. Brahma-Jnana is the rooting out of all " bodies and such like " that are not Self. partlessand non-dual. and is the sole essence of Chidananda (consciousness-bliss).like the ocean of the water. She appears as Mulaprakrti. 11.Guna- Samya (astate where the three Grunas are found equilibrium).and thread in the modifications of thread. Her nature is Ajnana.. Her seat is indescribable. And what is Ananda ? (bliss) It is the seat of all sentient beings. What is May a? The root of this not-Atma is Maya. etc. in the sky.the gold in the modifications of gold. pure. She is subjectto proof and not-proof. and Asat (not-Be-ness) Mithya (Illusion). Sa^ alone is Brahman. like the earth in the modifications of clay. The universe of Akas' and others includingJiva is not-A^ma. Asat is that which is not. She in appears Brahman like clouds. nor is not . She has the varieties of differences as extolled by the wise. Thus does a knower of Brahman cognize her. and the merging in Brahman. What is fit to be known is Brahman. Avidya.1 in Avidya (Nescience) and other forms. on re-awakenmg into activitywhen the Gunas are disturbed. nor is she a combination of both (Sat-and Asat). the At ma alone. and others. Mithya is the illusoryascription to Brahman of the universe that is not. SARVASARA-OPANISHAD 17 permeates the created universe composed of Avyakta destruction. 1 This refers to that slumbering or latent state of the universe " called also Maha-Sushupti when the Gunas are iu equilibrium . etc. It is she that trulyis not. She neither is . Sat (Be-ness). 12. Of how many kinds are substances ? There are three kinds. Tamas. transformingherself into the form of the universe.

through the aspects of Karma and Jnana. that is full of all S'aktis [potencies] that is without beginning . and pure. etc. that is described as beneficial. 1 Lit. What is Brahman ? It is the Chaitanya that appears. peaceful. Ahankara and the five elements. Vayu and Akas' " that is secondless " that is devoid of allUpadhis [vehicles] . water. earth. NIRALAMB A '-FPANISHAD OP S'UKLA-YAJURYEDA HARIH-OM. What is Brahman ? Who is ts'wara ? Who is Jiva ? What is Prakr^i ? Who is Paramatma ? Who is Brahma ? Who is Vishnu ? Who is Rudra ? Who is Indra ? Who is Yama ? Who is Surya ? Who is Chandra ? Who are Devas ? Who are Rak- shasas ? Who are Pis'achas ? Who are Manushyas ? Who are Women ? Who are Pas'us. 1. and end. without " support. . I shall relate in the form of a catechism whatever should be known for the removal of all miseries that befall these ignorant creatures [men]. Guiia-less and that is indescribable. fire.? What is Sthavara ? Who are Brahmans and others ? What is Jati (caste) ? What is Karma ? What is Akarma ? What is Jnana ? What is Ajnana ? What is Sukha ? What is Duhkha ? What is Swarga ? What is Naraka ? What is Bandha ? What is Moksha ? Who is Upasya ? Who is Yidwan ? Who is Mudha ? What is Asura ? What is Tapas ? What is Paramapada ? What is Grahj'a ? What is Agrahya ? Who is Sannyasi ? Thus are the questions. as this vast mundane egg composed of Mahat.

What is Paramatma ? The supreme Atma or soul. Who are Manushyas [themen] ? no manyness in the 17. death] ? Rudra and Indra. Who is. Vishnu. Who is Brahma [the creator]? ^ 7. 19. 12. What is Prakrti (matter)? It is nothing else but the S'akti [potency] of Brahman which is of the nature of Buddhi that is able to produce the many motley worlds by virtue of the mere presence of Brahman. What are beasts. Sun and Moon. What are the Sthavaras [fixed ones] ? 20. NIKALAMBA-UPANISHA? 19 2. he appears as many Jivas. Who are Asuras [the Demons]? beasts. Who is Yama [the angel of Brahma. Though one.etc. Who is Vishnu ? [the preserver] 8. subject to the false superimposition upon " " Himself [of the idea] I am the gross through the [assump tion of the] names and forms of Brahma. having through His S'akti called Prakrti (mat ter) erected the worlds and being latent in them. Who are Women? least degree : all this 18. becomes the ruler of Buddhi and Indriyas(organsof sense and action)as well as Brahma (the creator)and others. 14. Who are Pis'achas [the evil ones. Who are Devas [the Angels] ? chas. Brahmans and ? spirits] others. Who are Brahmans and others ? . Who is Surya [the Sun] ? Yama. Vishnu. etc. Who is Indra ? That Brahman is 10. men. and others is Jlva. Indra. Pis'a 13. Who is Chandra [the Moon] ? Devas. Who is Rudra [the destroyer]? 9. Here there is 16. 5. the fixed 15. 6. Who is Jlva ? Is'wara Himself. 11. Rudra. through the force of the different Karmas originatingthe bodies. Is'wara ? and what are His characteristics ? Bramhan itself.. It is Brahman alone that is Paramatma as it (the former) is far superiorto bodies and others. 3. 4. Asuras. ? is verilyBrahman. women. Hence he is named Is'wara.

rebirth.consciousness and bliss] .. the blood.the hearing of the expositionof Vedantic doctrines and constant meditation thereon. of the daily and occasional rites. the flesh or the bone. that is of the form of the seer and the seen. What is Karma ? Karma is that actiou alone which is performed by the organs and ascribed to Atma as " I do " (viz.having cognized through experience the Reality of Sachchidananda [or that which is be-ness. etc. There is no caste for Atma . What is Sukha (happiness)? It is a state of being of the nature of bliss. men.that is the same in all. cloth. and that is not subject to changes like pot. . 23. etc. the serving of a good Guru (teacher). What is Jnana ? It is the realisation by direct cognitionof the fact that in this changing universe there is nothing but Chaitanya [the one life]that is Consciousness. pervading all things. females.. 24.etc. What is Ajnana ? It is the like illusoryattribution. gifts and other actions that are associated with the egoism of the actor and the enjoyer.sacrifices. 26. * 22. to Brahman that is secondless. the snake in the rope. caste is only conventional. all-permeatingand of the nature of all. This realisation is brought about by means of the subjugationof the body and the senses. What is Jati (caste) It cannot refer to the skin. What is Akarma [or non-Karma] ? Akarma is the performance. the fixed ones. 27. agency being attributed to Atma). What is Duhkha (pains)? It is the Sankalpa [or the thinking] of the mere objectsof mundane existence [or of not-Self according to the Bombay Edition] .without any desire for the fruits. castes and orders of life.males.and that are productive of bondage.vows. of many Atmas (souls)through the diverse Upadhis [orvehicles]of the angels. austerities.20 THIRTY MINOR DPANISHApS 21.beasts. bondage and emancipation. 25.

the true] . Even the mere thought of desire for Moksha (emancipation) is bondage. The thought of knowing the rules of performing sacrifices. etc. .8 higher and 10 lower.is bondage.in this transitorymundane existence. fear and doubt are the attri butes of [orpertainto] Atma is bondage. The thought of performing the duties of one's own caste and order of life is bondage. Who is Upasya [or fit to be worshipped] ? That Gruru (orspiritual who instructor) enables (thedisciple) to attain to Brahman. The thought of the development in oneself of the eight l Siddhis (higherpsychicalpowers) as Anima and others is bondage. gardens.etc.through the discrimination of the eternal from the non-eternal. NIRALAMBA-UPANISHAp 21 28.. 32. Niyama. The thought that command. What i$ Swarga (heaven)? It is the association with Sat [eithergood men or Brahtnan which is Sat. 30. The thoughts of I-ness as actor.. like those of " mine in objectsof pleasure arid pain.are bondage. mother. lands.forms bondage. 31. wife. What is Bandha [bondage] ? Such Sahkalpas [thoughts] as " I was born. 29. thought of propitiating etc. 2 The thought of going through the eight means of Yoga Yama.etc. What is Moksha [emancipation]? Moksha is the (state of) the annihilation. the Consciousness that is in all bodies." etc. austerityand giftis bondage.of all thoughts " of bondage. child. The the angels. brother. The thought obscuration [or mental ignorance]of the mun " dane existence of " mine in such as father. arising from the affinities of beginninglessAjnana form bondage.house. 2 They are Yama. practice... By the very act of thought. What is Naraka (hell)? It is the association with that which brings about this mun dane existence which is Asat [the false] . vows.. etc.. 1 There are 18 Siddhis. etc.is bondage.men.lands.bondage is caused.

Who is Vidwan (thelearned)? It is he who has cognizedthe true form of his (or reality) own consciousness that is latent in all.. caste. 39. time or substance.the organs of sense and actions. What is Tapas? Tapas is the act of burning " through the fire of direct cog nition of the knowledge that Brahman is the truth and the uni verse. 36.actor. pain. What is Agrahya ? The thought that this universe is truth " this universe which is different from one's Self and which being subjectto Maya (or forms illusion) the objectof (cognitionof)Buddhi and the organs. 38. Who is the Sannyasi [ascetic]? . What is Grahya [or fit to be taken in] ? Only that Reality of Absolute Consciousness which is not conditioned by space.hatred. 34. What is Asura [the demoniacal] ? It is the Tapas [austerity] practised by one inflicting trouble on the At ma within through Japa [or inaudible mutter ing of Mantras]. Brahma. hypocrisy and the rest for the purpose of acquiring the powers of Vishnu. which is of the nature of Sachchidananda and which is the witness to all. 35. orders of life. etc.. a myth " the seed of the deep-rooteddesire to attain the powers of Brahma. Who is S'ishya(the disciple) ? The discipleis that Brahman alone that remains after the consciousness of the universe has been lost (inhim)* through Brahmic wisdom. 41. abstinence from food. Agnihotra [the per formance of the worship of fire]. Who is Mudha [the ignorant]? He who has the egoisticconceptionof the body.22 THIRTY MINOK UPANISHApS 33. 40.the Gurias and others. Indra and others. etc. attended with cruel desire. What is Paramapada [the supreme abode] ? It is the seat of the eternal and emancipated Brahman which is far superiorto Pranas (the vital airs). the internal organs (of thought). 37. Rudra. enjoyerand others.

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leaving his eldest son to rule over (his) kingdom." Thereupon the King touched the feet of S'akayanya and recited the (following) verse : " What is the use of these to me or other ? Oceans any dry up." (To which) the Muni replied thus : " 0 thou that art born of the race of Ikshwaku : To begin with. I am drowned like a frog in a dry well. Ask for any other thing you desire. such is the case). Thou art a Tattwavit. he performed a severe Tapas eyes (or religious austerity) At the end of a thousand days. retired to the forest. I am He in reality. MAITREYA-UPANISHAD OF SAMAVEDA A KING named Brhadratha. Mountains sink down. (While away. and who was as a scorching fire with his Tejas (spirituallustre) approached (him) and addressed the King thus : " Kise. a knower of Atma. thinking this body to be impermanent and having acquired indifference (to objects). who was like fire without smoke. The Suras (angels) run leaving their (respective) places. we hear. Lord S'akayanya Muni. . question is difficult (of explanation) : do not question your me. Please enlighten me about Sattva (the state of Sat or Brahman). With hands uplifted and fixed on the sun. since one who clings to the gratification of desires is found to return again and again to this Samsara (mundane existence) ? Thou art able to extricate me (out of this Samsara). I am not an A^mavit (or knower of Atma) .' Earth is drowned. The positions of Dhruva (the Polar Star) and of trees change. the . rise and choose a boon. Thou art refuge. my ." The King prostrated before him and said : " 0 Lord. Therefore of what avail to me is the gratification of desires.

who is Sat-alone being of no the nature of light only. It is coated over with flesh. Whatever his Chitta of (thinks). The Bhutatma (the lower Self)clingingto these. thou art an Atmajnani. who is beyond meditation. One whose mind is thus cleansed attains the indestructible Bliss (through his own Self). touch. MAITEBYA-UPANISHAp 25 " 0 Lord ! this body was the result of sexual intercourse.who can 4 . marrow. (Parama-) Atma. With the purifyingof Chitta.phlegm. Vayu (air). one gets liberation. Through attainingAtma.serum and many other impurities. Thou art one that has done his duty. Thou art famous by the name of Marut.bile. urine. and others which seem to be Artha (wealth) are in fact Anartha (evil).Brhadratha. It is without wisdom . It should be cleansed with effort. It is Chi^ta alone that is Samsara. so Chitta (thought)throughthe destruction of its modifications is absorbed into its own womb (source). the flagof the Ikshwaku race. that occur to it through the bondage of Karma are merely unreal. mind. when one is united with Brahman." Thereupon Lord Sakayanya was pleasedand addressed the King thus : " 0 Maharaja. One should medi tate in the middle of the lotus of the heart. a (pure)mind and through is acquired. so why should not one (be released)from bondage. fat. It is repletewith faeces. thou art my refuge. that nature he becomes. Through Tapas. (the higher Self)is reached. To a mind quiescenceand truth. it is hell (itself) It . 0 Lord ! to me in such a foul body (asthis).who has beginningor end. It is linked togetherby bones. who is the object of supreme love. It is bound by skin. through Sattwa.Parames'wara (the highestLord) who is the witness to the play of Buddhi. Just as Chitta becomes united with an objectthat comes across it. This is an archaic mystery.never remem bers the Supreme Seat. that has attained and the events which is not affected by sense-objects. Sattwa (quality)is acquired. who is beyond the reach of mind and speech.one makes both good and bad Karmas to perish. can you describe Atma ? " To which he replied thus : " Sound. came out through the urinaryorifice." At which the King asked : " 0 Lord ! in what way. Just as fire without fuel is absorbed into its own womb.

the subtle.and who is wisdom of the nature of Moksha (salvation). The Jiva in it is S'iva alone. have beginning and end. . one should worship Him with So'ham (I am He). who have put to shame the ghost of desires.the secondless. the true. who is without lightor darkness. Abstractingthe mind from sensual objectsis Dhyana (meditation) Purifyingthe .. The subjugationof the Indriyas (sensualorgans) is S'aucha One (purification). Having given up all the of cast-off offerings Ajnana. pure. The cognition of everythingas non-different from oneself is Jnana (wisdom). mind of its is impurities Snana (bathing).26 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS neither be given up nor grasped (by the mind).and one that is superior to Pratyagatma (the lower Self). Men who have given all duties of castes. It is impure. The wise man should observe thus : then he obtains Absolution. The distinctions of caste and orders of life have divisions among them.the the liberated. their observance of the castes and orders of The ignorantwith life obtain their fruits according to their Karmas. There is no doubt about it. the all-pervading.of the nature of wisdom. who is all-pervading." To which Mahadeva replied: " The body is said to be a temple. the ocean of bliss. I am He " that Paramatma who is the eternal. It is of the nature of the secretion of the father and mother. should drink the nectar of Brahman and beg food for maintaining the body. who is of unshaken depth. he should live in a solitary place without a second. How will calamity (or bondage) approach me who am depending upon my own bliss in my heart. Having one (thought)alone. change less and vehicleless. Therefore having given up all identification very with sons and as well as body. and are painful.. rest content in the bliss up of their own Self.who look upon this universe as (but) a jugglery and who am not associated with anything. one should dwell in that endless and most supreme Bliss. etc.who is without equalor superior." ADHYAYA II Then Lord Maitreya went to Kailas and having reached it asked Him thus : "0 Lord ! pleaseinitiate me into the mysteriesof the highest Tattwa.who is the permanent. "This body is subject to birth and death.

(but) the (alms-food) conceptionof Dwaita (dualism)should not be taken in. delusion the house. how shall we perform the Sandhyas ? Ekanta (solitude) is that state of one without second as determined by the words of a Guru. (There fore) bathing is prescribed for touphing it. That is called the which (real)purification is done by means of the earth and water of Jftana (wisdom) and Vairagya (indifference to objects). Foul matter is naturally oozing out always from the nine holes. It is also tainted with death impurity. When a person gives up Ahankara (I-am- ness) the son. and desire the wife.like a thief re leased from prison. To a Sannyasi (ascet ic).how shall we observe the Sandhyas (conjunction (theascetics) periods)? The Chit (consciousness)of the sun is ever shining in the resplendentAkas' of the heart. He neither sets nor rises . It (body) contains bad odour and foul excrement. the son is born. It is bound by the Dhatus (skin. Monasteries or forests are not solitudes. (external) purification by means of water and earth is on account of the worldly. (Therefore) bathing is prescribedfor touchingit. The destruction of the threefold affinities (of S'astras. MAITREYA-UPANISHAp 27 being the seat of happinessand misery.is impermanent and is of changing appearance and size. there . the mother is dead. Delusion. world and body) generates the purityfor cleansing Chitta. a learned man should himself abandon his native place and live at a distance. there is no doubt that he is an emancipated person.Bhiksha is ordained as dictated by the S'astra and the Guru.is liable to severe diseases. After becoming a Sannyasi. while so. "The conception of Adwaita (non-dualism) should be taken in as the Bhiksha . It is connected (or tainted)with the child-birth impurity of the mother and is born with it. Wisdom. wealth the brother. e^c.). (The conception of) I and mine" is the odour arisingfrom the besmeared dung and urine. blood. The release from it is spoken of as the The perfectpurification. Emancipation is only for those who do not doubt. To those who doubt. In this manner while two kinds of have pollution occurred. is a house of sins. (Therefore)bathing is prescribed for touching it. (Therefore) bathing is " prescribedfor touching it.

well burnt up (by hunger. Like a vessel void in the ether.the meditation upon the non-dual). Otherwise.28 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHA^S is no salvation even after many births. and roam about like crows. The delusion of pilgrimagesis the lowest of the lowest.generating Vairagya as well as faith the wife. Therefore one should attain faith. At the moment when indifference towards all objects arises in the mind. who. The union of Jiva (-Atma)(the lower Self) and Parama (-Atma) (tjiehigher Self) at the two Sandhis (morning and evening) is termed Sannyasa. (then) he is not worthy of salvation. Like one. Those men (termed) great through wealth. he is full within and full without. or earth. is qualifiedfor Sannyasa. having seen in water the reflection of fruits in the branches of trees. Do not become (or . Whoever has a nausea for all Ishana (desires) and the rest as for vomited food. food. the lowest. clothes and fame. the ignorant without self-cognitionare in vain overjoyedwith (as if they reached) Brahman. " The thought of (contemplationupon) Tattwas is the transcendental one . Then like a vessel full to its brim in an ocean. metals. age.. (Mere) abandoning of the Karmas or of the Man tras uttered at the initiation of a )0will Sannyasi (ascetic not constitute Sannyasa. and external relinquish worship in order that he may not be born again. are only servants to those that are great through their wisdom as also to their disciples.and wisdom the son.Those whose minds are deluded by My Maya. do not attain Me. Therefore the ascetic should perform his own heart-worship alone.). For one that longs after salvation.tastes and enjoys them. that of the Sfastras. etc. becomes fallen in both (as a Sannyasi and as houesholder) .the worship of images made of stone. the all-full Atma. That ascetic is an emancipated person who does not abandon the internal alms-taking (viz. however learned they may be. gem. the middling. is productiveof rebirth and enjoyment. and knowledge. he is a fallen person. simplyfor the purpose of filling up their belly. Whoever becomes a Sannyasi on account of wealth. a learned person may take up Sannyasa.and that of Mantras. and is devoid of all affection for the body. he is void within and void without.

am Sfiva (the auspicious).I that is known." ADHYAYA III " "I am " I (the Self). I am the like and the non-like. Do become of the form of that which remains. I am Happiness. I am the Supreme. after having given all thoughts. I am neither existence nor non-existence. I am without grief. I am always He. I am He. and which is neither waking nor sleeping. I am without the difference of Sat and Asat. I am Myself alone. worship Atma alone. I am the supreme and the Supreme of the supreme. I am He. I am also the Guru of all worlds. I am equal (in all). I am Soma. I am. the seen and the visual.I am neither dual or non-dual. the resplendentsupreme presence. which resembles the state of a stone. I am without Chitta. I am with asylum. I am the form of immeasurable Bliss. I am the Shining. I am stainless. I am always existing.I am Brahman. Relinquishing with their up Vasanas the seer. I am Vijnana. I am without Gunas I (qualities). I am ever of the form of deliberation and yet am without deliberation. I am without the difference of manyness.I am the Glory of void and non-void. I am the one that is not another. I am One that cannot be contemplatedupon. I am of the nature of the Akara and Ukara as also of Makara. MAIfREYA-UPANISHAp 29 differentiate between) the Atma that knows or the Atm. etc. I am Chaitanya. I am without the dualities (of heat or cold. I am of all the worlds. I .the pure. I am the eternal. I am without the number two. I am without body. I am also another (thenot-Self).I am without the number one. I am the Pure. I am the Source (ofall things). I am the Eternal. I am the Excellent. The contemplatorand contemplation I am without. I am without Sankalpa. I am the earliest. I am Sattwika. etc. I am without honour or dishonour. That is the real supreme State wherein all Sankalpas (thoughts) are at rest.) I am He. I am without support. I am Siddha. I am the pure Brahman. I am without all and without not all. I am one that exists not. I am He.etc. I am without language. I am without asylum. and the ever felicitous. I am the All. I am without bondage or emancipation. I am the good and the bad.

I am the Quiescent. I have the name of one that is pleased as well as one that is not. I am within the within. I am without the no ". I am without the universe. I am not the universe. I am the Light (Jyotis)in Chinmatra (Absolute Conscious ness). I am the Seer of all. I have full form in all. I am without any sensual organs. I am without body. I have Chitta. yea. I am the non-absorbed Essence. I am the emancipated One. though released from the universe. I am One that has no body. and future) . I am the p artless. I am of the form of placesof pilgrimages. I am the easilyattainable. I am ever without emancipation. I have no place to travel. I am without the six sheaths and without the six enemies. I am of the form of all light. I am Purushottama (the Lord of Souls). I am of the form of happinesshaving the quarters as My garment. I am of the form of the part- less. etc. I am always of the form of Chin- matra (Absolute Consciousness). he becomes himself Brahman. I am the full grown. I am always One that is not different from Sat (Be-ness). I am One that is content with all Yedantas (eitherbooks or Atmic Wisdom)." . I am without truth or untruth. I am without the six changes. I am the emancipated One. I am the Being in the middle of the lotus. is Myself. I am the Wise. I am always Sat (Be-ness) and Chit (Consciousness). I am not one that has not anything in the least. I am without desires. I am not the measurer. I am alone. I am Gunaless. without " bondage. I have the characteristics of Sachchidananda.30 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS am He. etc. I am neither the thing denned nor non-defined. I am the Quiescent. I am without the heart-Granthi (knot).I am one that has not anything in the least. I am S'iva. I am always of the same form. There is no doubt that he who has realised himself thus. Whoever hears (this)once becomes himself Brahman. I have no going. I am the fruits of all silence. I am free from the three periods (of time past. I am without place and time.I am the higher Self and S'iva. I am with out emancipation. I am the doer of all actions. I am without the eyes. the measure OP the measured. Thus is the Upanishad. present. I am the Destroyer.

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who is the Lord (of all). who is Ghidananda who (Consciousness-Bliss). and who is Absolute Wisdom. In the dreamless sleepingstate when all are absorbed. the womb of all elements. arise Prana. Vayu. who has no beginning. repletewith Tamas. the upper Arani. He only is Vishnu. He only is Agni (fire). the All- Witness. and above Tamas. He only is eternal. which is of all forms. He only is the Supreme. Akas'.who is of the form of emancipation. He only attains Parabrahman who sees in himself all elements and himself in all elements. food. who has three eyes. He only is Brahma. He only is all things that exist or will hereafter exist. He only is Prana. " It is only He (Paramatma) who. attains the state of happiness. Having known Him. Ee only is the moon. Then through the force of the Karmas of previousbirths. In the dreaming state. He only is the indestructible. one crosses death. is formless. All the diversified objects(ofthe universe)emanate from the Jiva. who is All-Pervading. You are . drink. He only is the Self-Shining. He only is Indra. He. It is only He who in the waking state is gratifiedwith women. deluded by Maya. and who is serenity(itself)the " Muni attains Paramatma.is only yourself. who has a blue neck. (Nilakantha).a wise man burns Ajfianaby the churning of meditation. and other diverse enjoyments. that Jiva again wakes up and goes to sleep. who is One. who is the source of Maya. middle or end. who is wonderful. He only is S'iva. Manas. which is the most subtle of the subtle and which is eternal. There is no other path to salvation. who is Bliss. There is no other means. assumes a body with the internal organs and does everything. the Jiva enjoyspleasuresand pains in the several worlds which are created by His Maya. all the organs of sense and action. Agni. The three bodies are absorbed finally in Him who is the source of all. From Him. who sports in the three bodies (gross. Parabrahman. He only is Time. Having constituted his body an Arani (the lower attritional pieceof wood) and Pranava (Om).32 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHApS who is very quiescent. water and the earth supporting all. which is the Supreme Abode of this universe.subtle and causal).

I have no birth. I am the One that should be known through all the Vedas. as being the witness of all and as being neither Sat nor Asat. None is able to know Me fully. All merge into Me alone. To Me there is no earth. as being secondless. he attains the Kaivalya State (or state of isolation or emancipation) " yea. All emanate from Me alone. of sense or action. " Whoever recites this Upanishad belonging to Yajurveda. I hear without ears. I am omniscient. All exist in Me alone. there is no Akas'. I am the oldest of all. organs water or fire. body. I have one kind of form only. I am that non-dual Brahman. I am of the form of Jyotis (light)and of the form of happiness. and who is witness and Chinmatra. I am the Guru who revealed the Yedanta. or Buddhi. I am only He who knows the true meaning of Vedanta.(or the eternal happiness) who is other than the enjoyer. I have no sins or virtues. I have neither hands nor feet. I see without eyes. There fore he becomes a follower of Brahman. He becomes purified from the sins of murder of a Brahman. I am the atom of atoms . dreaming. attains the pure form of Paramatma. He becomes purified from the sins of theft of gold." . I have no destruction. I have power unthinkable. so am I the biggest (of all). Were one who has stepped beyond the duties of the four orders of life to recite (this Upanishad) always or even once. I am always of the form of Chit. He becomes purified from the sins of drinking alcohol. I am this diversified universe. I am Is'a (the Lord). Therefore having known Him. dreamless and oth?r states. KAIVALYA-UPANISHAD 33 only That.as having cave no form. he becomes as pure as Agni (fire). He who thinks Paramatma as being in the (of the heart). and the enjoyment in the three seats (or bodies). he attains the Kaivalya State. He becomes purified from the sins of commission (of those that ought not to be done) and the sins of omission (of those that ought to be done). One who knows himself to be that Parabrahman that shines as the universe in the waking. he acquiresthe wisdom that destroys the ocean of Samsara. There is no Vayu . the enjoyed. I am Purusha. will be relieved from all bondage. I am that Sadas'iva.

till then it (Manas) should be controlled. By meditating without Swara upon Brahman. man that is devoid of partiality. while that which is without desire is the To pure. That which is associated with the thought of desire is the impure. contemplated It is not capable of contemplation. the and the pure impure. Other are but long or tedious. AMRTABINDU'-UPANISHAD KRSHNA-YAJURVEDA OM. This only is true Dhyana (meditation). (Brahman) should be medi tated upon without Swara. yet) it should be contemplated Then one attains Brah upon. the immortal germ. that which is cannot become non-existent. Manas (mind) is said to be of two kinds. Now inasmuch as to a mind without a desire for sensual objects there is stated to be salvation. When a mind freed from the desires for objects and controlled in the heart attains the reality of Atma. Till that which arises in the heart perishes. while that which is not so attracted tends to emanci pation. (and upon. This only is (true) wisdom.. their mind alone is the cause of bondage or emancipation. devoid of fancy and quiescent (or free from the action of mind) Whoever cognizes " I " to be that Brahman . That mind which is attracted by objects of sense tends to bon dage. 1 Lit. accent). . then is it in the Supreme Seat. therefore an aspirant after emancipation should render his mind ever free from all longing after material objects. Yoga should be associated with Swara (sound. men. Such a Brahman is partless. It (Brahman) is not at all one ways that be contemplated It is not one that cannot be can upon.

. is never able to come to (or see) the sun (of Parabrahman) from the darkness (of ignorance). Should such darkness be cleared. without cause.is emancipated. The body which perishes again and again is not conscious of its own destruction. the dreaming. that is without fancy.S'abda- brahman and Parabrahman. 35 attains certainlyBrahman. the Akas' (ether) that is within it is not carried (along with it).the waking. the body has various kinds of forms. Two Vidyas (sciences)are fit to be known. so is Vijnana (Self-realisation) latent in every being. Through churning always the Manas with the 1 It is the indestructible known through the sound or the Vedas. he appears as one and as many. yet their milk is of the same colour. viz. A wise man having known that Brahman. Though there are cows of different colours. Then he should discard the whole of the books. While a pot is being carried (from one place to another). As ghee is latent in milk. no devotee. as a in quest of grain gives up the person straw.that is Akshara (inde structible). This is the truth. then he alone sees the non- dual state.no person in bondage. Like milk is seen Jnana.1 What remains after the cessation of S'abda-Vedas. There is no rebirth to him who goes beyond the three states. or example.no creation. He who is envelopedby the Maya of sound. The one Bhutatma of all beings is in all beings. There is (forhim then) no destruction. without end. Parabrahman is Sfabdakshara. loeyondinference and without beginning. Like the pot. Atma that should be contemplated upon is One in (the three states). the learned man should persevere studiously in Jnana (the acquisitionof knowledge) and Vijnana (Self-realisation according to such knowledge)..no emancipated person. Like the moon (reflected)in water. One who has completely mastered S'abdabrahman attains Parabrahman.should be meditated upon by a learned man who wishes to secure quiescence to his Atma. no aspirantfor salvation. and the dreamless sleep. Having studied well the books. But he (the Jiva) knows (it)always. and like cows are seen the different kinds of forms (inthe universe). As the pot alone is carried.Jiva (within the body) may be likened to the Akas'.

who lives in all and who protects all support creatures is Myself. That Vasudeva is Myself. Parabrahman that is calm and quiescent should be brought out like partless. I that Brahman. . That Yasutleva who am is of all beings.36 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS churning-stick of Manas and the string of Jnana. Such is the Upanishad. OM-TAT-SAT. fire from the wood.

Om. passes from death to death. ATMABOPHA1-UPANISHAP OF RGVEDA OM. It is Brahmanya. . the Om. Therefore the reciter of the Mantra " " Om-namo-Narayanaya reaches the Vaikuntha world. 3 is said In the Mandukya Upanishad.3 by whom the Yogi is released from the bondage of the cycle of rebirth through the utterance of Him who is of the form of Pranava. he becomes the fearless non-dual.. and mace. who is causeless. 2 The three symbols stand for Akasa. It is Brahmanya (the presider over the city of Brahman) that is the son of Devaki. the Om. etc. Prajuana is Prakarsha Jnana or special wisdom. Manas. It is efful gent like lightning. who is the uniform bliss and who is the Brahmapurusha (all- pervading Purusha). From the dual. Whoever sees this (world) as manifold (with the differences of I. viz. It is the heart-Kamala (lotus). shining like a lamp. which is the All. of looking over the past and the future. 1 This Upanishad treats of Atmic instruction. Prostrations to Narayana wearing conch.. In the centre of the heart- lotus is Brahman. discus. viz. It is Brahmanya that is Pundarikaksha (lotus-eyed). who is the causal Purusha.). He who meditates that sole Narayana who is latent in all upon beings. you. and M. who is without pains and delusion and who is all-pervading" that person is never subject to pains. which has Prajfia as Its eye and which is established in Prajnana3 alone. the city of Brahman. and Buddhi. he. Prajna to be the Jiva in the third state and Prajnana is its attribute. To creatures. Vishnu that is Achyuta (the indestructible). who is Parabrahman. It is Brahmanya that is Madhusudana (the killer of Madhu). U. composed of the three letters A.

I am the state of excellent happiness. I have a wondrous form. I am solely the thing that is of the nature of wisdom. I am with ordinances and prohibitionsdestroyed without remainder. (There is no doubt) he attains nectar also.leaves this world through Prajnana. I am the Kutastha- Chaitanya (supreme Cosmic-mind). I am the subtle. I am of the form of the Jyotis (light) free from motion. I am without motion. the Atma and ascendmg attains all his desires in the Supreme Swarga deathless. I am One that cannot be differentiated. I am without limbs or birth. I am without change. I am without old age " without destruction " without the differences of My party or another. I am replete with Supreme Bliss. I am the Supreme that is not different from Pratyagatma (individual Atma). and eternal.I am the Seat devoid of the three Guiias. I am of the form of the stainless salvation. Oh ! I pray Thee. without the illusion of qualities. I reside in My glory alone. I am of the nature of wisdom. I am the cause of the many worlds in (My) stomach. secondless. Jiva and Is'wara. A person who meditates (thus). I am not one that can be known by inference. .38 THIRTY MINOR DPANISHADS Prajnaiiais the eye and Prajna is the seat. I am of the nature of happiness. I am pure.which is Supreme Bliss. I am the limitless and endless Sattwa alone. It is Prajnana alone that is Brahman.subtle. I am Atma merely. I have wisdom as chief essence. (observancesof life) I am of the nature of the vast and all-full wisdom. I am with As'ramas well given up. I am the heart of all the worlds. I alone am full. I am the emanci pated One. I am the one fit to be worshipped. Om-namah. I am devoid of beginning. I am without compare. I am without the difference of the universe. I am free from the three bodies (gross. I am without Maya. I am without Ahankara (I-am-ness) . I am one that is witness and without desire. I am the all-pervading and without stain. I am the essence which is Sat itself. I am free from impurity. and causal). I am fit to be known through Vedanta. place me in that nectar-everflowingunfailingworld where Jyotis (the light)always shines and where one is revered. I am the mere ocean of bliss called salvation. I am of the nature of the true wisdom without limit.

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present. do not mix with its stains. however slight. makes Ajfiana. and rope future). Being of the nature of Truth. Whoever recites this Atmabodha-Upanishad for a Muhurta (48 minutes) is not born again is not born again. so I. there is not inertness in Me. Just as nectar which is other than poison does. who am different from inert matter. As the light of a lamp. " yea. shining Supreme Bliss. Being of the nature of Consciousness alone. Should the clouds screen the eyesight. to perish. dispels immense darkness. so wisdom. person Ajfiana thinks there is no Brahman. Just as (the delusion) of the serpent does not exist in the in all the three periods of time (past.40 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHAPS darkness only in the so a fool sees only darkness in the self- sun. Being of the nature of Bliss. . not commingle with it. however immense. there is not sorrow in Me. It is through Ajfiana that the universe shines as truth. there is not non-truth to Me. however small. the universe from Ahankara (down) to body does not so exist in Me who am the non-dual One. fool thinks there is no sun so an embodied full of a .

SKANDA^UPANISHAP OF KRSHNA-YAJURVEDA OM. O Mahadeva (Lord of Devas). Bound by husk. he (Jiva) is Sadas'iva. That Brahman I am. he is Jiva. is of the form of Jfiana. Jiva is Sfiva alone. therefore to me are prosperity and life. In like manner Jiva is bound (by karma). Hari abides as Samvit (Consciousness) alone. S'iva is Jiva. What is higher than It? Truth does not shine as such on account of the display of the antahkarana (internal organs). it is rice. I am indestructible through small portion of Thy I am replete with Vijnana. There is no doubt (about it) Jiva is Sftva. then he is Sadas'iva. As I also am of the form of Samvit. What is higher than It ? All inert things being other (than Atma) perish like dream. He only is Mahadeva. So long as he is bound by the bonds of karma. am Sava (Bliss). There is no difference " between S'iva and 1 Skanda is the sou of Siva and is represented on earth by Sanatknmara. He only is Para- mes'vara. The heart of S'iva is Vishnu. The heart of Vishnu is S'iva. freed from husk. That . I a grace. That Achyuta (the indestructible or Vishnu). who wage useless war as to the supremacy of Vishnu and Siva. Through the destruction of the antahkarana. He only is the Jyotis of all Jyo^is (or Light of all lights). If freed from its bonds. He only is Maha-Hari (Mahavishnu). Prostrations on account of S'iva who is of the form of Vishnu. it is paddy . I am without birth. If karma perishes. He only is Parabrahman. 2 This will give a rude shock to the followers of Siva and "Vishnu in India. As 2 I see no difference (between these two). who is the seer of the conscious and the inert. and on account of Vishnu who is of the form of S'iva. 6 .

42 THIETY MINOR UPANISHADS

Kes'ava (Vishnu). The body is said to be the divine temple.
1
The S'iva (inthe body) is the God Sadas'iva (inthe temple).
Having given up the cast-off of ajnana/oneshould
offerings
"
worship Him with the thought "
I am He .
To see (oneself)
as not different (from Him) is (jfiana)wisdom. To make the

mind free from sensual objectsis dhyana (meditation). The

giving up of the stains of the mind is snana (bathing). The
subjugationof the senses is s'oucha (cleansing).The nectar of

Brahman should be drunk. For the upkeep of the body, one
should go about for alms and eat. He should dwell alone in a

solitaryplace without a second. He should be with the sole

thought of the non-dual One. The wise person who conducts
himself thus, attains salvation. Prostrations on account of

Sfrimat Param-Jyotis (Supreme Light) abode ! May prosperity
a
and long life attend (me). 0 Narasimha ! 0 Lord of Devas !

through Thy grace, persons cognize the true nature of Brahman

that is unthinkable, undifferentiated,
endless, and immutable,
through the forms of the Grods,Brahma, Narayana, and S'ankara.
Like the eye (which sees without any obstacle the things)
spread in the akas',so the wise always see the supreme abode of
Vishnu. Brahmans with divine eyes who are always spiritually
awake, praisein diverse ways and illuminate the supreme abode
of Vishnu. Thus is the teachingof the Vedas for salvation.
Thus is the CJpanishad.

1
Sadasiva,lit.,
eternal bliss. This is one of the names applied to Siva as also
Mahadeva.
a
Narasimha, lit.,
Man-lion. This refers to one of the incarnations of Vishnu
when he killed the evil power Hiranyakasipu.

PAINGALA-UPANISH A D1

OF

S'UKLA-YAJURVEDA

ADHYAYA I

OM. Paingala, having served under Yajnavalkya for twelve years,

asked him to initiate him into the
supreme mysteries of Kaivalya.
To which Yajnavalkya replied thus :
"
0 gentle one, at first,
this (universe) was Sat (Be-ness) only. It (Sat) is spoken of as

Brahman which is ever free (from the trammels of matter), which
is changeless, which is Truth, Wisdom, and Bliss, and which is

full, permanent, and one only without a second. In It, was like a

mirage in the desert, silver in mother-of-pearl, a person in the

pillar, or colour, etc., in the crystals, mulaprakrti, having
in equal proportions the red,2 white, and black, and being
gunas,

beyond the of speech. That which is reflected in it is
power

Sakshi-Chaitanya (lit.,the witness-consciousness). It (mulapra

krti) undergoing again change becomes with the preponderance
of Sat^va (in it), Avarana3 S'akti named avyakta. That which is

reflected in it (Avyakta) is Is'vara-Chaitanya. He (Is'vara) has

Maya under his control, is omniscient, the original cause of

creation, preservation, and dissolution, and the seed of this

universe. He causes the universe which was latent in Him, to

manifest itself through the bonds of karma of all creatures

like a painted canvas unfurled. Again through the extinction

1
This Upanishad is so called after the questioner.

2;Rajas, Sattva andTamas colours.

s Avarana the
Sakti literally means veiling or contracting This is (it
power.
that produces egoism. It may be called the centripetal force.

44 THIRTY MINOE UPANlSHApS

of their karmas, he makes it disappear. In Him alone is latent

all the universe, wrapped up like a paintedcloth. Then from

the supreme (Avarana) S'akti,dependent on (or appertaining
to Is'vara,
arose, through the preponderance of Rajas,Vikshepa1
S'akti called Mahat. That which is reflected in it is Hiranya-
garbha-Chaitanya. Presiding (as He does) over Mahat, He

(Hiranyagarbha) has a body, both manifested and unmanifest-
ed.2 From Vikshepa S'akti of Hiranyagarbha arose, through
the preponderance of Tamas, the gross Sfakt;i
called ahankara.
That which is reflected in it is Virat-Chaitanya. He (Virat)
presiding over it (ahankara) and possessinga manifested body
becomes Vishnu, the chief Purusha and protector of all

gross bodies. From that Atma arose akas' ; from akas' arose

vayu, from vayu agni, from agni apas, and from apas
prthivi. The five tanmatras3 (rudimentary properties) alone
are the gunas (of the above five). That generatingcause of
the universe (Is'vara)
wishing to create and having assumed

tamo-guna, wanted to convert the elements which were

subtle tanmatras into gross ones. In order to create the
universe, he divided into two parts each of those divisible ele
ments
j
and having divided each moiety into four parts, made a

fivefold mixture, each element having moiety of its own

originalelement and one-fourth of a moiety of each of the other

elements, and thus evolved out of the fivefold classified gross

elements, the many myriads of Brahmandas (Brahma's egg or

macrocosm), the fourteen worlds pertainingto each sphere,and
the sphericalgross bodies (microcosm) fitfor the (respective)
worlds. Having divided the Rajas-essence
of the five elements into
four parts, He out of three such parts created (the five)pranas
having fivefold function. Again out of the (remaining)fourth
part, He created karmendriyas (the organs of action). Having
divided their Sattva-essence into four parts, He out of three such

parts created the antahkarana (internalorgan) having fivefold
1
Vikshepa Sakti (lit.,)is the expanding power. It may be called the
centrifugal force.
3
The account given here though differingfrom that in other booka be
may
justified.
3
They are sound, touch, form, taste, and odour.

PAINGALA-UPANISHAp 45

function. Out of the (remaining) fourth part of Sfattva-essence,
he created the jnanendriyas(organs of sense). Out of the col

lective totalityof Sattva-essence,He created the devatas (deities)
rulingover the organs of sense and actions. Those (devatas)He
created, He located in the to them).
spheres(pertaining They
through His orders, began to pervade the macrocosm. Through
His orders, Virat associated with ahankara created all the

gross things. Through His orders, Hiranyagarbha protected
the subtle things. Without Him, they that were located in
their spheres were unable to move or to do anything. Then He
wished to infuse chetana (life)into them. Having pierced
the Brahmanda (Brahma's egg or macrocosm) and Brahmaran-

dhras (head-fontanelle)
in all the microcosmic heads, He entered
within. Though they were (atfirst)inert,they were then able

to perform karmas like beings of intelligence.The omniscient
Is'vara entered the microcosmic bodies with a particleof Maya
and being deluded by that Maya, acquiredthe state of Jiva.

Identifyingthe three bodies with Himself, He acquiredthe state

of the actor and enjoyer. Associated with the attributes of the

states of jagrat,svapna, trance, and
sushupti, death and being
immersed in sorrow, he is (whirled about and) deluded like

water-lift or potter'swheel, as if subjectto birth and death."

ApHYAYA II

Paingala again addressed Yajnavalkya thus :
"
How did

Is'vara,
who is the creator, preserver, and destroyerand the
"
Lord of all the worlds, acquirethe state of Jiva ? To which

Yajnavalkya replied: "
I shall tell in detail the nature of Jiva

and Is'vara, together with a descriptionof the originof the
gross, subtle, and karana (causal) bodies. Hear attentively
with one-pointedmind.
"
Is'vara having taken a small portionof the quintuplicated
maha-bhutas, (the great elements), made in regular order the
gross bodies, both collective and segregate. The skull,the skin,
the intestines,bone, flesh,and nails are of the essence of pr$hivi.
Blood, urine, saliva, sweat and others are of the essence of

46 THIRTY MINOK UPANISHADS

apas. Hunger, thirst,heat, delusion,and copulationare of the

essence of agni. Walking, lifting,
breathingand others are of

the essence of vayu. Passion,anger, etc.,are of the "essence of

akas'. The collection of these having touch and the rest is

this gross body that is brought about by karma, that is the seat

of egoism in youth and other states and that is the abode of

many sins. Then He created pranas out of the collective three

parts of Rajas-essenceof the fivefold divided elements. The

modifications of prana are prana, apana, vyana, udana, and
samana; naga, kurma, krkara, devadatta and dhanafi-

jaya are the auxiliary pranas. (Of the first five),the heart,
anus, navel, throat and the whole body are respectively
the seats. Then He created the karmendriyas out of the

fourth part of the Rajas-guna. Of akas' and the rest

the mouth, legs,hands, and the organs of secretion and

excretion are the modifications. Talking, walking, lifting,
excreting,and enjoyingare their functions. Likewise out of the

collective three parts of Sattva-essence,He created the antah
karana (internalorgan). Antahkarana,1 manas, buddhi, chitta,
and ahankara are the modifications. Sankalpa (thought),
certitude,memory, egoism, and anusandhana (inquiry)are
their functions. Throat, face,navel,2 heart, and the middle of

the brow are their seats. Out of the (remaining)fourth part of
Sattva-essence,He created the jnanendriyas(organs of sense).
Ear, skin,eyes, tongue, and nose are the modifications. Sound,
touch, form, taste, and odour are their functions. Dik (the
quarters),Vayu, Arka (thesun),Varuna, As'vini Devas, Indra,
Upendra, Mrtyu (theGrod of the Moon,
death),Prajapati, Vishnu
the four-faced Brahma and S'ambhu (S'iva)
are the presiding
deities of the organs. There are the five kos'as (sheaths),viz.,
annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijnanamaya,and ananda-

maya. Annamaya sheath is that which is created and developed
out of the essence of food, and is absorbed into the earth which
is of the form of food. It alone is the gross body. The pranas
with the karmendriyas (organs of action) is the pranamaya
1
The fifth aspect of antahkarana is made to be itself,having the function
of anusandhana or inquiry, though others call it otherwise.
a
Navel is the seat of chitta.

The Reality should be ascertained through adhyaropa (illusoryattribution)and apavad (withdrawal or recession of that idea).so the Jiva being tired of the actions of the world in the waking and dreaming states. The Jiva. Then trance is attained which resembles death. their objects. Therefore there . Then death avastha is that which is other than the avasthas of jagra^. there is the manifestation of the knower and the known. and in which one with his collection of organs quails. svapna. tired of roaming. when the senses are at svapna rest. illuminates by his lustre the heterogeneityof this universe which is of the form of and himself enjoys accord affinities. In this state Vis'va alone. club or any other weapon. Through the ripeningof the fruits of previous karmas. one out of many attains moksha. ing to his wish. Just as a bird.as it were. that is surrounded by avidya and the subtle elements. through fear and ajnana. flies to its nest with its stomach filled.like one beaten unexpectedlyby a hammer. assuming another body. sushupti. It is only after many births that the desire of emancipationarises in man through the ripeningof good karma. who moves in the middle of the nadis (nerves). The sushupti avastha is that in which the chitta is sole organ (at play). the Jiva has no rest like an insect in a whirlpool.and trance. Then having resorted to a good Guru and served under him for a long time. and pranas along with the kamic karmas and goes to another world. along with the affinities of (things enjoyed in) the waking state. Bondage is through non-inquiry and moksha through inquiry. which producesfear in all Jivas from Brahma down to small insects and which dissolves the gross body.he strives to find the path to retire into his abode within. goes Like an emperor tired of worldly acts (inthe waking state). enters ajnana and enjoys bliss. free from bondage. The avastha is that in which.takes with it the organs of sense and action.48 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS fruits thereof . its actions in the waking state having ceased. and such a person doing karma for the fruits thereof to other worlds and enjoys the same there. Therefore there should always be inquiry(intoAtma). reaches the state of Taijasa (of tejasor efful gence).

The word ' Tat denotes the cause of the universe that is variegated beyond perception. Were the true nature of Jiva and the universe known.has the characteristics of omni science. thon there remains Brahman which is non-different from Pratyagatma." ADHYAYA III Then Paingala asked Yajfiavalkyato offer exposition an on the mahavakyas (sacredsentences of the Vedas). becomes of the form of the meditated like a lamp in a place without wind.Twam- brahmasi (Thou art Brahman) and Ahambrahmasmi (I am Brah ' man). Such (modifications) cannot be known . PAINGALA-UPANISHAD 49 should be always inquiringinto the universe. Tattvamasi (That art thou). The concentration of the mind with one-pointedness upon that which should be sought after by s'ravana and manana is nididhyasana. and it is He that is denoted by the word 'Twam' (Thou).Tvamtadasi (Thou art That). 7 . the current of nectar l 1 It is said that in sum fidhi astral nectar flows from the head down which the Yogins are said to drink and which gives them infinite bliss. To which Yaj fiavalkyareplied : " One should scrutinise (the sacred sentences).The myriads of karmas committed in this beginninglesscycle of rebirths are annihilated only through them. Jiva and Pa- ramatma. Samadhi is that state in which chitta having given up (the conception of the difference of) the meditator and the meditation. That is the undifferentiated Brahman which remains as the aim (ormean ing) of the words Tat and Tvam after freeingitself from Maya and Avidya which are the respectively vehicles of Paramatma and Jivatma. Then arise the modifications pertainingto Atma.has Maya as His vehicle and has the attributes of Sach- chidananda. It is He that is the basis of the notion ' I ' which has the differentiated knowledge produced by antahkarana . To inquirein solitude in to the of significance s'ravana is manana. but they can only be inferred through memory (ofthe samaclhi state). Through proficiency in practice. The inquiryinto the real significance of the sentences Tattvamasi and Ahambrahmasmi forms (what is called)s'ravana (hearing " the first stage of inquiry).

the Kutas^ha.(viz. as being within. Through these (modificationsof Atma). their upadhi (of avidya) having become extinct. akas' into ahankara. This sphere (of universe) being the fire of jnana is absorbed along with its burnt up by cause into Paramatma. " Atma. water into agni. agni into vayu. Hiranyagarbha and Is'vara being freed from the vehicle of Maya. Then he becomes a Jivanmukta. Therefore those who know Yoga call this samadhi.50 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS always rains down in diverse ways.are absorbed in Pratyagatma. is merged into its subtle state of non-quintuplicatedelements. as being of the nature of the jyotis(light) without smoke. like the myrobalan in the palm of the hand. This body composed of the five differentiated elements gross and obtained through accumulated karma. through the ex tinction of (bad) karma and increase of good karma. Then always upon Atma shines. Virat. One should meditate upon Atma in the midst (ofthe body) like a lamp within a jar. illuminating all and as being .) Kutastha-Pratyagatma. Therefore a Brahmana should be careful and meditate the identityof Tat and Tvam.like the sun freed from the (obscurationof the) clouds. are absorbed into Paramatma. then attains its karana (causal) state and (finally)is absorbed into its cause. "Is'vara wished to producenon-quintuplication (orinvolution) in the fivefold differentiated elements. akankara into mahat. should be meditated upon as being of the size of a thumb. and mixed together the subtle organs of sense and action and the four internal organs and dissolved all things composed of the elements into their cause. When the accumu lated good and bad karmas are wholly destroyed.. though It was before invisible. bring him face to face with the ultimate Reality. He then caused prthivi to merge into water. dharma-megha (cloud). the collection of affinities is absorbed without any remainder whatever. the five elements. mahat into avyakta. and avyakta into Purusha in regular order. Vis'va and Taijasa and Prajna.these sentences (Tattvamasi and Ahambrahmasmi). Having drawn into their cause Brahma's egg and its effects of worlds. and vayu into akas'.

One through his being a Brahmavit2 alone enables 101 generations to cross. he exists (inhis body) as in the (cast-off) slough of a serpent (without any desire for the body). . and which is permanent and without stain or disease. Therefore it is the actual Narayana alone that is established in the heart. It is only to Purusha (the wise) that sannyasa (renunciation)is ordained and not to others. which is beyond the Tattva of Mahat. He gives up his body whether in a sacred place. 2 of Brahma Jfianiis or of whom There are four classes initiates this is one.without taste or odour. twenty-one generationsto cross (to Atma). the objects are the roads (through which the horses travel) and the hearts are the moving balloons. when associated with the sense organs and manas. Maharshis say that Atma. 3 That portion of past karma which is being enjoyed in this life. is the enjoyer. free from destruction. In case of the 1 virtues in number Humility and other twenty are described in BJiagavatl-Glta." ADHYAYA IV Then Paingala addressed Yajnavalkya thus : " To the " wise. Such a body (when seen by a person) should be offered as a sacrifice to dik (the quarters)or should be buried (underground).or in a chandala's (out- caste's)house (without any distinction whatever). what is their karma ? And what is their state ? To which Yajnavalkya replied: " A lover of moksha. having humility1and other enables possessions(orvirtues). An emancipated person having such a body roves about like a moon gladdening all with no settled place of abode. and attains salvation. That Muni (sage) who meditates (upon Atma always) until sleepor death comes upon him passes into the state of (Jivanmukti)emancipation like the immovable state of the wind. which is eternal. PAINGALA-UPANISHAD 51 indestructible. touch. The wise say the organs are the horses. which is without beginning or end. Know Atma to be the rider and the body as the chariot. Chapter XIII. Then there remains that One (Brahman) without sound. Till his prarabdha karma3 is worn out. Know also buddhi as the chario teer and manas as the reins.

When the body is rendered bright through wisdom and the buddhi becomes of the partlessOne. so long should he serve the Guru. the cognizing of 'I' as the supreme and the all is the highest bliss." he should concentrate his heart on Paramatma and obtain firm peace in his body. homa. like akas'. of the nature of immaculate Chit and resigned. Just as a food once cooked is not again cooked. then he becomes of the nature of Jyotis. so a body once burnt (by the fire of wisdom) should not be burnt (or exposed to fire)again. (Therefore)the inner Atma is invisible like vayu. . there is no pollution(tobe observed) .After having purifiedthe heart and contemplated on the One without disease (viz. Like water mixed with water. He should conduct himself towards his Guru's wife and children as he does to his Guru. Then he becomes purified.52 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS death of an ascetic who is of the form (orhas attained the nature) of Brahman. there is nothing more to be done.jBrahman). eta) . nor the pinda (ballsof rice). To one whose body was burnt by the fire of wisdom there is neither 1 s'raddha (requiredto be performed). Pratyagatma though far (or difficult of attainment). though in the body. If he has to do anything. nor the periodical ceremonies (monthly and yearly). neither the ceremonies of fire (as burning the body.nor (funeral)ceremony.is not far. milk with milk. Though he is within and without. he is devoid of it (since)he is all-pervading.of the nature of the non-dual named Parmes'vara and the lightlike the stainless akas'. so Jlva (-Atma)becomes upadhiless (or freed from the bonds of matter). If being of a pure mind.he is the immovable 1 The yearly ceremonies in honour of the dead. and having the discrimination arising from the attainment of wisdom " I am He.of an invisible form. Atma is. Of what avail is milk to one content with nectar ? Of what avail are the Vedas to him who has known his Atma thus ? For a Yogin content with the nectar o" wisdom. Like water mixed with water. so Jivatma and Paramatma are without difference.and ghee with ghee. So long as there is the upadhi (ofnon-wisdom) in one. then the wise man burns the bondage of karma through the fire of Brahrna- jfiana.then he is not a knower of Tattva.nor ceremonies of water.void of manas and buddhi.

it is destroyed). one should worshipthat which is satya (truth).. all-pervading It should be known that Atma is absorbed as truly as the akas' in the pot (when broken). He becomes like one who has studied all the Vedas.000 years. the internal Atma sees (or knows).000 years.The many karmas. in the least. I f am Brahman'..be equal to one-sixteenth part of dhyanayoga. even though he may study the S'astras for 1. then there is never the conception of duality. he may appease his hunger by eatinghusks (of grain). One desirous of knowing what jnana (wisdom) and jneya (the object to be known) are. when viz. When the mind at tains the state of Unmani (above manas. japa (the muttering of mantras). in whatever place or manner he dies. There are two causes (that lead) to bondage and emancipation. Then he attains the wisdom- all-pervading light that is without support. (Afterwhich) wherever the mind goes.When the Unmani state occurs. will not be able to attain his desired end. PAINGALA-UPANISHAD 53 Atma. there is the supreme Seat (toit. He becomes as pure as Brahma. purity (of mind and heart). That which is equal in all is Brahman alone. is absorbed in that place like the akas'. the mind enjoyssalvation wherever it is). That which is alone should be known as the indestructible. " Whoever recites this Upanishad becomes as immaculate as Agni. For ages " Mahatmas (noble souls) to be always in (the conceptionof) f I am Brahman ' conduces to their salvation. it will not. He becomes like one who has bathed in all the holy waters. Though men should perform tapas standing on one leg for a period of 1. That which exists (in this world) is only impermanent. He . whereas through ' ' not mine they are released from bondage.but never shall he attain emancipationwho has not the self -cognition. " A wise man. sacrifice and pilgrim all these should be observed till Tattva is known. Through the torch of wisdom. They are ' mine 'and ' not mine'. (Therefore)after having given up (thestudy of) the many S'astras. Through ' mine' creatures are bound. He becomes like one that has undergone all vedic observances. then is the supreme Seat (attained).viz. One may attain the power to strike the akas' with his fist . He becomes as pure as Vayu.

. The Brahmanas who have always their spiritual eyes wide open praise and illuminate in diverse ways the Seat of Vishnu. the drink ing of alcohol. " Like the eye pervading the akas' (seeing without effort everything above). fle purifies his ancestors ten degrees removed and his descendants ten degreesremoved.and sexual cohabitation with Gruru's wife. Puranas and Rudramantras a lakh of times. Om : This Upanishad is truth. a wise man sees (always) the supreme Seat of Vishnu.54 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS obtains the fruit of the recitation of Itihasas1. He becomes a great personage.theft of gold. He becomes purifiedfrom the sins of the murder of a Brahman. He becomes purifiedof all those that sit with him for dinner. He becomes like one that has pronounced Pranava (Om) ten thousand times. and from the sins of associatingwith those that commit such sins." supreme 1 Itihasas are the Ramayaqa and the Mahabhdrata.

.

having dissolved (Jiva-) Atma into Paramatma with the thought of its being partless. 0 sinless one. as death (itself). Then will you become Brahman and be (ina) blessed (state). Knowers of Brahman in style(this)carelessness.like the spotlessmoon becoming full (aftereclipse). should they be careless (even for a moment). and from the latter. Looking upon everything in all places and times as Brahman brings about the destruction of vasanas through the force of vasanas of sattvic nature. Having merged into Chidatma. which is generated out of the impurities of parents and is composed of excreta and flesh. be ever in a state of taciturnity. give up the macrocosm and microcosm like an impure vessel. so Maya envelops even the wise. (in yourself)to be the (supreme) Atma. is broken completely only when one sees his Atma as secondless through nirvikalpasamadhi.Never giving the slightestscope to sleep. 0 sin less one.. Ever devoted to samadhi. From it arises the decay of vasanas . sounds. become one that has performed (all)his duty. Having becotno that which is the seat of all Atmas and the self-resplen dent.in a minute. The grant hi (or knot) of the heart. worldly talk. With the extinction of actions. Carelessness in Brahmanishtha by (or medita tion of Brahman) should not in the least be allowed (to creep in).Just as the moss (momentarily) displaced (in a tank) again resumes its originalposition.there arises the extinction of chin^a.arises moksha .like the ether of a jar in the universal ether. become a nirvikalpa (or the change less one). full of ajnana. Shun at a distance like a chandala (the thought of) the body. He who attains the Kaivalya state during life becomes a Kevala even after death of his body. etc. Brahmic science. and this is called Jivanmukti.56 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS and self-experience. which is ever blissful. The ever-blissful and the self-effulgentOne being freed from the grip of ahankara attains its own state. and having removed the (conception of) Liriga (here the sign of separate- ness). " the conceptionof " I which is rooted in the body. 0 Sage. . think of Atma. Having known " I am " that Brahman in which alone the universe appears like a town in a mirror. become ever the Kevala (alone).

full like the ocean at the end of a Kalpa and effulgent. Indra is Atma .cloth. having strengthened the conceptionof Atma and well " given up that of " I in the body. How can there be heterogeneity in that one supreme Principlewhich is alike ? How can there be in heterogeneity the highest Tattva which is One ? Who has observed any heterogeneityin sushupti(the dreamless sleep). Vishnu is Atma . and sight. the former is useless. That is called Apara (the other or which inferior) shines through meditation upon the idea and the 8 . Brahma is Swayam (Atma) . and has the variegatedmystery is denoted by the word "Tat" (that). That which has Maya as its upadhi is the womb of the world .there being the decayless and Chidatma.the secondless and the actionless. the seen. Hence one should see (or cognize) his Atma as all-full and existingby itself (alone). If the latter in each of these is absent. one should be indifferent as he would 'be towards jars. the fruit of bodha is uparati (renunciation) . ADHYATMA-UPAN1SHAD 57 Now. there is nothing.etc.then he drinks always the juice (or essence) of bliss in his Atma. whether internallyor externally. Rudra is Atma . all this universe is Atma and there is nothing but Atma. and this s'anti is the fruit of uparati. one becomes himself Parabrahman the full. that true one which has the attribute of omniscience. Nivrtti (or the return path) leads to the highest contentment and (spiritual) bliss is said to be beyond all analogy.. How can there be the of heterogeneity the universe of sankalpaand vikalpa in that One Principlewhich is immu table. Therefore unite the chitta with Paramatman in its Pratyagatmic state.the cause of false perception.all the upadhis are only unreal.where there is happinessonly ? This vikalpa has its root in chitta only. From Brahma down to a pillar. When chitta is not. etc. The fruit of vairagya is bodha (spiritual wisdom) . merges in it. If one knows Atma as unbroken bliss in itself. s'iinti (sweet patience) is attained out of the enjoyment of the bliss of one's Atma.all darkness.formless and homogeneous ? When there is no difference between the seer. By expelling (from the mind) without any re mainder all objectswhich are superimposed on one's Atma.

58 THIKTY MINOR UPANISHADS * world asmat and the consciousness of which is developed by antahkarana.inasmuch as it showers nectarine drops of karma in great quantities. He who possesses this always is a Jivanmukta. and shines as Sat . The cessation of the risingof the idea of " " I is the highest limit of buddhi .are rooted out. Even the mental states are not known (at the time when one is within the scope of Atma). vrtti of nirvikalpaand chinmatra. By separating the upadhis Maya and avidya from Para and Jiva (cosmic and human Atmas respectively). appears no longer so. . It becomes manana (contemplation)when such ideas are quieted (in one) through logical reasoning.like a light undisturbed by the wind. nor 1 I and its inflexions. That is called samadhi in which the chitta.and that has the. That ascetic is said to possess Sthitaprajnawho enjoysbliss always and whose mind is absorbed in Brahman that is formless and actionless. Vairagya begins from where the vasanas cease to arise towards objectsof enjoyment. concentration of the mind on it alone constitutes nididhyasana. Making the mind dwell upon such sentences (orideas)as the above constitutes s'ravana (hearing). But they are only inferred from the recollection which takes place after samadhi. Know- ers of Yoga call this samadhi. That state of mind is termed prajna that realises the oneness of Brahman and Atma after deep inquiry. virtuous and sinful. rising above the conception of the contemplator and contemplation.. uparati begins from where the mental states once destroyed do not again arise. merges gradually into the contemplated. when all the hosts of vasanas are destroyedentirelythrough this. Through this samadhi are destroyed crores of karmas which have accumulated during cyclesof births without beginning and pure dharma is developed. and direct cognition reveals itself. When (their)meaning is confirmed through these the (two processes). dharma-megha (cloud).and when the accumulated karmas. one realises Parabrahman which is partlessand Sachchidananda. Then that in which speech was hidden till now.like the myrobalan in the palm of the hand. He is a Jivanmukta who has " neither the conceptionof " I in the body and the senses.

since it is simply a delusion to attribute prarabdha to this body. then how will prarabdha affect him ? Prarabdha accomplishes (itswork) only when one considers his body as Atma. ADHYATMA-UPANISHAP 59 the conception of another (differentfrom himself)in everything else.does not stop when it (the tiger)is found to be a cow . as in the case of an arrow discharged at a target. A man is subject to prarabdha1 so long as he is affected by pleasure. the knowing of Brahman being external only. etc. . and one should reap its fruit. When one realises his Atma as free from old age and death. An ascetic having known himself as associateless and in different like ether. An arrow that is discharged towards an objectwith the idea that it is a tiger. without stopping. How can there be realityto that which is super imposed upon another ? How can there be birth to that which is not real ? How can there be death to that which is not born ? How can there be prarabdha to that which is unreal ? The Veda speaks of prarabdha in an external sense only.like the actions in the dreaming state (thatare destroyed) during the waking state. This conception of Atma as body is not at all a desirable one .then he is not a true knower. He is a Jivanmukta who pre serves equanimity of mind. The prarabdha karma that has begun to act before the dawn of jnana is not checked by it . so it should be given up along with prarabdha. Through the cognition " I am Brahman" are destroyedthe karmas accumulated during hundreds of crores of previous births. is not at all affected by any of his karmas at any time.to satisfy those 1 The result of past karma now enjoyed. But were he so subjected. He is a Jivanmukta who sees through his prajfiano difference* between his own Atma and Brahman as well as be tween Brahman and the universe. so Atma is not affected by the guuas produced by its upadhi. and nowhere is it without karma. Just as the ether is not affected by the alcoholic smell through its contact with a pot. but it (even) pierces the mark through its speed. One who has cognized the true nature of Brahman is not subjectto rebirth as before. The attainment of a result is always preceded by action. revered by the good or reviled by the vicious. either when.

60 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS foolish persons that doubt. the changeless. decayless. the subtle. the gunaless.who has identified his Atma with the one changeless Atma. the one essence. is a Siddha (one that has accomplished his object). and Ananda.the actionless. I am an asanga. or know anything.the all-full and the ancient. this is the teaching of the Vedas. pure This science was imparted to Apantaratama who it gave to Brahma. but now it is gone. then ? How did it appear ? Where is it absorbed ? It was seen by me justnow. I am Hari (the Lord taking away sin). Whither is this world gone. one only without a second. saying : " If jnana can destroyall the results of ajfiana (such as body. yea. the one that can neither be supported nor be made to support. I am neither the agent nor the enjoyer. replete with Sat. having its face everywhere. the eternal. etc.then whence is the exis " tence of this body to such a one ? but not to inculcate to the wise the existence of the body. What a great miracle ! What is fit to be taken in ? and what to be rejected? What is other (than Atma) ? And what is different (from It) ? In this mighty ocean of Brahman full of the nectar of undivided bliss.I am the quiescent. the self-existent. the enlightened. the plenum. Thus ends the Upanishad. and this is the teaching of the Vedas .I do not see. the one full of Sat. And Rama gave it to all beings. .the indescribable. Anandarupa. I am the changeless and the decayless. I am an asanga (or the associateless). There are not in the least many. beginningless} endless. the immaculate. hear. Atma is all-full. such is Brahman. who gave it to Rama. Brahma gave it to Grhora-Angiras. immeasurable. I am without any attributes. I am of the nature of enlightenment. Chit. unchangeable.the endless. above the reach of speech and mind. I am the one and the perpetual bliss. the one that can neither be given up nor taken up. He who knows his Atma himself through his own cognition. as the one who is not restricted by any.). I remain in my Atma only and in my own nature of Sat. This is the teaching of Nirvana . the true nature of one's Atma.the differentiated. the stainless. the endless. Ghora-Angiras gave it to Raikva.and the incomparable.

of " matter. In the Puranas and other books. three 6 heads. apas. vayu . or subtle. and three feet. and having a khanda-paras'u (broken 1 In the Chhandogya Upanishad. and in the midst. After remaining so for one (divine) it split into two and became earth below. eyes. It is neither spirit nor matter nor a commingling of both. 2 The absolute (Parabrahman) is neither Sat (Be-ness) nor asat (not-Be-ness) nor a commingling of both. tamas (darkness) was evolved. From tamas came bhutadi. Raikva is said to be the imparter of Sam- vargavidya.4 the akas' above year. 3 Vishnu Bhutadi is tamasa ahankara according to Parana. Parasu literally injuring an other. 5 This refers to the first triune manifestation of Purusha or spirit through time when only there is activity. . Hence Mrtyu with his khanda-parasu divided eternal time into its parts and conditions the absolute through primordial matter. apas (water) and from prthivi (earth). Prior to the bhutas (elements). From it. Mrtyu or Kala is the first mani festation whereas Yama (or the God of death) is the secondary one dealing with the death of creatures lower down. STJBALA-UPANISHAD OP S'UKLA-YAJURVEDA KHANDA I " THEN he (Raikva1) asked : " What was at first ? To which (He the Lord) replied : " 2 There was neither Sat nor asat nor Sat-asat. he had evolved Mrtyu (time or death) of three letters 5. feet and hands. from agni (fire) . Then it became an egg. . from agni. vayu. Mrtyu and Yama are represented as having an axe broken in a conflict. 4 " but Above and below" refers not to the position only to the state. 6 Khanda means divided or with parts.3 from bhutadi came akas'. the infinite Purusha of a divine form of myriads of heads. In the midst" implies that akas and earth are soaked gross in and with spirit. from akas'.

Kalpa (the science of methodology). Nirukta explanation of (glossarial obsolete and other terms in Vedas). 3 Brahmanas were born from His mouth." KHANDA II " From apana came Nishadas. The moon was born from His manas (mind). the woman was created . the sub-septenary ones. also He created Yakshas. Yakshas. He entered Brah * ma himself and evolved mentally the seven sons and these Havirats (orsons) as well as the seven prajapatis(progenitors). Samaveda. Rajas and Tamas and an admixture of these were born. Mimamsa Jyotisha(astronomy). Atharvaveda. Grandharvas. He created the Devas. apas in agni.and from the feet were born the Sfudras. From (His) bones. Vais'yasfrom His thighs. 3 In other words beings of Sattva. From His forehead. From His hairs arose the herbs and the trees.the sun from His eyes. absorbed in apas. He created the Rshis . To him. .He burnt all up objects. and Gan- dharvas. bulls. out pf one moiety. Chhandas (prosodyor vedic metre).62 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS axe) . vayu in akas'. vayu from (His) ears and pranas from (His)heart. S'iksha (the science of the proper pronunciationand articulation of sounds). Thus all thingswere born. Brahma (the Purusha) spoke. she-asses and asses and Vis'vambhara (the Supporter)and Vis'vambhara (theearth) . man. commentaries.akas' in indriyas(organs). wild and domestic beasts and others such as cows. and out of the other. 1 This refers to the septenary manifestation from the triune one also to . Yajurveda. Be coming Vais'vanara (fire) at the end (ofcreation). The breath of this great Being became the Rgveda. Dharmas'astras. Rudra was born through His anger. Vyakarana (grammar). He divided Atma (hisSelf) into two moieties . Kshattriyasfrom His hands.Nyaya (logic). glosses and all beings.mares and horses. This Atrna (or the Self of Purusha) is Hiranyajyotis (or golden or effulgent Light) into which all the universe is absorbed. Rakshasas. Rakshasas. Having become a Deva. arose the mountains. Then prthiviwas (indissolution). (includingrituals and vedanta). Having become a Rshi. agni in vayu.

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in each of these are seventy-one. the visible objectsare adhibhuta (pertaining to the 1 Lit.64 THIETY MINOR UPANISHApS prana. eaten or not eaten. buddhi. he perceives the celestial world.red. and chitta. a water-lotus. when united with udana.it produces sound . 2 In this chapter are given out the several correspondences of the devas (or the presiding spiritualdeities)and of the objects to the five organs of sense. ahankara. when united with rambha (a nadi hereafter given out). no thief. Rakshasas and Gandharvas . the nadis called hita are. Now this dahara-lotus has many petals like a lily. heard or not heard. This is spoken of as samprasada (deep sleep rest). and the antahkarana (or lower mind) composed of manas. Skancla (Kartikeya or the six-faced Mars). asat or Sat and all else. no deva-worlds. Its body is tejas(resplendenteffulgence)and of the nature of nectar (or the immortal). And these become 72. and Jayanta (Indra's son).no mother or father. blue.it has no desires. . The nadis are full of blood. of the colours green. in the supreme kos'a (or anandamaya sheath) .he sees whatever is seen or not seen. he sees the celestial world and the treasures (of Kubera) . when united with vyana. one producing sound. when united with samana. he sees Devas and Rshis . It is as if in sport. no yajnas or sacrificer. but when Atma sleeps in the second kos'a (or sheath) then it sees this world and the higher as also knows all the sounds.no kinsman.000 branch nadis.yellow. when united with apana. the five organs of action. The eye is adhyatma (pertainingto the body) . " There are ten nadis . When he returns again to the waking state by the same way (he quittedor went in before to the heart). no relative." " That which joinsone place (or centre) with another is the nadis which bind them. he sees Yakshas. and white.or no Brahman-slayer. he sees cities with rivers and other variegatedthings . Like a hair divided into 1. sleepingthere.000 parts. When Atma sleepstherein. The divine Atma sleeps in the akas' of the heart. Devas. Then prana protects the body.. he is Samrat \ Thus says he. no dreams.

" The tongue is adhyatma : the tastable adhibhuta. fear. in the nadis. The nadis bind them. " The ear is adhyatma.the akas7 of the heart. The nadis form their bond (or connect them). in vijnana. 1 Probably prana. It is without old age. fear. ananda. fear. SUBALA-UPANISHAp 65 elements) and the sun is adhidaivata (spiritual). He who moves in vak. He who moves in the tongue. the nadis.1in ananda. It is that which should be worshipped. The nadis bind them. It is without old age. prana. the akas' of the heart. 9 . prana. or end. the nadis.in ananda. sorrow. the tastable. fear. It is without old age. that which is acted upon by vak. " The nose is adhyatma. in the nadis. that which is acted upon by vak is adhibhuta. vijnana.the earth. in vijnana. prana. He who moves in vayu the skin. It is without old age. and ananda refer to the sheaths formed by them. He who moves in the nose. The nadis bind them.fear. or end. It is without old age. in the akas' of the heart. Agni. and tangiferous the is adhidaivata. He who moves in the eye. and the earth is adhidaivata. the nadis. death. the audible adhibhuta. The nadis bind them.and within all else " That is Atma.sorrow. and within all else " That is Atma. and within all else " That is Atma. and within all else " That is Atma. It is that which should be worshipped. vijnana.in the quarters. the odoriferous.the vayu. It is that which should be worshipped. death. It is that which should be worshipped. vijnana. or end.sorrow.sorrow. and Varuna is adhidaivata.It is without old age. vijnana. death.prana. the odoriferous adhibhuta. ananda. the akas' of the heart. fmanda. or end. in the audible.sorrow. death. and dik (the quarters)is adhidaivata.in the sun. in the akas' of the heart.and within all e}se " That is Atma. or end.in prana. He who moves in the ear. " Vak (speech)is adhyatma. and Agni is Adhidaivata.sorrow. the akas' of the heart. death. Varuna. It is that which should be worshipped. " The skin is adhyatma. the adhibhuta. the tangiferous. The nadis bind them. and within all else " That is Atma. the nadis. It is that which should be worshipped. vijnana. or end. fear.in prfma. in the visible. death.

prana. the thinkable is adhibuta. fear. the excreta is adhibhuta.. The nadis bind them. fear. death. the akas' of the heart. It is without old age. death. death. " Buddhi is adhyatma. Brahma. The nadis bind them. and Prajapatiis adhidaivata. and within all else " That is Atma. fear. etc. and Vishnu (or Upendra) is adhidaivata.that which is walked upon. ananda. prana. the akas' of the heart. the nadis. vijnana. He who moves in the feet. that which can be handled by it. The nadis bind them.prana. and within all else " That is Atma. the akas' of the heart. vijnana. vijnana. The nadis bind them. vijnana. It is without old age. The nadis bind them. the nadis. the excreta. He who moves in buddhi.prana.ananda. and Indra is adhidaivata.ananda.sorrow. It is without old age. Vishnu. " The feet is adhyatma. and within all else " That 1 Although in the originalmanas. the akas' of the heart. or end. death. sorrow. It is that which should be wor shipped. the akas' of the heart.andthe moon is Adhidaivata. or end. that which can be handled is adhi bhuta.ananda. It is without old age. or end. ananda. It is that which should be worshipped.66 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHApS " The hand is adhyatma. He who moves in the hand. . the nadis. "The genitalsis adhyatma. the akas' of the heart.secretion. Prajapati. the thinkable. He who moves in the the genitals. The nadis bind them. It is that which should be worshipped. and Brahma is adhidaivata. sorrow.the moon. vijnana. the nadis. It is without old age. prana. buddhi.Indra. and Mrtyu is adhidaivata. that which is walked upon is adhi bhuta. 1 "Manas is adhyatma. the nadis. Mrtyu. or end. He who moves in the manas.ananda. yet they are inserted here after the karmendriyas. He who moves the anus. " The anus is adhyatma. and within all else " That is Atma. fear. It is that which should be worshipped. and within all else " That is Atma. fear.sorrow. the certainly knowable. the secretion is adhibhuta. are in the middle. vijnana.sorrow. death. and prana within all else " That is Atma. or end. the knowable certainly is adhibhuta. nadis. It is that which should be worshipped.

the akas' of the heart. nor Prajnanaghana . Rudra. He who moves in chitta. " He is the knower of all. or end. SUBALA-UPANISHAD 67 is Atma/ It is that which should be worshipped. moreover. It is that which should be worshipped. the one as manomaya is pranamaya Sankalpatma. This chapter gives out the pantheistic theory that the whole universe is nothing but God Narayana.adhidaivata. but Himself not worshipping (or seeking) any happiness.the nadis. the one worshipped for the happi ness of all. the one Narayana. the one latent in all. death.the one worshipped by all. the Vedas and other books and to which all this is food. but who does not be come the food of another . yea. it is neither prajna nor not-prajna. and Rudra The is. that which is acted upon by chitta. nadis bind them. is the ordainer of all. the one who. it is neither known nor is it to know anything. It is without old age.sorrow.the ruler of all. vijnana. .fear. is one and not dual. prana. 1 Narayana is the Universal Self. It is that which should be worshipped. the one who as is Indriyatma. fear.Kshetrajna. the one who as vijnanamaya is Kalatma. the one who as anandamaya is Layatma. or end. and within all else " That is Atma.sorrow. and thus is the exposition of the Vedas . These creatures were born through no root. " Ahahkara is adhyatma. thus is the of exposition the Vedas. vijnana. the akas' of the heart. and within all else " That is Atma. It is without old age.sorrow. the nadis. that which is acted upon by ahankara. "Chitta is adhyatma. the Lord of all. The nadis bind them. He who moves in ahankara.the one who as annamaya is Bhutatma . prana. death. Thus is the expositionof Nirvana .ananda. How can it be said to be mortal ? How can it be said that there is not immortality in It ? It is neither internal prajna nor external prajna nor both. that which is acted upon by ahankara is adhibhuta.1 The eye and the visible are Narayana .ananda. and is Kshetrajria adhidaivata. death. as the eye." KHANDA VI " At first there was not anything in the least. It is without old age. that which is acted upon by chitta (pro ducing fluctuation of thought) is adhibhuta. no support but the Divine Deva. or end. fear.

surya. As'vins. the Rk. KHANDA VII " Within the body. upper. Like the eye without obstacle)the thing spread in the akas'. (which sees any the wise ever see this supreme seat of Vishnu.68 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS the ear and the audible are Narayana . Mantras. Waters are His . Brahmanas who are ever spirituallyawake. residence.. sings and rains. Yajus. clarified butter and oblation " all these are Narayana. friends and dependents are Narayana only. the and the directions all these are Narayana. the skin and the tangibleare Narayana . nasira. asylum.Kavi (S'ukra). the creator Brahma and Indra. and bhasvati (fourteennadis in all). yea. Varuna. praise in diverse ways and illuminate the supreme abode of Vishnu. the anus and the excreted are Narayana . inanas and that which is acted upon by it are Narayana . thus is the teaching of the Vedas thus is the teaching of the Vedas. " That which was and will be is this Purusha only. satya. the genitals and the enjoyment of pleasure are Narayana. are the Divine Deva Narayana only. Kalpa. Chandramas (moon). Thus is the expositionto the attaining of Nirvana .half-days. mogha. Kala (ortime) of days. Vasus. the nose and the ' smellable are Narayana . Earth is His body. Though He moves in the earth. buddhi and that which is acted upon by it are Narayana . kumara. ahankara and that which is acted upon by it are Narayana . amrta. earth does not know Him.located in the cave (of the heart). Aryama (sun). sudars'ana. vak and that which is spoken are Narayana j the hand and that which is lifted are Narayana ." . and Sanaa. that which thunders. brother. The originator and the ordainer as also the agent and the causer of changes. The originand the combina tion are the Divine Deva Narayana only. Maruts. Rudras. the tongue and the J f tastable^ are Narayana . Mother. father. sura. Agni. chitta and that which is acted upon by it are Narayana . the leg and that which is walked upon are Narayana. is the one eternal Aja (unborn). s'is'ira. sumadhyama. viz. Kala (part). jita. The divine nadis known as viraja. Prajapati. saumya. Adityas.

Such an one is the Atma within all creatures. placed within the cave. manas does not know Him. the one Narayana. He imparted it to Raikva. Brahma imparted it to Ghora-Angiras. He is a wise person who cognizes thus. Though He moves in vayu. immortal. Avyakta is His body. the Divine Deva. Ahankara is His body. Akshara is His body. Though He moves in avyakta. this is the teachingof the Vedas. is located within the cave in the body. This is the teaching of Nirvana . Rama imparted it to all creatures. Mrtyu does not know Him.the unthink able and the bodiless. buddhi does not know Him. the Lord of all.chitta does not know Him. SUBALA-UPANISHAp 69 body. Though He moves in akas'. Tejas is His body. waters do not know Him. Chitta is His body. akas' does not know Him. Though He moves in manas. akshara does not know Him.' Vayu is His body. has tejasas its body. "This knowledge was imparted (by Narayana) to Apantara^a- ma who in turn imparted it to Brahma. avyakta does not know Him. vayu does not know Him." . Though He moves in akshara. Though He moves in chitta.and bliss itself. Mrtyu (death) is His body. Buddhi is His body. Atma which lives in the midst of the body filled with fat. and not one who does not do so. associateless and pure. Marias ^isHis body. ahankara does not know Him. Though He moves in buddhi. Akas' is His body." KHANDA VIII " The Atma of all which is immaculate. the remover of all sins and the Divine Deva. this is the teachingof the Vedas . Though He moves in ahankara. Though He moves in Mrtyu. is of all forms. Though He moves in the waters. flesh and phlegm in a seat closely very shut up with shiningmany-coloured walls resemblinga Gandhar- va city and with the (subtle)essence going out of it (to other parts of the body). shining. Though He moves in tejas. yea. which seat may be likened to a plantain flower and is ever agitatedlike a water-bubble " this Atma is of an unthinkable form. who in turn impart ed it to Rama.tejasdoes not know Him.

that which disappearsin the odoriferous becomes odoriferous only . endless. and seedless. sorrowless. that which disappearsin the audible becomes the audible only . that which disappearsin bliss becomes bliss only . that which disappearsin the visible becomes the eye visible only .and deathless.sorrowless. that which disappears in turya becomes turya only " (allthese) attain that which is death sorrowless.and less. that which disappearsin the tasted becomes the tasted only. that which disappearsin jitam (victory) becomes victory only . that which disappears in ananda become ananda only.fearless. in " whom does everything disappear (or merge) ? He replied thus : " That which (or he who) disappears in the eye becomes the only. that which disappearsin vijnanabecomes vijnanaonly . seedless. that which disappears in vijnana becomes vijnana only." Then He continued : " That which disappearsin the mouth becomes the mouth only . that which disappearsin turya becomes turya only " (allthese) attain that which is deathless.70 THIKTY MINOR UPANISHApS KHANDA IX Once Raikva questionedHim (Lord) thus : " O Lord. that which disappearsin dik (space)becomes dik only . that which disappearsin vijnana becomes vijnanaonly . that which disappears in vyana becomes vyana only . that which disappearsin ananda becomes ananda only.endless. seedless. that which disappears in prthivi becomes prthivionly ." Then He continued : " That which disappears in the ear becomes ear itself . that which disappears in turya becomes turya only " (allthese) attain that which is fearless." " Then Ee continued : That which disappearsin the nose becomes nose only. that which disappears in Varuna becomes Varuna only. that which disappears in Virat becomes Virat only. that which disappearsin prana becomes prana only . endless. that which disappearsin the sun becomes sun only . that which disappearsin sudaras'ana (discus)becomes sudars'ana only : that which disappearsin apana becomes apana only . that which disappears in soumya . fearless.

.

endless. that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only ." Then He continued : " That which disappearsin the anus becomes the anus only.sorrowless.72 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS in Vishnu becomes Vishnu only .and seedless. that which dis appears in vijnanabecomes vijnanaonly.endless.fearless. that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only . that which disappearsin turya becomes turya itself " (allthese) attain that which is deathless. that which disappears in that which is Prajapatibecomes Prajapati only . which disappearsin the thinkable becomes the thinkable itself . that which disappearsin turya becomes turya only " (allthese) attain that which is deathless. that which disappears in vijnanabecomes vijnana only .fearless." Then He continued : " That which disappearsin manas be comes manas that itself.endless. that which disappearsin s'yena becomes s'yena itself ." . that which disappearsin vijnanabecomes vijfiana itself . that which disappearsin turya becomes turya only " (all these) attain that which is deathless. that which disappearsin the moon becomes the moon itself . fearless. that which disappears in kurmira becomes kurmira only .sorrowless. that which disappears in ananda becomes ananda itself. that which disappearsin spiri tuous liquor becomes spirituousliquor only. that which disappearsin satya becomes satya only .sorrowless. and seedless. that which disappears in vijnana becomes vijnana only. that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only ." Then He continued : " That which disappearsin the genitals becomes the genitalsonly . that which disappearsin that which is enjoyed becomes that which is enjoyed . and seedless. and seedless.sorrowless.endless. that which disappears in turya becomes turya only " (allthese) attain that which is deathless. that which dis appears in hurricane becomes hurricane only . that which disappears in Mrtyu becomes Mrtyu only. that which disappearsin that which is excreted becomes that which is excreted . fearless. that which disappearsin s'is'ubecomes s'is'u itself . that which disappears in nasinam becomes nasinam only. that which disappears in the suppression of the breath and voice becomes the suppressionof the breath and voice .

that which disappearsin that which is acted upon by ahankara becomes that itself. which in disappears ananda becomes ananda itself. that which disappearsin vijnanabecomes that vijnanaitself.that which disappearsin vijnana becomes vijnanaitself. that which disappearsin ananda becomes ananda itself .endless. that which disappears appears in vijnana becomes vijnana itself. nor reading of) many scriptures. " Then He continued: That which disappears in ahankara be comes ahankara itself." " He who knows this as seedless in this manner becomes himself seedless. nor 10 .endless. he does not feel angry. capable of burning all.sorrow- " less. that which dis in Brahma becomes Brahma himself .and seedless. that which in disappears Kshe- becomes trajfia Kshetrajnaitself.nor by understanding. that which dis appears in Surya becomes Surya itself . that which disappears in turya becomes turya itself " (allthese)attain that which is deathless. fearless. nor by Vedas. " Then He continued : That which disappearsin chitta be comes chitta itself.nor burnt. that which disappearsin that which is acted upon by chitta becomes that itself . SUBALA-UPANISHAp 73 Then He continued : " That which disappearsin buddhi becomes buddhi itself. that which disappearsin turya becomes turya itself " (allthese)attain that which is deathless. end less. that which disappearsin Rudra becomes Rudra himself.that which disappearsin ananda becomes ananda itself . nor dies. and hence he is said to be Atma.and seedless. that which disappearsin s'veta becomes s'veta itself. that which disappearsin bha- svati becomes bhasvati itself . nor by hearing from others.fearless. He is neither born. nor split.and seedless.nor by mere intelligence.nor cut " yea. that which dis appears in Krshna becomes Krshna himself." fearless. that which disappearsin turya becoms turya itself " (all these) attain that which is deathless.nor is deluded. that which disappearsin the certainly knowable becomes the certainlyknowable itself . sorrowless. that whch in disappears naga becomes naga itself . that which dis appears in asura becomes asura itself. sorrowless. Such an Atma is neither attained by (the by a hundred sayings.

nor yoga.becomes Atma itself. He who is indifferent self-controlled. nor observances of the orders of the life." " " In what are these (Tapolokas)woven warp and woof ? " In the Satya loka. " " In what are these (Mahah worlds) woven warp and " woof ? " In the Janaloka." " In what are these (Prajapatiworlds)woven warp and " woof ? "In the Brahmaloka." " In what are these (Jana worlds) woven warp and woof ?" " In the Tapoloka. Thus is the of exposition Nirvana. and he who knows this." " In what are these (Brahma worlds) woven warp and " woof ? " In the Sarvaloka.as also he who knows this/' KHANDA X Then Raikva asked Him : " 0 Lord." " In what are these (worldsof Bhuh) woven warp and woof ?" He replied: " In the worlds of Bhuvah. nor by any other means (than the following). nor by severe tapas. nor sankhya." " In what are these (Satyaworlds)woven warp and woof ? " " In the Prajapatiloka. ." " In what are these (Sarva lokas)woven warp and woof ?" " In Atma " which is Brahman. to worldly objects and resigned. having centred his mind on Atma sees Atma and becomes one with the Atma of all. where do all things " rest ? He replied:"In the worlds of Rasatala (ornether worlds) " In what are these (Rasatala worlds) woven and warp " woof ? He replied: " In the worlds of Bhuh." " In what are these (Bhuvah worlds) woven and warp " woof J " In the worlds of Suvah. quiescent. 74 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS by scriptures. Devoted Brahmanas who repeat the Vedas according to rules and who worship Him with praiseattain Him." " In what are these (Suvah worlds) woven warp and woof ? " " In the worlds of Mahah. like beads (ina rosary)warp-wise and woof-wise/' Then he said : " All these rest in Atma.

Again it was cooked in the sun . Ichchha and punarbhava. again it was cooked in jwalakila (the flaming klla). It buds forth in many petals like a water-lily. In the middle of it is an ocean (samudra).there is neither Sat nor asat.. Arama leads one of sins into the world of sins.the first In this chapter are or primordial anna or food-substance hae to pass through in order to become the gross food. he splits open the skull of the head . yea. (Passing)through Ichchha (nadi). Then he splits open manas . Of these. . then he splitsopen prthivi. thus is the expositionof the Vedas/' 3 KHANDA XII " Anna (food)came from Narayana. he splits open the sheaths. the fire that burns raw flesh. after splittingopen the sheaths. They are rama. Beyond this. nor Sat-asat.there is a lotus called dahara." " KHANDA XI Again Raikva asked Him : " 0 Lord ! what is the seat of Atma which is repletewith vijnana? and how does it leave the body and pervade the universe ? " To this He replied: " There is a mass of red flesh in the middle of the heart. again it was cooked in kravyadi (lit. then tejas. then it became pure and not stale (or fresh).). then avyakta . In it there are four nadis. and thus is the of exposition the Vedas . In it. rama leads a man of virtue to a happy world. It was first cooked in Brahma] oka in the Maha-samvartaka fire.etc. then apas . thus is the exposition of the Vedas. then akshara .one gets whatever he remembers. then bhutadi . Through punarbhava. Koka 8 related the different fires. One should eat whatever has fallen to his lot and without begging . SUBALA-UPANISHAp 75 Thus is the expositionof the Vedas . then akas'. then vayu . ocean 3 probably refers to Hamsa. then he splitsopen mrtyu and mrtyu becomes one with the supreme God. yea. arama." 1 The probably refers to akasic space. one should never beg any (food). then mahat . Thus is the expositionof Nirvana .1 In 2 its midst is a koka (bird).

and buddhi is the eater .76 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS KHANDA XIII " The wise man should conduct himself like a lad. . Having found with certitude the supreme seat. This description Kaivalya is stated by f'rajapati. unaccompanied. and mrtyu becomes one with the Supreme. He should be longing after the attaining of Atma and having attained this object. ichneuma. jyotisis the food. though he finds the cause of death in such as elephants. without company.one should dwell under a tree with torn cloths. single and engaged in samadhi. vayu is the heart of all touch . blameless. and avyakta is the eater . mrtyu is the heart of all Sattvas.he is his desires have desireless. silent and wise and without exercisingany of authority. though struck. musquitoes. and akas' is the eater .with the nature of a child. the cause of an effect becom ing itself the effect of a higher cause. manas buddhi is the food. avyakta is the heart of gitas (orsounds) . nor Sat-asat. and Gandharvas.gadflies. he will neither get angry nor tremble.he will neither get angry nor tremble. Though pierced. He will stand like akas' . and vayu is the eater . lions.since Atma is Satya. and apas is the eater. there is neither Sat nor asat. decayed. and 1 The causes and effects are herein given out. He will stand like a tree. manas is the food. apas is the food. he will neither get angry nor tremble. avyakta is the food. akshara is the food." KHANDA XIV1 " Prthivi is the food. Though cut down. thus is the exposition of the Vedas . yea. Thus is the expositionof Nirvana. apas is the heart of all tastes. tejas is the heart of all forms . vayu is the food. He fears none. and akas' is the food and the indriyas(organs)are the eaters . and jyotis(orfire)is the eater . And beyond Him. and akshara is the eater. He will stand by Satya (truth). thus is of the exposition the Vedas. " Prthivi is the heart (orcentre) of all odours . He will stand (orremain) like a lotus. akas' is the heart of all sounds . indriyasare the food and is the eater . Rak- shasas. serpents. Yakshas.

the dreamless sleepingand the fourth states as well as the maharlokas and worlds higher . apas. samana. Then it burns dharma and adharma. nor Sat-asat." . Then these truths shine in his great soul. kumara. Thus is the exposition of Nirvana . krshna. Beyond Him. thus is the expositionof the Vedas. prana. yea. limitless. and whose family and conduct are not known. nor Sat-asat. SUBALA-UPANISHAp 77 mrtyu is the eater . Beyond Him. the dreaming. prabhanjana. udana. These doctrines should be taught to him who has supreme devotion to the Lord and as much to his Guru. Thus is the exposition of Nirvana. and mr"yu becomes one with the Supreme. Then it burns that which is beyond. then it burns the lokaloka (the highest world forming a limit to the other worlds). yea. tejas. there is neither Sat nor asat. it burns mrtyu . Then it burns prthivi. there is neither Sat nor asat. and thus is the exposition of the Vedas . and worldless.vayu.and naga. it burns avyakta . s'veta. thus is the expositionof the Vedas. thus is the expositionof the Vedas . Then it burns mahat . vyana. and having be come his disciplehas not resided with him for a year. who has not gone to a Guru.what does it burn and " how ? To which He replied: " When it goes it burns away. antar- yama. apana." KHANDA XV Again Raikva asked : " 0 Lord. and akas'. and thus is the expositionof the Vedas . s'yena. mukhya. it burns akshara . is sunless. when this Vijfiana-ghana goes out (of the body or the universe). Thus is the expositionof Nirvana. who has no sons. vairambha. then it burns the waking. thus is the expositionof the Vedas/' KHANDA XVI "This Subala-Bija-Brahma-Upanishad should neither be given out nor taught to one who has not controlled his passions. yea. and mr"yu becomes one with the great Lord.

It is very subtle. of the form of Soma. changeless. One whose food is moderate. which is the Atma of the universe. Hamsa go " persons is said to have three seats.). who does not bless anyone take anything from others. TEJOBINDU '-UPANISHAD OF KRSHNA-YAJURVEDA CHAPTER I PARAM-")HYANA (the meditation) should be tejo- supreme upon bindu. which^is difficult to perceive. Therefore know it is the greatest of mysteries. which pertains to Sava. That supreme seat has three faces. which is the emancipated which is decayless and which is difficult to one. which is difficult to meditate on. as also above these qualities. attain. which is quiescent and which is gross and subtle. . hence the seed or iouroe of spiritual light. who has subdued his passions. and supportless. who has given up all love for society. which is full of pains. and also who where they nor goes na turally ought not to go. That alone should be the dhyana of the Munis as well as of men. without sleep and without support. sizeless. motionless. and is the seat of Vishnu. three and three dhatus. That seat is without upadhi. whose anger has been con trolled. a This probably refers to the triangle appearing in the disciplei. who has overcome all pairs (heat and cold etc. and is above the reach of speech and 1 Tejas is spiritual light and bindu is seed. which is of the size of an atom. who has given up his egoism. which is seated in the heart. and is form gunas less. and naturally would not go where they like to such also obtain three2 in the face.

.

That is called siddhasana in which (siddha-posture) the siddhas (psychicalpersonages) have succeeded in realising the endless One as the support of the universe containingall the elements. 80 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS tion. the seen. Mouna (the silence). without reaching That.in which there is the control of the modifications (of mind) through the cognitionof Brahman in all the states of chitta. spiritual one should look upon the world as full of Brahman.but with words (latent) . Making one's vision full of wisdom. there is not that equality (attained). etc. whereas the know- ers of Brahman have it (silence)but without words. which one has with ease and without meditation fatigue(uninterrupted) of Brahman . It is aimed (generally) at the tip of the nose. that is described by the word kala (time). should be absorbed in that equal (or uniform) Brahman .in which. and through which the root Chitta is (bandha) bound. That is called the mulabandha. from which speech re turns ? How should it be described as the universe as there is no " word to describe it ? It is " That which is (really)called silence.and others. It should be always practised by the Rajayogins. is fit to be attained by the Yogins and should be ever worshipped by the ignorant (even). speech returns along with mind. or end. there is straightness (or uniformity throughout). The illusion of Brahma and all other beings takes place within one twinkling (of His eye). How is it possibleto speak of " That ". Everything else is the destroyerof happiness. That should be known as asana in (posture). middle. and which is naturallyunderstood (as such). Then like a dry tree.that is endless bliss and that is secondless. and sightwill take place. That is called pranayama (the control of breath). One after having known the equality of the (or angas parts of yoga) point to one and the same Brahman. There is silence in children. and through which all this (universe)is fully pervaded. which is the Mula (root)of all worlds. but it should be directed towards that seat (of Brahman) wherein the cessation of seer.and not towards the tipof the nose. That " should be known as " the lonelyseat in which there is no man in the beginning. The checkingof . if not. That vision is very noble.

TEJOBINDU-UPANISHAD 81
t

(the conceptionof the reality of) the universe, is said to

be expiration. The conception of "I am Brahman" is in

spiration. The holding on (long) to this conception without
agitationis cessation of breath. Such is the practice of the
enlightened. The ignorant close their nose. That should

be known as pratyahara, through which one sees Atma (even)
in the objects of sense, and pleases chitta through manas.

It should be practised often and often. Through seeing
Brahman wherever the mind goes, the dharana of the mind

is obtained. Dharana is thought of highly by the wise. By
dharana is meant that state where one indulges in the
"
good thought, "
I am Brahman alone, and is without any

support. This dhyana is the giver of supreme bliss. Being
first in a state of changelessness,and then thoroughly for
getting (even) that state owing to the cognitionof the (true)
nature of Brahman " this is called samadhi. This kind of bliss

should be practised(or enjoyed)by a wise person till his cogni
tion itself united in a moment with the state of pratyag (Atma).
Then this King of Yogins becomes a Siddha, and is without any
aid (outsidehimself). Then he will attain a state,inexpressible
and unthinkable.
When practised,the followingobstacles arise
samadhi is

with great force absence of right inquiry,
" laziness,inclination

to enjoyment,absorption (inmaterial object),tamas, distraction,
impatience,sweat, and absent-mindedness. All these obstacles

should be overcome by inquirersinto Brahman. Through bhava-
vrttis (worldlythoughts), one gets into them. Through s'unya
-vrttis (void or empty thoughts), one gets into them. But

through the vrttis of Brahman, one gets fullness. Therefore one

should develop fullness through this means (ofBrahman) .
He

who abandons this vrtti of Brahman, which is very purifying
and that man lives in vain like a beast. But he who
supreme "

understands this vrtti (ofBrahman), and having understood it

makes advances in it,becomes a good and blessed person, deserv

ing to be worshipped by the three worlds. Those who are

greatly developed through the ripening (oftheir past karmas)
attain the state of Brahman -,
others are simply reciters of words.

11

82 THIRTY MINOR UFANISHADS

Those who are clever in arguments about Brahman, but are with
out the action pertainingto Brahman, and who are greatly at
tached to the world " those certainlyare born again and again (in
this world) through their ajnana ; (theformer) never remain, even

for half a moment " without the vrtti of Brahman, like Brahma

and others, Sanaka,1 etc., S'uka and others. When a cause

is subject to changes, it (as an effect)must also have its cause.

When the cause ceases to exist in truth, the effect perishes
through right discrimination. Then that substance (or prin
ciple)which is beyond the scope of words, remains pure. After

that, vrtti jnana arises in their purifiedmind ; through medita
tion with transcendental energy, there arises a firm certitude.
After reducing the visible into the invisible state, one should see

everything as Brahman. The wise should ever stay in bliss

with their understandingfull of the essence of Chit. Thus ends
the first chapter of Tejobindu.

CHAPTER II

Then the Kumara 2
asked S'iva : "
Please explain to me

the nature of Chinmatra, that is the partlessnon-dual essence."

great S'iva replied:
"
The The partlessnon-dual essence is the

visible. It is the world, it is the existence,it is the Self,it is

mantra, it is action,it is spiritualwisdom, it is water. It is the

earth, it is akas', it is the books, it is the three Vedas, it is the

Brahman, it is the religious
vow, it is Jiva, it is Aja (theunborn),
it is Brahma, it is Vishnu, it is Rudra ; it is I, it is Atma, it is

the Guru. It is the aim, it is it is the body,
sacrifice, it is manas,

it is chitta, it is happiness,it is vidya ; it is the undifferentiated,
it is the eternal,it is the supreme, it is everything. 0 six-faced

one, different from It there is nothing. None, none but It ; It

is I. It is gross, it is subtle,it is knowable, it is thou ; it is the

mysterious; it is the knower ;
it is existence, it is mother, it is

father,it is brother,it is husband, it is Sutra (Atma), it is Virat.

1 is of the four Kumaras in the Puranas who refused
Sanaka one to create ; Suka
is the son of Veda-Vyas.
2
The Kumara is the son of Siva called Kartikeya the six-faced,symbolising
the six-faced Mars in one sense.

TEJOBINDU-UPANISHAD .
83

It is the body, it is the head, it is the internal,it is the external,
it is full,itfis
nectar, it is gotra (clan),it is grha (thehouse),it
is the preservable,it is the moon, it is the stars, it is the it
sun,
is the holy seat. It is it
forgiveness, is patience,it is the gunas,
it is the witness. It is a friend,it is at relative,
it is an ally,it
is the king,town, kingdom and subjects. It isOm, japa,medi
tation, the seat, the one worthy to be taken (in),the heart,the
Swarga (heaven) and
Jyotis, Self."
"
All the partlessand non-dual essence should be regarded
as Chinmatra. Chinmatra alone is the Absolute Consciousness ;

and this partless non-dual essence alone is the (real)essence.
All having consciousness alone except those having changes,
are Chinmatra. All this is Chinmatra. He is Chinmaya ; the

state of Atma is known as Chinmatra and the partlessnon-dual
essence. The whole world is Chinmatra. Your state and my
state are Chinmatra. Akas', earth, water, vayu, agni, Brahma,
Vishnu, Sfiva and all else that exist or do not, are Chinmatra.

That which is the partlessnon-dual essence is Chinmatra. All

the past, present, and future are Chinmatra. Substance and

time are Chinmatra. Knowledge and the knowable are Chin

matra. The knower is Chinmatra. Everything is Chinmatra.

Every speechis Chinmatra. Whatever else is Chinmatra. Asat

and Sat are Chinmatra. The beginning and end are Chinmatra ;

that which is in the beginning and end is Chinmatra ever. The

Guru and the discipleare Chinmatra. If the seer and the seen

are Chinmatra, then they are always Chinmaya. All things
wondrous are Chinmatra. The (gross) body is Chinmatra, as

also the subtle and causal bodies. There is nothing beyond
Chinmatra. I and thou are Chinmatra. Form and non-form

are Chinmatra. Virtue and vice are Chinmatra. The body is

a symbol of Chinmatra. Sankalpa, knowing, mantra, and

others, the gods invoked in mantras, the gods presiding over the

eight quarters, the phenomenal and the supreme Brahman are

nothing but Chinmatra. There is nothing without Chinmatra.
Maya is nothing without Chinmatra. Puja (worship)is nothing
without Chinmatra. Meditation, truth, sheaths and others,the
(eight)vasus, silence, non-silence,and indifference to objects

84 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS

"
are nothing without Chinmatra. Everything is from Chinmatra.
Whatever is seen and however seen " it is Chinmatra so far.
Whatever exists and however distant,is Chinmatra. Whatever

elements exist,whatever is and
perceived, whatever is vedanta "

all these are Chinmatra^ Without Chinmatra, there is no motion,
no Moksha and no goal aimed at. Everything is Chinmatra.

Brahman that is the partlessnon-dual essence is known to be no

thing but Chinmatra. Thou, 0 Lord, art the partlessnon-dual es

sence (stated)in the books, in me, in Thee, and in the ruler. He
'
who thus perceives '
I as of one homogeneity (pervadingevery
where) will at once be emancipated through this spiritual
wisdom. He is his own Guru with this profound spiritual
wisdom. Thus ends the second chapter of Tejobindu."

CHAPTER III

The Kumara addressed his father (again): Please "
explain to
me the realisation of Atma." To which the great S'iva said :
"
I

am of the nature of the Parabrahman. I am the supreme
bliss. I am solely of the nature of divine wisdom. I am the

sole supreme, the sole the
quiescence, sole Chinmaya, the sole un

conditioned, the sole permanent and the sole Sattva. I am the '
I ;

that has given up
'
I '. I am one that is without anything. I am

full of Chidakas'. I am the sole fourth one. I am the sole one

above the fourth (state of turya) .
I am of the nature of (pure)
consciousness. I am ever of the nature of the bliss-consciousness.

I am of the nature of the non-dual. I am ever of a pure nature,
solelyof the nature of divine wisdom, of the nature of happiness,
without fancies, desires or diseases,of the nature of bliss,
without changes or differentiations,and of the nature of the

eternal one essence and Chinmatra. My real nature is inde

scribable,of endless bliss,the bliss above Sat and Chit and the in

terior of the interior. I am beyond reach of manas and speech.
I am of the nature of Atmic bliss,true bliss and one who plays
with (my) At ma. I am Atma and Sadas'iva. My nature is At

mic spiritualeffulgence. I am the essence of the jyotisof
Atma. I am without beginning,middle, or end. I am like the

TEJOBINpU-UPANISHAD "
85

sky. I am solelySat, Ananda, and Chit which is unconditioned

and pure. }.am the Sachchidananda that is eternal, enlighten
ed and pure. I am ever of the nature of the eternal S'esha

(serpent-time).I am ever beyond all. My nature is beyond
form. My form is supreme akas'. My,nature is of the bliss of
earth. I am ever without speech. My nature is the all-seat

(foundation of all) .
I am ever repletewith consciousness, with
out the attachment of body, without thought,without the modi

fications of chitta, the sole essence of Chidatma, beyond the

visibilityof all and of the form of vision. My nature is ever

full. I am ever fully contented, the all,and Brahman, and the

very consciousness ; I am
'
I '. My nature is of the earth. I

am the great Atma and the supreme of the supreme ; I appear

sometimes as different from myself ; sometimes as possessinga
body, sometimes as a pupil and sometimes as the basis of the

worlds. I am beyond the three periods of time, am worshipped
by the Vedas, am determined by the sciences and am fixed in
the chitta. There is nothing left out by me, neither the earth
nor any other objectshere. Know that there is nothing which
is out of myself. I am Brahma, a Siddha, the eternallypure,
non-dual one, Brahman, without old age or death. I shine by
myself ; I am my own Atma, my own goal,enjoy myself,play in
myself,have my own effulgence,am
spiritual my own greatness,
and am used to play in my own Atma, look on my own Atma and

am in myself happily seated. I have my own Atma as the

residue, stay in my own consciousness, and play happilyin the
kingdom of my own Atma. Sitting on the real throne of my

own Atma, I think of nothing else but my own Atma. I am

Chidrupa alone, Brahman alone, Sachchidananda, the second-

less, the one replete with bliss and the sole Brahman

and ever without anything, have the bliss of own Atma,
my
the unconditioned bliss,and am always Atma- Akas'. I alone am

in the heart like Chidaditya (the consciousness-sun). I am

content in my own Atma, have no form, or no decay,am without
the number one, have the nature of an unconditionod and

emancipated one, and I am subtler than akas'; I am with

out the existence of beginning or end, of the nature of the

86 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS

the
all-illurninating, bliss greater than the great, of the sole

nature of Sat, of the nature of pure Moksha, of the nature of

truth and bliss,full of spiritualwisdom and bliss, of the nature

of wisdom alone, and of the nature of Sachchidananda. All this

is Brahman alone. Th^re is none other than Brahman and that

is'P.
"
I am Brahman that is Sat, and bliss,and the ancient. The
'
word '
thou '
and the word '
that are not different from me.

I am of the nature of consciousness. I am alone the great
S'iva. I am beyond the nature of existence. I am of the na

ture of happiness. As there is nothing that can witness me, I

am without the state of witness. Being purely of the nature of

Brahman, I am the eternal Atma. I alone am the Adis'esha (the
primeval S'esha).1
I alone am the S'esha. I am without name

and form, of the nature of bliss,of the nature of being unper-
ceivable by the senses, and of the nature of all beings ; I have

neither bondage nor salvation. I arn of the form of eternal
bliss. I am the primeval consciousness alone,the partlessand
non-dual essence, beyond reach of speech and mind, of the

nature of bliss everywhere, of the nature of fullness everywhere,
of the nature of earthlybliss, of the nature of contentment

everywhere, the supreme nectary essence, and the one and

secondless Sat, (viz.,)
Brahman. There is no doubt of it. I am of
the nature of all-void. I am the one that is given out by the Vedas.
I am of the nature of the emancipated and emancipation, of
Nirvanic bliss,of truth and wisdom, of Sat alone and bliss,of
the one beyond the fourth,of one without fancy,and ever of the

nature of Aj a (theunborn). I am without passion or faults. I

am the pure, the enlightened,the eternal,the all-pervadingand
of the nature of the significanceof Om, of the spotless,
and of

Chit. I am neither existingnor non-existing. I am not of the

nature of anything. I am of the nature of the actionless. I am

without parts. I have no semblance, no manas, no sense, no

buddhi, no change, none of the three bodies, neither the waking,
dreaming, or dreamless sleepingstates. I am neither of the nature
of the three pains nor of the three desires. I have neither
1
Sesha, meaning remainder is the serpent representingtime.

.

who realises : ' I am of the nature of the blissful and of the supreme bliss.who has got no other thought (than Itself). who (absolute consciousness) alone.and who is devoid of the thought of the existence of anything. who has unconditioned bliss.whose Atma is tranquil. no Maya. has Atma left over in all. One who will simply stay in Atma is called a Jivanmukta. Thus ends the third chapter of the Tejobindu-Upanishad. He is said to be a Jivanmukta who has ' the I in but stays in Chinmatra ( not at all got myself. greater than the great.who is devoted to bliss. The wheel ' I am Brahman de ' stroys the asaras of not-Atma. . The mantra ' I am Brahman gives spirit ual wisdom and bliss. He who realises : ' I am beyond the three bodies. whose Atma is of the nature of the who all-fall. He obtains at once salvation. whose Atma is of the nature of pure consciousness." CHAPTER IV " The Kumara asked the great Lord : Please explainto me the nature of Jivanmukti (embodied salvation)and videhamukti (disembodied salvation)/' To which the great Siva replied: " I am Chidatma. He is said to be a Jivanmukta. " There are seven crores of great mantras and there are vratas (vows) of (oryielding)hundred crores of births. I am the Nirguna. one should ever up practisethis mantra. who has given up all affinities (forobjects). no pranas. whose interior is consciousness alone. no sense. Having given all other mantras. who is undifferentiated. He is said to be a Jivan ' mukta who realises : I have no chitta. I have nothingof these objectsor anger.and I have neither body nor other thing except the certitude " I any am Brahman" only'. no passion and no I am the great.and there is not even a particleof doubt about it. The mantra ' I am Brahman will ' relieve all (persons) .who is all-full of the nature of consciousness. no bucldhi. who is only of the nature of Chinmatra.88 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS ' kills the demon of non-Atma.no ahankara. The thunderbolt 1 1 am Brahman ' clears all the hill of not-Atma. no body at any time. I am Para-Atrna. I am the consciousness and I am Brahman/ is said to be a pure Jivanmukta.

no proximity. no love.' No doubt need be entertained about ' this . no enjoyment. no duality. nothing to be contemplated.nothing to be said or heard in the least.I am Chit alone. no seat. no hunger. no quarters.no characteristics. no joy.no vice.enjoyedor remembered.no secrecy.no marrow. and neither old age nor youth nor manhood . who realises : ' All this is not mine. no blueness.no bewailments. no hugeness.no delusion. of my own will. no mandatory rules.no dullness.no foe. no Rudra. no ear/ no nose. no Jiva. no perseverance. no manyness.no distance.no spiritual wisdom. no moon. nothing belonging to you or to me. I have no time. no relative. no clan. or causal state in the least or the fourth state/ He is said to be a Jivanmukta. no happiness. TEJOBINDU-UPANISHAp " 89 of the world. and I have no sin. snann no sandhyas (junction-period ceremonies). no eye.no Vedas. no diminution. no absorption. no place. no (bathing).no past. no blindness.no religiousvow. nothing to be laughed at.no know ledge.no bondage.no friend. no dreaming. no vayu.no agni. no thirst. no fault. but I am certainlyBrahman.I am the supreme. neither increase nor decrease. no Guru. no birth. I am Chit. no earth. no cold. no hand.I am Chit ". not even the three worlds. I can see 12 . no gain. no desire. no salvation. no mystery.no sacred places. no ma- nas. no excess.neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable. no Vishnu. no illusion.no objectof meditation. no lymph. I am Hamsa I remain itself. neither adhyaropa (illusory attribution)nor apavada (withdrawalof that conception) no oneness.no aimed lakshya (object at). no Brahma. neither you nor I.no instant joy.no auspiciousness. no disciple. no waking.no flesh. no whiteness.no skill. no policy.nothing to be gone (or attained)to.no quietude. no heat.no blood. neither length nor shortness. no tongue. " I am certainlyBrahman. no object. or future.no yoga.no meditator. no race.no mundane existence.no water.no wealth.no thought.' He is said to be a Jivanmukta who cognizes: ' I am Brahman alone.no duty. no bone. no redness. no akas'.no virtue.no heat. no smallness. no worship. neither importance nor non-importance. no manas. no skin. no skin. present.no victory. none of the seven dhatus. no garrulity. no Self. no speech.no deity. no space. nothing to be abandoned or received.

who is of a pure nature. is of the nature of Brahmic bliss. 90 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADB myself through myself. I am only of the nature of Sat. I am afraid of nothing in this world/ and who is without the conceptionof Devas. whose Atma is without inertness and within every one. I reign happy in the kingdom of Atma and enjoy in myself the bliss of my own Atma/ Ha is a Jivan- mukta who is himself. but yet without (them).the foremost and the one undaunted per son who is himself the lord and rests in his own Self. with out one. and who is a great mouni (observerof silence). He is a Videhamukta who having givenup the certaintyof the existence or non-existence of all objectsis pure Chidananda (theconsciousness- bliss). He is a Videhamukta who has realised himself to be Chaitanya alone. the self only.the silent.the pure. whose Atma is divine and yet without Devas. who is remaining at ease in the pleasure-garden . and the purifierof the " elements.who thinks always : ' I am Chinmatra.whose Atma is void. anywhere or at any time.who does not see (the differ ' ' ence of) I/ ' ' thou/ ' this or that/ who being of the nature of time is yet without it. who has gone beyond gunas.who is happy.the blissful. whose Atma has attained who quiescence. whose Atma has become the All.the great. Vedas and sciences. subtle and universal. " He is a Videhainukta who has become Brahman. the all. the non-dual. who is ever silent with the silence of Satya. etc. the sporting.who having abandoned (thethought): fl am Brahman ' ' (or) ( I am not Brahman does not mingle his Atma with anything. place. the beloved and the bondless salvation" I am Brahman alone " I am Chit alone/ He is a Videhamukta who having abandoned the ' thought : ' I alone am the Brahman is filled with bliss. He is a Videhamukta who remains in Chinmatra alone without (even) thinking thus : c I am all Atma. whose Atma is measurable and yet without measure. the Atma that is equal (orthe same) in all. whose Atma is devoid of any sankalpa. I am only of the nature of spiritual wisdom. matter. All this ' is consciousness. who does not cognize the change of time. the birth- less and the deathless " I am myself the undecaying Atma that is the objectaimed at. who does nothing. I am simply Paramatman.himself or other differences./and regards all as void.

who cognizes the Sfiva bliss in Brahmic bliss. has become one with it. who illumines such modifications. without space. of his own Atma. without the witness guna or non-guna. who is immersed in that who juice. He is said to be a Videhamukta who has gone beyond (or mastered quite) the modifications of chitta. time. He is Videhamukta whose Atma is nameless and formless. who drinks of the juiceof the nectar of Brahman. He is a Videhamukta whose external Atma invisible to others is the supreme bliss aiming at the highestvedanta.. I am .and whose Atma is without any modifications at all.has mounted the car of Brahmic bliss. whose At ma is of an illimitable nature.I am the great Atma. there is nothing else beside A^ma. who realises Brahmic bliss. then he is surrounded (in thought) by all. who associates with me having it. who is a the wisdom of the nature of bliss. has the beneficent worship of the Brahmic bliss. who finds bliss in himself. I am the all-contented and the permanent A^ma. and with out the cognitionof the universe or even the cognitionof the nature of Brahman. the great Atma. and whose thought is beyond the beyond. who is without . who is neither auspicious nor who has his Atma. who is devoted to the juice of the nectar of Brahman.who lives in the household of Brahmic bliss.who has the effulgenceof the essence of Brahmic who bliss. who has the nectar of Brahman as medicine. If such a thought is entertained (even).for a moment. yoga as asso ciated with yoga.who stays in Atma having that bliss and who thinks : f All this is of the nature of Atma. fBJOBINDU-UPANISHAD 91 .who has an impon derable Chit being one with it. In that case. who is free from bondage or freedom. he is neither embodied nor disembodied. and of the great spiritual nature of the state beyond turya. I am Atma.without able and the witness. all is Atma. who is not satiated with the juiceof the nectar of Brahman. and who is the fourth of the fourth state and the supreme bliss.the conceptionof the small and the great. being full of it. without the small or the great. who is supporting(all).whose bliss is beyond the scope of words and mind. but who finds his spiritualeffulgencein his own nature. and Atma of the form of bliss. the supreme Atma. etc.' He who thinks : { My nature is full. whose Atma is inauspicious.

but without five sheaths . but which has no Atma. whose Atma is of the nature of the All and the non-All. but without dualityand non. being subject to proof though without proof. whose Atma is of the nature of ananda (bliss)sheath.but without emancipationor bondage. and without the anna. prana. whose Atma is devoid of the word Prajnana. the At ma pervading the heart of all. etc. whose Atma is without the six things beginning with s'arna.who is without the idea ' I am Brahman/ whose Atma is devoid (ofthe thought) of ' thou art '.Purusha. and who is devoid of any such is Yiclehamukta. who is above the reach of any speech or the three states.and of the nature of void.I am the quiescent Atma .is devoid of sankalpa. and I am the Atma/ He who does not think this is Jivatma and that many is Paramatma. whose Atma is of the nature of the secondless. duality. of the nature of the three periodsof time. but without eternality and witness . and is the indestructible and the Chidatma. subtle. who is without the thought ' this is Atma '. and the fourth bodies. who is without this or the higher worlds. whose Atma is not the one which can be known by Atma and whose Atma has neither .without the characteristics of the visible or the audible. causal. whose Atma is entire and non-mea surable. whose Atma is of the nature of the dual and the non-dual one. whose Atma is the eternal and the witness. whose Atma is of the nature of the happiness arising from objects obtained and enjoyed. without bliss. who is the self-shiningone without a second. whose Atma is of the nature of nirvikalpa. I am the Atma whose nature is changeless. who is without beginning. but without them . stainless. whose Atma is without conditionedness or unconditionedness. whose Atma is devoid of that which is described by Om. whose Atma is of the nature of the emancipated and the non-emancipated.which is not stained by anything.but without it. of the nature of nectar.92 THIRTY MINOK UPANISHADS .enlightened. or end. but without them . who is without the of the qualifications aspirantafter salvation. middle. manas. He whose Atma is sankalpa " a man a partless. whose Atma is without gross.owing to unceasing samadhi.. whose Atma cannot be measured by vidya and avidya but without them . and vijnana sheaths.

" CHAPTER V The Sage named Nidagha addressed the venerable Rbhu : " 0 Lord please explain to me the discrimination of Atma from non-Atma.e. Such a personage is a Videhamukta. the indestructible. Enjoy your Atma your self. and being devoid of the conception of the destructible and indestructible " that is the one Jyo^is at the end of nada. nor 1 is Herein given the hint as to the difference of functions between Ishta- an devata and a Guru. 93 lightnor darkness. Look only upon 4tm". that which illuminates all luminaries and that which is full of the bliss of nada (spiritual sound). be content in your own Atma.1 That which is of the nature of all causes and effects but yet without them. of heterogeneityand homogeneity. without enjoyment any and contemplation and beyond nadas and kalas (parts) " that is Atma. Being devoid of all the difference of Atma and non-Atma. that is the ' I '.t the meaning of Maha-vakyas) as well of ' I am Brahman/ being devoid of or without the con ception of the word and the meaning. and stay in peace. TEJOBINDU-UPANISHAD . 0 six-faced one. be wandering in own Atma. furthest limit to all thoughts is the Guru. of the nature of all bliss and the auspicious. the eternal. motion) and devoid of Sachchidananda " he is alone Atma. know It as your own. and be enjoying your your own Atma. that which is without sankalpa." The Sage repliedthus : " The furthest limit of all vak (speech)is Brahman the . He who is devoid of the significanceof A^ma (viz. . Then you will attain Videhamukti. Being without the conception ' I am ' the partlessnon-dual essence or ' I am the blissful/and being of the nature of the one beyond all " that is one Jyotisat the end of nada.and whose symbol is either the universe or Brah man " he is undoubtedly Atma. who has neither externals nor internals..that which is the great one of the nature of bliss. and of quiescenceand non-quiescence " that is the one Jyotis at the end of nada. He who has no body. He who is undefinable and unreachable by the words of the Vedas. Being remote from the con ception of Maha-vakyartha (i.

94 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS is a Jiva made up of the elements and their compounds. there is no old age through the absence of body . and followingthe saying ' All is Brahman/ know that there is nothing to be known through the absence of chitta . neither the enjoyablenor the enjoyer.neither guna nor non-guna " that is undoubtedly my Atma. neither Sat nor asat. He who has neither the described nor neither description. the three gunas of Jiva. no death through the absence of creatures. then non-beingwill imply being. there is no non-truth . who has neither form nor name. then in the ab ' sence of birth. Being devoid of the three bodies.Atma. is desired auspiciousness If (as separate)from inauspiciousness. neither the immaculate nor non-immaculate. there is no truth If possible. then in the absence . neither science nor non-science. neither time nor non-time. neither Guru nor neither disciple.the three periods of time. There is no manas as not. and there is no not. neither duty nor non-duty.Atma. no Guru nor disciple. Where there is truth alone. there is no death.There is no second in the absence of one. Owing to the absence of all sankalpas and to the giving up of all actions.Atma. no motion through the absence of legs.no repetition of mantras. If being should imply non-being. If birth should imply death. neither certainty nor doubt. There is no world as not. Where there is not the second. Rest assured that not -Atma is a misnomer. where possible there is non-truth alone.then in the absence of bondage will be no emancipation. you regard a thing auspiciousas then inauspicious. the three pains and the three worlds. neither mantra nor non-mantra. no action through the absence of hands . there is not the first. neither preservation nor re generation. If ( this should be 'that/ 'this' does not exist in the absence of ' that '. you regard fear as non- fear. If bondage should become emancipation. Brahman alone remains. no happiness through the absence of buddhi . the world of the Devas nor the Devas nor Asuras. If an effect impliesa cause. s'ravana nor manana. no virtue.nor the nectar of time " that is Atma.no fear. then fear will arise out of non-fear. neither the seer nor the sightwhich is subtle. If ' thou should imply * ' ' I/ then in the absence of f thou there is no 1 1 '.no purity.

.

Brahma is the creator. worship (sacrifice).spoken.neither bathing nor contemplating. of the Devas. salvation. (The statement) that Vishnu is the preserver. the working of the internal organ. Mine and thine.given or done by any one. So is also not-Atma. "The Vedas. whatever is discussed by the religiousbooks. chitta. illusoryattribution. Whatever is uttered by the mouth. Sciences. and whatever exists as Sat.the Devas.the high and the low " all these are unreal. whatever is willed by sankalpa. japas (religious austerities) homa study of the Vedas. Thou alone art the tran scendental Atma and the supreme Guru of the form of which akas'. relatives.meditation. utterings of mantras. Whatever is'described as such and such. good or bad. association with the good. Bondage. Whatever is determined by the buddhi. Rudra is the de stroyer " know that these undoubtedly are false. Bathing. whatever is ascertained. whatever is thought as so-and-so.neither delusion nor non-delusion " all these do not exist then. by me and by thee " all these are unreal. whatever is seen by the eye and heard by the ears. There is no doubt of it. as also the ear. ' that is this/ and c He is I/ and whatever happens in moksha. Know that is no not-Atma. the result of avidya. effect and cause. Whatever is uttered by words. Is'vara and the world and tke elements and mankind " all these are unreal. whatever is seen in this world and whatever exists " all these are unreal. tantra.happiness. enjoyed. Neither day nor night. whatever is done as truth " know all these to be unreal. Whatever is spoken of as true accordingto the verdict of all teachers.96 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS yoga then.delusion. for me and for thee. as also all sankalpas. and the limbs " all these are unreal. . the demons. There is no doubt of it. mysteries and all the diversities of enjoy ment and sin " all these do not exist. and the many crores of mundane eggs " all these are unreal. is devoid of fitness (for it) and of the nature of all creatures. all the existing ' thoughts such as thou art I '. whatever action is done. All are and are not.whatever is thought by manas " all these are unreal. the unfolding of the faults of gunas. mantra. the eye. Puranas. whatever is cognized by chitta. the secon dary and the primary. my and thy.

Thou actest according to the nature of each. the lord of Devas. thou art bliss. the seer. Thou art devoid of all parts. thou art time . beyond all nadas. thou art without any characteristics . Thou art one that has mastered the siddhis. Brahman the full. Thou art of the nature of fullness and incompleteness. and yet devoid of all siddhis. thou art Chinmatra unchecked. 13 .the moving. etc '.the diseaseless. etc. and full of consciousness.and thou art the ancient.the God.the great. thou stayest in Atma itself. Thou art Sat impartial. Thou lookest into the nature of each and art above the nature of each. thou art without motion. and yet without the conception of Self. the all-pervading. the one secondless. Thou art the truth. the quiescent. Vishnu. Rudra. the nectar . and greater than the great. etc. decayless. recognised by the words ' Truth. that is ever and imponderable.thou art void of everything and without gunas. Thou art nothing but the nature of each. thou art ever content and ever happily seat ed (in thyself). and thou art Brahman.Sat alone. the motionless.of the form of Nitya-Siddha (the unconditioned developed one). thou hast the nature of Chit. without kala or kfishta (divisionsof time) and without Brahma. emancipation. " thou art above the illusion of the universe " thou shinest in all elements " thou art without sankalpa in all " thou art known by means of the underlyingmeaning of all scriptures.the all and the non-all with quiescence and non-quiescence. the emancipated. of all forms. the known. and S'iva. Indra. There is nothing that thou seest which is not in thyself. Thou art everywhere. Sat commonly (found in all). the deathless. Thou art the monarch of the kingdom of Self. Thou art changeless. of bliss. the nature of Sachchidananda. and the ancient knowledge. Thou art immersed in the bliss of Self. TEJOBINDU-UPANISHAD 97 Thou art Brahman . the knower.the state of Sat and asat. Thou art the ever-existing"thou appearest as Brahma. Have no doubt 'thou art P. Thou dost not stir out of thy nature. Thou art devoid of existence and non-existence as also the aim and objectaimed at. in all things thou art contemplated by Vishnu and other Devas at all times . There is not an atom which thou dost not penetrate . In all things. but yet thou art without it.

Earth. other worlds. tejas. the twenty-fourtattvas. greed.mid going and coming (oflife). the beginning and the past. the conclusion of all enlightened. as the state of asat.passion..Bhuh and means. all the castes and orders of life with the rules laid down for each. buddhi. whatever is willed by sankalpa. the the beginning. desires.and end. The conception 'I am the body' is spoken of as the internal the conception'I am the body' is spoken of as organ. present. that which can be taken and Hari. ahankara. the four one of the same class or different classes. the enlightenedand the non- and non-duality.etc. enjoyer. as nescience. whatever is sensed by all the organs. ' the mundane existence the conception ( I the body great . whatever is dis cussed in mimamsa. limitation. duality Vedantas and Sastras. and is the puranas. whatever one hears and sees. akas'. auspiciousness. of signification all the Vedas " all these resemble the horns of a hare. the three states.. whether the seer or and the seen. birth. mental restraint. as the dual.the aim and the object of aim. yama. bondage and salvation. truth. vice. mantras and tantras. manas. the saying ' Sava destroys the world. That . the theory of the existence of all souls ' and that of one soul only. agni. worlds and the sphere of the universe.98 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS "This universe everything in it. whatever the guru instructs. the inert and the non-inert. and is the disease generated by the fault of thirst after desires. the water. manas. as non-wisdom. Vishnu Brahma it '. vayu.inquiry. as the true Jiva and as with parts. virtue.anger. resembles the horns of a hare (or are illusory). guru. future. whatever is determined by buddhi. the object of meditation. destruction. gain. rejected. Sftva. contentment. dle and end. whatever is ascertained by nyaya (philo sophy) and by the great ones who have reached the other side of the Vedas. whatever is thought by chitta. whatever is found in the protects it. and creates whatever is ascertained by the Vedas. spiritualwisdom and non-wisdom. wisdom. all the Vedas. the eight parts of yoga. the organs. science and nescience. etc.enjoyment. disciple. The conception 'I am the body ' is spoken of as the knot of the heart. am constitutes the whole universe. is certainlythe great sin.

the known.nor the pure nor the impure. urine. the seen.S^astras. time. dreaming and dreamless sleepingand the fourth state" all these do not belong to me. no Is'vara. neither gain nor loss. yea. Veclas. Adityas.the three pains. and no going or coming. the waking. blood. It alone is akas' and ' thou'. the ahankara. the waking. the ever.com mand.anger. middle.the pairsand non. speech. the knower. nor anything else nor everything. It is ' I '.beginning. the sankalpa. expiration and inspiration. disciple. Vasus. the chitta. deluding. the three worlds. agni.passion. the dreaming. neither the stout nor the lean. no Sutratma. The whole world.teeth. Sentence. limb. or end. bone. the Jiva.no Prajna. elements pertaining and spirit.law. palate. the guru. the mundane existence.maya. Sachchidananda is non-dual. do not exist. vayu. truth. Thus ends the fifth chapter of this Upanishad. the old age and others.. no Taijasa. body. the five sheaths. the great pains. the inert. It pervades everything. no root. No at tributes to body." CHAPTER VI Rbhu continued again: " Know everythingas Sachchinmaya 1 (full of Sat and consciousness). the movement of hands and feet. and odour. There is (init) no manas. do not exist. fEJOBINpU-UPANISHAD which is sankalpa. wisdom- all these are the productsof manas. It is I. no ahankara. the bondage. no sorrow. pleasure. distance. decayless. all the miseries. no vision.or the collection of these__neither ' thou ' nor I. and dreamless sleeping states.forehead.alone and other than all. prakrti. death and the great sin. no chitta. tongue. form. letters. water. and akas'. and the knowledge. neither rejectable. the internal organ and earth. bondage. Brahman alone is. nose.crown. taste. no Virat. Everything is Sachchinmaya interwoven. touch. pain.etc. sweat. proximity.neither the acceptablenor the the censurable. Rudras. all the faults and the various forms of time " know these to be the result of manas. belly. words. Manas alone is the whole world.existence. face. no buddhi. space. Rest assured that there is no reality in all that is sankalpa. Sound. lip. . the guardians of the eight quarters.

no meditation. 110 worldliness or unworldliness. Agni. fortnight. Vaikuntha. no kai^ava. etc..son. no woman. abuse. I am Brahman alone .castes or others. offered food. unbearableness. no greed. month. Indra. Vishnu.Bhuvah. grass or mountain. no entreaty. kirata (hunter). or delusion.nescience. praise.no night. poverty. pas sion.or the siddhis. unspeakableness. greatness. transience.such as twilight. no internal organs or mundane existence.100 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS all.no many ness. no oneness. great ness. light waved before god.mother. Brahman alone is everythingand there ( ' ' is nothing else. Kailasa and others. ' That ' alone is 'I'.no sacred sentences. no emptiness or fullness. partisanship. permanency. S'udra. Kshattriya or Vais'ya. pride. no bird or beast. sutra. or limb.no mental state. durability.no birth or death. identity. tapas. or year. maya. no folly/no measure or measured.no siddhi of yoga. fear.no friends.tetrad. running.object of meditation. anger or others.fruit.old woman or widow. Yama. Gayatri and sandhi (period of junction.ornament.prostrationsor circumambulation. Agniloka.birth. 'That' alone is 'I'. clan. conception of separateness even. no pollution. vayuloka. no tran saction. no growth. or S'iva. no speech. bathing.no increase or decrease. delusion. there is no fault in anything. duality. no flower.etc. or pride. 4 That ' alone is *!'.no adorable object.anima.no science. chandala (low caste person) pulkasa. girl. no un steadiness.malice. no Brahmaloka. family. calamity. Benares. sacrifice.no belief in the Vedas. no week. chief.father. Patala or surface of earth. inertness. Svah. introvision or illusion. guardiansof the world.movement. I am Brahman alone without being subject to mundane existence.evil desire. three worlds " Bhuh.bad soul. etc.sandal. " Everything being consciousness alone. no Brahmana. oblation of food.nothing that is eatable or enjoyable. praise. smallness. The eternal Brahman alone is ' I '. So That is ' I \ ' That is ( I '. no Swarga. Everything being of the nature of Sat alone. kaitava (demon). Yamaloka. partiality. anointment or sippingwith water.actions. mantra or object. no enjoyment or enjoyed.no Brah ma.destruction.).no day. fullness. prakrti. triad. is Sachchidananda only.tree. or sister. body or ( I '.

whatever is enjoyed everywhere " all these are asat (unreal)only. quiescence. . All are of the nature of Brahman. The universe is said to be of the nature of Brahman. I am Brahman alone and have no pranas. Guru is Brahman. likes. There is no universe besides Atma. S'arna and others are Brahman. There is no doubt of it. the supreme Brahman. organs or body. I am Brahman alone and have no death. action. I am Brahman alone and not inert. Everything is itself. The dif ferences arising from the actor. Discipleis Brahman. The whole universe is of the nature of Atma. There is nothing different from Brahman like 1-ness or you-ness. is Brahman. (That which will be) hereafter is Brahman. Badness is Brahman. I am Brahman alone and not liable to change. There is not even grass different from Atma. The letter Om of the form of consciousness is Brahman alone. Asat is not of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is itself. It is One self-shining. Purity is Brahman. There is not a seat different from Brah is not Guru different from Brahman man . there is not a body different from Brahman. All this is of the nature of Brahman.qualities. Jiva always is Brahman. Goodness is Brahman. Delusion is Brahman. I am Brahman alone and not Jiva.taste and gender " all these arise from asat and are (but)pleasurable. Great is Brahman. Happiness is Brahman. any buddhi. There is nothing out of itself. Truth is Brahman. Auspicious-ness and inauspi- ciousness are Brahman. There is not husk different from Brahman. This is Brahman. have crossed the gunas and am greater than the great. It is of the form of restraint. I am Sachchi- dananda. whatever is spoken of by the people.the all- pervading and the all-powerful. TEJOBINDU-UPANISHAD " 101 without any manas. the support of all and the bliss of bliss. there a . It is Sadas'iva. Time is Brahman. Guru of Gurus. (That which) is before is Brahman. I ^am Brahman alone and greater than the great. The uni verse is of the nature of Atma. There is nowhere (or no place) without Atma. Whatever is seen in this world. I am Brahman alone not perceivable. There is not a dif grass ferent from Brahman. It is all-pervading. Two is Brahman. Kala is Brahman. I alone am the whole universe and the highest seat. The Loka (world)is Brahman.

the ocean of the chief bliss. I am of the nature of all non-being.no maya. I am the Truth of the nature of Ananda and of the nature of the imponderable Chi^. the six seasons. I alone am the Hari. " The universe which is assumed as truth and non-truth does not reallyexist. Brahman is of the nature of eternal bliss and . The scenes of mundane existence are not different. I am Atma alone. The internal is asat. I am this born universe. The organs are asat. the utterly emancipated. the supreme goal.the unconditioned. Vasudeva. No time. I am the supreme Atma. truth. Chit and Ananda. alone am the Sadas'iva. Therefore how can I with such a nature become asat ? That which is called ' thou ' is the great Brahman of the nature of the bliss of consciousness and of the nature of chit having chidakas' and chit alone as the great bliss. the supreme Jyotis. I am of the nature of an illuminator of all things. and the six tastes.having jfianaand bliss.the brightnessof all wisdom.and the deathless Brahma. Everything is Brahman and is chit alone. the brightness of the fourth state and the non-fourth but devoid of them.objects. no universe. All this is of the nature of jfiana. the subject discussed in all the S'astras the nature of yogic bliss. " I am the secondless. the stainless. Atrna alone is ' I '. Chidakas'. I alone shine always. I am the only essence full of chit. the six enemies. Asat is not CI\ I am Kutastha. six changes. the great guru and Sachchidananda alone. the formless and of the nature of the non-created universe. the immaculate. I Personally. or defeat and whatever else " all these are simply asat. no prakrti(in me). I am of the nature of the all- latent and the all-witness. the indestructible chit. All the pranas. the five the deities.the essence of all vedantas. Everything is Brahman and Brahman alone. the birthless. the soulless. the organ collections of all these. I am the enjoyer of pure sattva.102 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS The differences arising from actions. I am of the nature of pure consciousness. are asat. I am Sachchidananda. the emancipated. The universe is rootless. the supreme wealth. success time. the five sheaths. of the nature of chief wisdom.

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are really not. " This great science of S'ankara should never be explained to any ordinary person. When doubt arises in he should have faith in Brahman. Knowing for certain ' I am Brahman/ give up the ' I '. contemplate ' I am Brahman. Abandoning all J ' action. There is no doubt of this. to an atheist or to a faithless. Everything disappearsas the flower from the hands of a sleeping person. when the lions shall be conquered by the bravery of dogs. nor the four states.104 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS waste (burnt) seeds.is the guard of Atma against the chief of the form of not-Atma. which is eternal and of the form of unconditioned bliss. man. given to the high-souled ones whose minds are purified with devotion to their gurus. when the pure akas' shall fall upon men. Everything which has the three characteristics of vijnana is Brahman alone. It should be taught for a year and a half. I am of the nature of Sachchiclananda. I am Brahman of the nature of chit. when the poor shall enjoy the happiness of the rich. There are neither objects. after due examination. and when reflec tion shall arise in a glass simply (without mercury or anything else in its back). Duality and non-duality.when a forest appearing in pure akas' shall move. Through instances like the above is established the nature of Brahman. when the heart of Jnams is known by fools. If misery should arise from the conception of f I am the body/ then it is certain ( I am Brahman/ The knot of the heart is the wheel of Brahman. All this is the result of maya. when heaven shall fall on the earth.when the ocean is drunk by the dogs without any remainder. which are but the results of differentiation. Everything is Brahman alone. there should be Brahma-Bhavana. It should be. I am Brahman '. That non-dual Brah one. then the world really is.when the flower in the sky shall emit fragrance. which cuts asunder the knot of existence. There is neither body nor karma. Brahman alone is the all-abode. Therefore. Abandon the name even of the universe. Leaving off thoroughly and entirelythe practice . There is no universe in the womb of Aja (the unborn Brahman) " there is no universe in the womb of Atma. nor actions.ill-behaved or evil-minded person.

By once studying it. Thus ends the Upanishad. TEJOBINpU-UPANISHAD " 105 recommended by the (other)Upanishads. Thus ends the sixth chapter." 14 .one should study the Tejobindu-Upanishacl always with delight. he becomes one with Brahman.

It is Atma that exer prana cises this It is the life of all Devas. " It is (i. It is their power. located ? How do they function ? To whom belongs " this power ? He to whom this belongs. During sushupti. the fit residence of divine beings. and draws it into himself by that same thread . that has four avasthas (states of conscious ness) and four seats. Brahman that shines pure.] OM. and all-pervading. so prana. how are (the deities of) vak. in this divine Brahmapura (of body). that making air as the means of communication. rules (all). * BKAHMOPANISHAD OP KRSHNA-YAJURVEDA [This Upanishad is intended to give a complete and clear idea of the nature of Atma. etc.e. draws after it the objects of its creation (vak.). when ever it goes. They say. resplendent. reaches his abode. death and (their) life. so also the actor does not suffer or enjoy for the 1 In this Upanishad.. etc. though beaten (during sushupti) by a stick. The spider throws out from a single thread out of his body a whole web. imparted to him the Brahmavidya (divine wisdom).. that most excellent of all things. .)Atma. rules them like a spider. (the prana) goes to its seat (Brahman) through the nadis of which is the devata. the Southern Indian edition begins later on but the other portions also are given as being fuller.. does not move. nishkala. as devadatta. what is He ? power Pippalada then having deeply considered. like an eagle. etc. The Jiva (identifying himself with) the indriyas. for the better consummation of the nirguna dhyana. S'aunaka Mahas'ala questioned the holy Sage Pippalada of the Angiras thus " In this beautiful Brahmapura of gotra : body.

and the Kshetrajna. hermits no hermits . Then he conies back to the dream-plane by the same like a caterpillar. In jagratahe is Brahma. the supreme. paulkasa no paulkasa. In him the Devas. Those who thus know the Lord know everything. He certainlyknows.and light.and having got a firm hold of it. This deity causes to know.and turya. so one only Brahman shines as different. father no father. He is Aditya. support of all things. the supreme. feet. merit and demerit are postulated of this Deva (power) . During the jagrata avastha. That is Brahman. in svapna Vishnu. It is extremely subtle.heart. jiva. There Brahman with the four feet speciallyshines. Is'vara. This moves in it. pain. The Para-Brahman shines in the midst of these. he is capable of is the inner He is khaga (bird). religious Just as a child obtains hap piness without desiringfor it (in play). and the person desiringjyotis. In the Hrdayakas' (akas'in the heart) is the Chidakas'. svapna. neck. no mother. sushupti. conveys its puts on body to it. and head.It remaining on a blade of grass.so this jagrata. karkata (crab). Devas no Devas. sacri fices no mother sacrifices. There the worlds are no worlds. merits or demerits of actions. pushkara (akas'). He obtains Brahman. s'ramana no s'ramana. the resplendent. The Hrdayakas' can be known. hands.and the Kshetrajna. (being)Param-Jyotis. He is without manas. Purusha. great expansion and mover. the worlds. 1 The South Indian Edition begins here.then only leaves the former and not before.so also devadatta obtains happiness in sushupti. the support of all things. daughter- in-law no daughter-in-law. . 1 " The Pursuha has four seats " navel. BRAHMOPANISHAD 107 . prana. forward its foot another blade in front. ear. He who knows thus obtains Brahman.the source of Devas and Vedas. first way. So this is the jagrata state. As this (devadatta) bears at the same time eight skulls. clingsto a man like the breasts in a woman. Atma and Brahman. chandala no chandala. He who has awakened knows everything. and in turya the supreme Akshara.enjoys bliss in the contemplation of jyotis. Vedas no Vedas. parapara.prana. Those feet are jagrata. the Pitrs and the Rshis do not rule. Vishnu. everything is strung. In Brahman. in sushupti Rudra.agni.

should wear the thread. It is called sutra. which came into existence along with the Prajapati. He should wear. They whose sutra is within. In the heart in Ghaitanya. whose yajnopavita is jnana they only " know the sutra. By wearing the intelligent sutra. Those who know the Vedas say that he only is a true brahmana who wears the s'ikha of jnana and whose yajnopavitais the same (jnana). like the beads on the thread. He who knows that sutra is a vipra (brahmana).consider jnana only as supreme. he is an being. as the holy thread. well versed in yoga and having a clear perceptionof Truth. who are firmly grounded in jnana and whose yajnopavita is jnana. in the heart are all the pranas : in the heart are prana. others wear a mere tuft of hair. Sutra means the supreme abode. they only wear the yajnopavitain this world. the wise man should abandon the external thread. he is Yajna (Vishnu) and he only knows Yajfia (Vishnu). because suchanat (indicating) (that the Atma is in the heart). jyotisand that three- plied holy thread. and. He whose s'ikha (tuftof hair) is jnana like the s'ikhi (name of agni) he. One God hidden in all things. This yajnopavita(Yajfiameans Vishnu or sacrifice and Upavita is that which surrounds . he is not polluted. he has crossed the ocean of the Vedas.108 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS All the Devas are in the heart . Practisingthe noble yoga. everythingis strung. He who wears the sutra as Brahman.The wise man having shaved his head completely. " the wise one. only wears a true s'ikha . it (prana) x is.should throw away the external thread. Those whose tuft of hair is jnana. . the supreme. the supreme and indestructible Brahman.pervades all thingsand is the Inner Life of all things. The yogin. let this give you strength and tejas. which gives long life and which is very excellent .He awards the fruits 1 This mantra is repeated whenever the holy thread is newly worn. He who wears that really supreme knows " he only wears the sutra. Put on the yajnopavita (holy thread). On that sutra (thread). hence that which surrounds Vishnu) is and is the supreme refuge. the holy. Jnana is holy and ex cellent. Those brahmanas and others who perform the ceremonies prescribedin the Vedas " they wear this thread only as a symbol of their ceremonies.

it has a hole in the top.that is like ghee in the milk. that is all-pervading. and during svapna in the throat . there is nothing like him. " So ends the Brahmopanishad." 1 The five sentences from here relating to Sandhya are not to be found in the South Indian Edition. so they who practisetruth and austerities see Him in the buddhi. The secret of Brahmavidya is to reveal the real nature of the Atma. He is the one doer the action- among many less objects. He is the any gunas great wise one. he is the soul of all. Those wise men who see him in bucldhi. As the oil in the sesamum seed. he lives in all things. the worship of sandhya (union) arose. by constant practice of dhyana one should see the concealed deity. The heart is in the form of a closed lotus-flower. they only obtain eternal peace.the wise one is freed. It gives no trouble to the body or the speech. He is always making one thing appear as several (by maya). with its head hanging down . and as the fire in the arani. ^Because buddhi unites) the Pratyagatma with the Paramatma. Know that duringjagratait (jiva) dwells in the eye.it is in the heart and during turya in the head. and he is without (being secondless). during sushupti. That from which speech and mind turn back without being able to obtain it and That which is the bliss of jiva. Know it to be the great abode of All. BRAHMOPANISHAD " 109 of karma. As the spiderthrows out and draws into itself the threads. Having made Atma as the (upper) arani (attritional piece of wood) and Pranava the lower arani.as the ghee in the curds.he sees all things without any extraneous help. as the water in the rivers. that is the source of atmavidya and that everythingis in tapas and to show essence one. .The sandhyavandana performed by dhyana requiresno water. That which unites all things is the sandhya of the one-staffed (sannyasins) Knowing . So we should perform sandhyavandana (rites).so the jiva goes and returns during the jagra^a and the svapna states.

. etc. the kshatriya.. the vais'ya. the kshatriyas red. There are four castes " the brahmana. VAJRASUCHI '-UPANISHAD OP SAMAVEDA I declare the vajrasuchi the that is NOW proceed to " weapon the of which condemns the ignorant and destroyer ignorance " praises the man of: divine vision. persons among . therefore the body is not the brahmana. 2 etc. a The lowest class of the Hindus. coloured. etc. and the s'udra.. will accrue to the son. Even the smrtis declare in accord ance with the words of the vedas that the brahmana alone is the most important of them. the vais'yas yellow. Then is the body the brahmana ? No. dharma age and adharma are found to be common to them all. therefore jiva is not the brahmana. since there is no absolute distinction that the brahmanas are white. Then this remains to be examined.. is the same for all people up down to chandalas. etc. Since the body. 1 Lit. What is meant by the brahmana ? Is it a jiva ? Is it a body ? Is it a class ? Is it jnana ? Is it karma ? Or is it a doer of dharma ? To begin with : is jiva the brahmana ? No. the diamond-needle-Upanishad.. the stain of corpse the murder of a brahmana. and the s'udras dark. and since in burning the of his father. since old and death. and since the jiva is the same in all of the many bodies obtained through the force of karma. as it is made of the five elements. Since the jiva is the same in the many past and future bodies (of all persons).

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112 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS with s'ama1. one should meditate on his Atma as the Sachchidananda Brahman. Such is the opinion of the vedas. and the non-dual Brahman. and sraddha. ..etc. Saraa.titikahii.malice. Such is the Upanishad. samadhana.the itihasa and the puranas.desire. the smrtis.thirst after world ly objects. daraa. delusion.who is free from emotion.egoism.etc. Otherwise one cannot obtain the status of a brahmana. whose mind is untouched by pride. who possesses all these qualitiesand means " he only is the brahmana. Yea. uparati.. One should meditate on his Atma as Sachchi- 4anada.

15 . that which is hard is (of the essence of) earth that which is liquid is (of . nerves. nadis. and The seat of is the memory. the tongue of the essence of water. the hands. and the nose of the essence of earth . (or will-thought and doubt). and akas'). and odour being respectively the objects of perception for these or These arose respectively out of the primordial elements. and enjoyment. excretion. The ear is of the essence of akas'. egoism. The ear and others are the jnanendriyas (organs of sense). vayu or air. beginning with earth. that of ahankara the heart. and that of chitta the navel. and chitta. that which about is (of the essence of) that moves vayu . The bone. the eye of the essence of fire. lifting. that of buddhi the face. the essence of) water. as apas or water. form. that which is hot is (of the essence of) fire . The body is a compound of prthivi (earth) and other mahabhutas (primordial elements. agni or fire. ' S'ARIRAKA-TJPANISHAD OP KRSHNA-YAJURVEDA OM. ahankara. determination. 1 This Upanishad treats of Sorlra or the body. and flesh are of the essence of earth. which is perforated is (of the essence of) akas'. are respectively sankalpa-vikalpa. sound. touch. Urine. taste. (In the body). the legs. Their functions manas. walking. the of excretion and the of generation the organs organs are karmendriyas (or of action). Their functions are organs re spectively talking. The mouth. Antahkarana (or the internal organ) is of four kinds " buddhi. manas end of the throat. the skin of the essence of vayu. skin. hair. gans.

touch. and not causingany injuryto others " all these are to be known as sattvika-gunaschiefly. Desire..and I am the egoistic such " are said by knowers of Brahman to be rajasa-gunas. Perfect (or divine) knowledge is of sattvika- guna. refraining from anger. serving the guru.and (desireof) copula tion are of the essence of fire.. There are three gunas (or qualities). and form. spheres) those " having rajasa-guna (stay)in the middle (viz.). are the propertiesof fire : sound and touch are the propertiesof vayu : sound alone is the property of akas'. touch. anger. and with in an intermediate state with neither. svapna (dreaming state). Walking. organs of action (five). veracity.I am the speaker.form. are of the essence of vayu. to hell. from pompousness.and theft are said by expounders of the Vedas to be tamasa-gunas. Turya is that state having jiva alone. delusion. con tentment. etc.. non-covetousness. sloth. scratching. delusion. Those to higher having sattva-guna (go) up (viz. touch.sloth. sushupti (dreamless sleeping state). jivais said to eyes be the Kshetrajna (the lord of the body). desire. Hunger. delusion. and turya (the fourth state beyond these three) are the four states.opening and closing the gross eyes. abstinence from freedom self-praise. Sushupti is (thestate) where the chitta is the only organ. etc. Svapna is (the state) associated with the four internal organs. blood.) the sphere of earth) " those having tamasa-guna (go) down (viz. and sweat are of the essence of water. The organs of sense . and odour are the propertiesof earth : sound. purity (in mind and body). I am the enjoyer. s'ukla (orsperm). taste. with closed eyes. Jagrata is (the state) having (the play of) the fourteen organs. continence.and the four internal organs.and mental darkness is of tamasa. form. and taste are the propertiesof water : sound.rajasa. Jagrata (waking state). sSttvika. Sleep.114 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS phlegm. knowledge of dharma is of rajasa-guna.and tamasa.I am the actor. and fear are of the essence of akas'. right conduct. Regarding jivatma and Paramatma (enjoyingthe three states)of a person with opened eyes. the organs of sense the (five). not stealing. firm conviction in the existence of God. Sound. copulation. Non-killing. thirst. avarice.

tongue. Jhe organs of excretion. The twenty-fourth is avyakta (the undifferentiated matter) or pradhana. speech the tenth. subtle) body. . eye.. taste. buddhi. nose the fifth. the of secretion. organs form. Thus is the Upanishad. vayu. buddhi " all these seventeen are said to constitute the sukshma or linga (viz. touch. sound. water. * S'ARIRAKA-UPANISHAD 115 (five). Purusha is other than (or superior to) this. Manas. Therefore the tattvas are twenty- three. skin. the of action (five). and odour are the fifteen modifications (of the above eight prakrtis). and earth " these are the eight prakrtis (or matter) : ear. legs. and organs pranas manas. fire. ahankara. akas'. (five). hands.

a The Sanskrit word 'sushira' means perforated or tubular. etc. the anus in excreting. In this body of five elements. through chitta. ?) The ear exists in sound. through ahankara. apas. the hand in lifting. .prthivi. the eye in forms. (Then what are the five objects of sense. etc. one knows and determines . and akas'. Of these. and the genitals in enjoying. he thinks and fancies . the feet in walking. akas' chiefly in avakas'a (viz. apas be that which is liquid . The body is composed of the five (elements) it exists in . element ? what ? what agni ? what ? and what apas vayu akas' ? Prthivi is said to be that which is hard is said to . the tongue in taste. (Then) through buddhi. he recollects . prthivi is seen in supporting (objects). ed with the six it has seven dhatus (essential ingredients) gunas .j giving space). 1 The Upanishad treating of embryo. tejas (or agni) in making forms visible. l G ARBHA-UPANISHAD OF KRSHNA-YAJURVEDA OM.). through manas. (Then) the mouth (exists) in speech. and three malas (impurities). what is the prthivi vayu. the skin in touch.). he feels the idea of ' I '. agni. Thus these perform their respective functions. Why is the body said to be composed of five ? Because there are five elements in this body (viz. it has six supports: it is associat sense. is that which moves akas' is that which is full of holes vayu . and the nose in odour. agni is said to be that which is hot . in cohesion. apas vayu in moving. it has three yonis (wombs) and is formed of four kinds of food. the five (objects of etc. (or tubes2).

dhurnra (blue).it is like a bubble . There are six changes of state (viz.daivata (da). And there are also six chakras (wheels)depending on the dhamani (nerves).vis'uddhi.occurs garbha (conceptionin the womb). from flesh.the body exists. matures.). (red). kapila(orange-red). eyes. flesh . rshabha (ri). " sour. at the end of half a month. it becomes a ball. and ears . At the end of a month. in three months. and in the fourth month.there is bile . madhyama (ma). saltish. in two months. In the heart of persons.fat . it is led. (there is) an internal agni . in the seat of agni. the back (or spinal)bone . decays.rakta colours. and there are seven kinds of clhatus having seven s'ukla (white). from bones.pita (yellow). it becomes united with Jiva (Atma) j in the eighthmonth. in the sixth. sounds. the region about the feet . in the seat of bile. Through having connection at the rtu (season) fit for raisingissues. (viz. in the fifth month. and from marrow. in the seventh.). in the . from fat.).bones . in the seat of vayu.and pungent. Being stationed in the heart. anahata.it (theembryo formed in the womb) is like water in the first night.there is vayu . the region about the stomach and the loins and also ankle is formed . it is hardened . from the rasas (probablychyme) arises blood : from blood. pandara (yellowish In whomsoever these substances arise and increase. (viz.astringent. Then there are seven kinds of shad ja (sa). pafichama (pa). there being properly " association (with the former) and devotion (tothe latter). (viz. the union of s'ukla and s'onita (thefemale vital energy). is hrdya (heart or Atma).the face of the nose. grows. Also the gunas are six " kama and (passion) others and s'ama and (mental restraint) others .bitter. svadhishthana. manipuraka. the head is formed . gandhara (ga). (These) rasas are six in number . and nishada (ni).mar row . and white). The body depends upon them while they depend upon the body. which are stated to be seven agreeable and disagreeableones . the rasa (essence)is the cause of the one following and so on (as stated below). GABBHA-UPANISHAD . krshna (dark- blue or indigo). it becomes full (ofall organs). 117 Whence the six supports ? There are six kinds of rasas (essencesor tastes) sweet. in seven nights.is born. s'ukla (the male seminal fluid) From .). muladhara. and dies. and ajna.

taste.. Action corresponds to the mental state (ofthe actor). then mixed progeny (male and female) is the result. By pouring (with in) more than once. the child being born with the form of the father possesses. There are some with two. A pregnancy womb with one embryo is common. Where there is a frequentpouring (of seminal fluid into the womb).action. From a well-conducted intercourse (orunion). in (viz.118 v THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS ninth. same sex) are born. then the child becomes dried up (or contracted). his justas qualities. similarities or dissimilarities of bodies arise (in children) through the influence of time. five embryos (only can be formed at a in the womb). the dwarf.etc. place. Hence the child (born) takes after (the thought of) the parents. a greater number of females are born. children are born with defective limbs. couples are (sometimes)born.When s'ukla bursts into two through the inter action (or blowing against one another) of the vayu of both s'ukla and then twins (ofthe s'onita. Since females have more of passion.etc. a greater number of limbs is produced (inthe child). Each is (by itself) neutral (or is powerless). Increase or decrease. Those with three are only to be found (as rarely)as one in a thousand. In the same manner when the ret as (the seminal fluids).it becomes fatty. the hunchback. the ninth month). Then.. It cognizes as the one letter . Should both be equal. A daughter is born when the mother's seed preponderates. Among mankind. (But in their combination)a son is born when the father's seed preponder ates. S'ukla belongs to men and s'onita to women. mz. the lame. this (inthe body) made of the five elements and able to sense odour. a eunuch is born.and enjoyment.} (s'ukla and s'onita)of both the parents burst into two. which tejas (spiritual is also made up of the five ele ments this cognizes the indestructible Omkara " through its deep wisdom and contemplation. the image in a glass reflects truly the original.. and the limbless.on account of their derivingmore pleasure(than males from sexual union). From parents with minds full of anxieties (atthe time of union) are born the blind.through fire). When the pouring (withinthe womb) is only once. dravya (substance). (From impregnation)during the of eclipses the sun and the moon.

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who is Narayana. it comes in contact with the vaishnavi vayu and ceases to remember anything of the past. If I get myself freed from the womb. 1 They are kama (passion). Moreover it is much affected by prasuti (delivery) vayu. I now reap their fruits." Thus does the Jiva (Atma) within the (mother'swomb) contemplate again and again the many kinds of miseries (ithad undergone). If I get myself freed from the bondage of the womb. . then I shall seek refuge in that supreme Lord Bhargah (S'ivaor light) who is pas'upati (the lord of pas'us or souls). and moksha (salvation).good and bad. who had entered many hundreds of female wombs of beings (in the previous births). Through non-belief I formerlygave (unspirituality). it suffers much trouble. If I get myself freed from the womb. Rudra. a The reason -why it remembers them seems to be that the jivatma is in the pineal gland then. Mahadeva (the great Deva) and the G-uru of the world. As soon as it is born. I am now confined in my mother's womb . Here being pressed by the yantra (neck of the uterus). becomes disgusted (with the material enjoyments of the world). who is bliss. I am burnt through actions..120 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS of the fruit of emancipation. then I shall seek refuge in that Lord of the world who is the Chidatma of all s'aktis and the cause of all causes. I shall become a believer hereafter a. dharma (perfor mance of duty). artha (acquisition of wealth). often faintingin the inmost centre (viz. I shall per form great penances. and remembering always the miseries of the cycle of re-births.desire. I shall worship Vishnu in my heart who is the be stower of nectar. whilst those who enjoyed the fruits thereof have disappeared. heart) of all creatures at (the idea of) his avidya. prior to its coming down. If I get myself freed from the passage of the womb. and were I freed from its bonds. up all fear (of sin) and committed sins. comes to the mouth of the womb wishing to obtain release. Then this being. and who never decays. I shall please the divine Yasudeva without divertingmy mind from Him. If I get myself freed from the womb.and karma. I shall seek refuge in Mahes'vara (thegreat Lord) who is the cause of the extinction of all evil and bestower of the (four*) ends of life. committed by me alone before for the sake of others.

and in the face is Ahavaniya. santosha (contentment) becomes the dlksha (vow) taken .the true individuality). becomes changed and acts like a mad man. the several devas who become the priests)perform rtvijas (sacrificial their parts followingthe master of the sacrifice. Coming into contact with the earth. Dars'anagniper tains to the senses \ and Koshthagni pertainsto dahara and daily cooks (or digests)equally whatever is eaten.vanishes memory of birth and death.Vais'vanara is bodiless. And that agni becomes (oris subdivided into)Jnanagni (wisdom-fire). diseases are generated. (cities). 16 . and s'leshma (phlegm)? When they are in their proper state. how does he understand vayu.Of these Jnanagni pertainsto the mind .the (spiritual) eye itself being the (primary) seat. the mind and the organs of the senses become the sacrificial vessels . And that bile is agni. three puras three dhatus. and with it. the source (orseat)of virtue and vice. three retas (seedsor progeny). In this the (sacrifice). Agni influenced by karma is kindled by vayu. Dars'anagniis (in) the eye itselfand is the cause of vijnanaand enables one to see all objects of form. it becomes and fierce-eyed debased. The evil of the eye after it is rubbed with (or cleaned by) water vanishes . licked. Garhapatya is in the belly. And of how many kinds is that agni ? It has three bodies.(viz. the karmendriyas (organsof action)are the sacrificial instruments. It should be known that one becomes capable of knowing through a proper quantityof bile . Dakshinagni is in the heart. When the bile is he changed (otherwise). buddhi becomes his wife .as fuel is kindled within (by fire)from without (by the wind). (In this sacrifice with the three agnis). Of these three. and Koshthagni (digestive Dars'anagni(eye-fire). and three kinds of agni threefold. fire). GARBHA-UPANISHAD * 121 it also ceases to see far and to be the cognizer of the real. bile. through having a little more or a little less of it. It has three seats. wherever he goes. the Purusha is himself the sacrificer .. body is the sacrificialplace. they produce health : with their dis turbance.or sucked through prana and apana.he comes to know more.good and bad actions and their Then affinities. and the eyeballs being the accessory seats. drunk. In this sacrifice of the body.

Through it.the (three)fires blaze up and then accordingto (the desires of) the wordly. and sushumna. nada (sound) produced in dahara (heart)is the samaveda .122 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS the skull of the head is the the fire-pit. the fourth is and puritati. or is abused). Above jivatais bile and near bile is Puritati. the devas bless him. Without it. two digitsto the left of it. true words are the vyahrtis2. the period of life is the period of sacrifice . Bhuvah. hairs are the kus'a grass . is seated the source of bile. the mouth is the antarvedi (raised platform in sacri fice). and bile are the pas'us (sacrificial creatures) and death is avabhrta (thebath which concludes the sacrifice). spreads to the left below the navel. In this body. vaikharl (recitedduring the sacrifice) is the yajus (or yajurveda hymns) . and arises out of yajna and changes according to yajna. There are in it fourteen nadi seats and 108 joints. Above the navel. cruel words are the atharvas (atharvaveda hymns) and khilas (supplementarytexts of each veda) . madh- x yama are the rks (or rgveda hymns) . kama (or passion)is the clarified butter . -ytg. jivata the fifth. Life. The urine dividing itself into two. If this yajna is continued in a direction changed (from the right course. and pas'yanti. pingala. is (created)for yajna.. The food taken in is divided into three parts " urine.ida. one inspiresand expires and moves (his limbs). The sara is of five kinds and spreads itself over the body. viz.and sara (the essence or chyme).faeces. having each a membrane (as its root) and fifteen openings. strength. There are seventy-two tubes seats with seventy-two nadis between them. then it leads to an ocean of misery. In this sacri fice. no limb of the body will be 1 Vaikharl and the three others are the different stages of nada (sound). All who are living (in this world) are the sacrificers. of which three are important. vayu which is moving as prana is the Sutratma. Hence the semen and blood are produced from food and drink. a Vyahrtis are parts of the Gayatri Mantra. Suvah. In this body. . The faeces is in the right side and is of seven kinds. Bhuh. para. there are sixteen side-teeth. There is none livingwho does not This body perform yajfia(sacrifice). It (thebody) is measured by ninety-six digits..

Atma is latent and deathless.eightyhundreds of joints. one adhaka of phlegm. an ignorant man becomes subjectto the cycle of re-births. it should be brought from the middle of the eyebrows to the end of sushumna (viz. Pram (or the jivahaving prana) has abhim"na with (identification the body) on account of avidya.) . It (prana) descends lower and lower as the time of birth approaches and settles in the heart when the child is born. and is the witness and Purusha. one should be averse to worldly objects. find those which can be touched (on the body) are easily discernible.the pineal gland). It lives in this body. etc.. one kudupa (or */4prastha) of s'ukla and two prasthasof marrow. there are eight crores of hairs. Prana and others are found there. is exposed like a worm to the drink of urine and faeces. Therefore knowing all this. (avdp. being enveloped (by may a). In this tree (ofbody). Through yoga..)stationed in the sushumna (of the head).twelve palams of tongue. GARBHA-DPANISHAp * 123 animated. Through vayu. 1 Eight palams are 3/6of a Ib.etc. In the body of this nature. ThlTJuicy essences (offood) which arise out ol digestionenter the womb which is suspended in the stomach of Jhe mother and coming near the child's head nourishes the child's prana through the sushumna (on the head or pineal gland). One should consider everything as evanesc ent. Thus ends the Upanishad. Ajrianawhich surrounds it is the seed . like the child in the womb (with its prana. Then he becomes freed and gets no more body. the current of blood is driven into tho nadis from the chakra (plexus)of the heart. eightpalams of heart1. If not.. one prastha (or two palams) of bile . the antahkarana (internalorgan) is the sprout and the body is the tree. when he becomes the cognizer of the Real like the child in the womb. Sushumna is the Brahma-nadi.and undergoes in this body the sufferings of hell.nine hundreds of tendons. Thus ends the moksha-s'astra of Pippalada " thus ends the moksha-s'astra of Pippalada.

Therefore where should one go in order that he cognize Kurukshetra. He who knows this becomes immortal. It should be worshipped as Chidatma. because it is there that Rudra initiates one into the Taraka3 Brahman when prana (life)goes out. through Ya is 1 This Upanishad treats of the sara (essence) for tara (crossing). one becomes immortal and the enjoyer of moksha. through Ma is Rudra produced. avimukta. the place of the sacrifice of the Devas and of the study of Brahman. 3 r. is Brahma produced." Thus said Yajnavalkya. through Na is Is'vara produced through Ra is the Anda- . Om is a single syllable and of the nature of Atma. through Na is Vishnu produced. Namah is of two syllables and is of the nature of prakrti (matter) Narayanaya is of five . 0 reverend sir.Caraka is Om " from fr} to cross. the place of the may " sacrifice of the Devas and the spiritual seat of all beings ? (To which Yajnavalkya replied :) " Avimukta2 is Kurukshetra. Therefore one should always be in the midst of that place aviuiukta. Virat (or Virat of the universe) produced ." To which Yajnavalkya replied : " Om-Namo-Narayanaya is the taraka. Through this. Brhaspati asked Yajnavalkya : " That which is called Kurukshetra is the place of the sacrifice of the Devas and the spiritual seat of all beings. and should never leave. l TARASARA-UPANISHAD OF S'UKLA-YAJURVEDA OM. syllables and is of the nature of Parabrahman. . 2 It is one of the many names given to Benares. Through Om. Then Bharadvaja asked Yajnavalkya : " What is taraka ? what is that which causes one to cross (this mundane existence) .

Bindu is the fourth. From Kala came the Purusha himself as Laksh- mana and the bearer of the earth. That alone should be worshipped. That which is Om is the the supreme. And this becomes eight. one of the elements of Siva. Know that Taraka alone is Brahman and it alone should be worshipped. All this is the of explanation the letter Om. Kala is the sixth. varna. It is called Taraka. and Brah man. and which is other than these (m'z. From the letter U came Upendra a. and that which is beyond these is the eighth. . and srshti (creation). which i'sthe past.and future. (colour).s'akti." Then Bharadvaja asked Yajnavalkya: " Through what mantra is Paramatma pleasedand shows his own Atma (toper sons)? Please tell this. Vishnu incarnates in the lower ^alaas well in the legs in man. kala.known as Hanuman 3. He who is S'rl -Paramatma. through Nd is Bhagavan (Lord)produced . Kalatlta (thatbeyond kala)is the seventh .He who knows this becomes immortal. mantra. chhandas (metre). This Ashtakshara of Narayana (eightsyllables) is the supreme and the highest Purusha. indestructible. a As Upendra. From the letter M came Siva. Nada should be known as the great Lord named Bharata and the sound of the conch itself." Yajnavalkya replied: " (1stMantra :)Om. and through Ta is Paramatma produced. It is this that is of the eightsubtle syllables.named Hari. rk. A is the first letter " U is the second j M is the third . That which is beyond is the Paramatma named Sfri-Rama and is the highestPurusha. Kalatlta is known as the goddess Sita Herself. because it enables one to cross this mundane existence. Bhuvah. \ TARASARA-UPANISHAp 125 f Purusha produced. and Suvah : Salutation to Him. (Thus is)Yajurveda with the second foot." The (following)verses may be quoted here : " From the letter A came Brahma named Jambavan (thebear1). devata (deity). Thus is the Rgveda with the first foot (or half).. Brahma incarnated according to the Ramayana '." 1 ' As the bear. Narayana. and the Lord described by A and (theletter) is Jambavan (the bear) and Bhuh. Bindu is named Is'varaand is S'atru- ghna. Nada is the fifth.) tattva.the present. 8 Hanuman is the incarnation of vayu. the Lord of the discus itself.being of eight forms.

Bhuvah. and the Lord that is beyond that (Kalatita). and the Lord.Narayana. Narayana.Narayana. and is Lakshmana of the form of Kala and the Bhuh. he is purifiedby Vayu .akasic sound. " (8th Mantra :) Om. a hundred thousand times. " (3rd Mantra :)Om. I am Rama and the Bhuh. and Suvah : Salutation to Him. he is purified by the sun . He who is S'ri-Paramatma. and is Bharata of the form of Nada and the Bhuh Bhuvah. the highestbliss. Rudra (Mantras).tho Goddess Sita. the immaculate. Narayana. Narayana. Bhuvah. Puranas. " (7th Mantra:) Om. and Suvah : Salutation to Him. He who is S'ri-Paramatma. Bhuvah.Hanuman and Bhuh.is the supreme Purusha. the secondless. He who is S'ri-Paramatraa. and the Lord described by (the letter)M and is of the form of Sfiva (or). . He who is S'ri-Paramatma. He who repeatedly remembers (or recites) the Ashtakshara (the eight-syllabled mantra) of Narayana gains the fruit of the recitation of Gayatri a hundred thousand times or of Pranava (Om) a myriad of times. l and the Lord. " (6thMantra:) Om. the emancipated. the true. " (4th Mantra :)Om..Narayana. of the form of Chit and the Bhuh. and is Kala^ita. and Suvah : Salutation to Him.and the all-full " that Brahman is myself. the Lord of S^atrughna * of the form of Bindu and the Bhuh.the endless. He who is S'ri-Paramatma. Bhuvah. that of conch" viz. and Suvah : Salutation to Him. the eternal. Bhuvah. He who is S'ri-Paramatma. and the Lord. " (5th Mantra :)Om." He who has mastered this eightfoldmantra is purifiedby Agni . he is known by all the Devas. and is the ancient Purushottama. and Suvah : Salutation to Him.Narayana.126 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHApS " (2nd Mantra :) He who is Paramatma. and Suvah : Salutation to Him. the enlightened. and Suvah : Salutation to Him. Bhuvah. He attains the fruit of recitingItihasas. He purifies(his ancestors) ten (degrees) above and (his descendants)ten 1 is rather Bharata the incarnation of discus or consciousness and Satrughna. and the Lord described by (the letter)U and is Upendra (or)Hari and Bhuh. he is purifiedby S'iva .

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the whole universe yana." "Om" (is) a single syllable. From Narayana emanates Indra. vasus. Narayana is the only that is stainless. 1 The eight syllables. " Namah" contains two syllables : " Narayanaya contains five syllables. Dik Narayana. becomes Vishnu Himself. and then " Narayanaya. From Narayana only do (all these) proceed. which existed and will exist is Narayana. and unnameable. " I shall create offspring/' From Narayana emanates prana. Kala (time) is Narayana. the intermediate quarters also are Narayana . teaches this. Through Narayana do (they) In Narayana (they) are absorbed. Whoever pure knows Him thus. the several of sense and action. NARAYANA-TJPANISHAD OF KRSHNA-YAJURVBDA OM. From Narayana emanates Brahma. and prthivi that supports all. apas organs vayu. Then Narayana. From Narayana emanates the twelve adityas rudras. that which is below is Nara that which is in and out is Narayana. and one that is and divine. (space) is Narayana. From Narayana emanates Budra. and all the chhandas (Vedas). There is no second. " " " One should utter " Om first. akas'. Brahma is Narayana. . S'iva is Indra is Narayana. the supreme Purusha desired. This is the sentence known as the Ashtakshara1 of Narayana. From Narayana emanates Prajapati (the divine progenitor). that which is above is Narayana. manas. sinless. changeless. agni. The Rgveda prosper. then namah. The Yajurveda teaches this. Then Narayana is eternal.

U. He who " the practises mantra " Om-Namo-Narayanaya reaches Vaikuntha (the abode of Vishnu). is known as Parabrahman. Whoever recites it in the evening destroysthe sins committed during the day. drinking alcohol. 2 They are theft of gold. however sinful he may be.who is Brahrna-purusha and who is of the nature of Pranava (Om) " a combination of A. he attains moksha.attains fall life and supremacy over men. Vedas. Madhusudana is Brahmanya. Whoever recites morning and evening becomes free from sins. and unlawful union with the guru's wife and association with them. yea. and M " is released from the bondage of birth and mundane existence. the murder of a Brnhman. absorbed in the essence of Nara yana). and Jiiana. 17 .who is the cause Purusha and who is causeless. The Atharvana Upanishad teaches this. The Yogin having pronounced (the name of) Him who is complete bliss. NARAYANA-UPANISHAp 1 29 y Whoever studies this Ashtakshara of Narayana and recites it constantly. Thus is the Upanishad. Whoever knows thus attains Sayujya of Narayana is (viz. It is this lotus (heart). Whoever recites (it)in the noon facing the sun is freed from all the five2 great sins as well as from the minor ones. It is replete with vijnana : It has the brilliancyof lightning. enjoysthe pleasuresof royalty and becomes the master of all souls. He derives the good effects of the recitation of all the Vedas. Truth. He attains moksha . He attains Sayujya of Narayana. The Samaveda teaches this. who is one only. 1 Means Yishnu or Brahma devoted to Tapas. The son of Devaki is Brahmanya1. Narayana who pervades all elements. Whoever recites (this Upanishad) in the morning destroys the sins committed the night (before)..

The jiva has sixteen kalas. 2. Hare . Then like the 1 of the This Upanishad treats means of crossing Kali completely : Narada having asked the question in Dvapara yuga " the third of the four yugas. 5. . Rama. who is the primeval Purusha. Rama. 7.. 11. 10. how shall I. 8. Hare. Krshna.. Rama. 16. Krshna. 4. 3 The story is that he was cursed by Daksha to roam over the worlds with a lute in his hand (viz. Hare. Hare 9. Krshna. If Narada is himself the strife-maker. 2 Kali-Karaka the Narada is called or generator of kali or strife and discord. 13. etc. corresponding to which sixteen mantras or words are given. why should he go to Brahma for the means of crossing Kali ? Narada being himself an adjuster of the laws of karma.to adjust the laws of harmony). KALISANTARANA UPANISHAD1 OP AT the end of Dvapara yuga. He shakes off (the evil effects of) Kali through the mere uttering of the name of the Lord Narayana. No better means than this is to be seen in all the Yedas. These (sixteen names) destroy the ilvarana (or the centripetal force which produces the sense of individuality) of jiva surrounded by the sixteen kalas (rays). 6. Hare. this Upanishad gives the means of getting over strife. These sixteen names (words) are destructive of the evil effects of Kali. 3. Hare. 12. Rama. be able to cross Kali ? To which Brahma thus replied : " Well asked. in this Kali- when the whole of nature is thrown off its balance by the depraved tendencies age of men. Hare. Hearken to that which all Sfrutis (the Yedas) keep secret and hidden. Krshna 15. 14. roaming3 over the " earth." Again Narada " asked Brahma : " What is the name ? To which Hiranyagarbha (Brahma) replied thus: (the words are:) " 1. Hare. Naradaa went to Brahma and addressed him thus: " 0 Lord. through which one cross the sam- may sara (mundane existence) of Kali.

He becomes purifiedfrom the sin of cohabitation with a woman of low caste. . Whoever utters three and a half kotis1 millions) (orthirty-five times this mantra composed of sixteen names (orwords) crosses the sin of the murder of a Brahmana. He is purified from the sins of wrong done to devas.or absorption into Brahma. attains the same world of. He becomes purifiedfrom the sin of the theft of gold. or proximity with.Parabrahman (alone)shines. he becomes freed at once from all sins. Whoever in a pure or an impure state. or the same form of. utters these always.000 per day . and pitrs. what are the rules to be observed " with reference to it ? To which Brahma repliedthat there were no rules for it. men. Having given up all dharmas. - This number can be reached by uttering the mantra completely within one year if uttered at the rate of a lakh day : and within ten years if uttered at the per rate of 10. KALISANTARANA-UPANISHAp 131 sphere of the sun which shines fullyafter the clouds (screening it)disperse. That he is at once released from all bondage is the Upanishad. and within 100 years if uttered at the rate of 1.000 per *!"+**% diem. He is at once released from all bondage." Narada asked : " 0 Lord.

Paramahamsas like Samvartaka. Dattatreya. abstain from flesh and alcohol and strive after emancipation alone through the path of Then the Ham- yoga. " WILSON. in ruined houses. Bharadvaja. Bahu- daka. viz. in burning or grounds. and Paramahamsa. or of trees. Yajnavalkya. They take eight mouthfuls (of food daily) and strive after mok- sha alone through the path of yoga. BHIKSHUKA'-TJPANISHAD S'UKLA-YAJURVEDA AMONG bhikshus (religious mendicants) who long for mok- sha (salvation). Kutichaka. 3 In Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad there are stated to be six kinds. there are four2 kinds. Harltaka and others take eight mouthfuls and strive after moksha alone through the path of They live clothed naked at the foot yoga. Gautama. Arum. and seven nights in a sacred place. Vamadeva. Jada- bharata. S'wetaketu. sacred thread (yajfiopavita) and red-colour ed cloth. sas should live not more than a night in a village. They take eight mouthfuls of food in the house of Brahmarshis. Vasishtha and others belong to the first kind. partaking daily of cow's urine and cow's dung. . Hamsa. Hence a religious mendicant. observing Chandrayana 3 and striving after moksha alone through the path of yoga. 3 A religious expiatory ceremony regulated by the moon's age diminishing the daily consumption of food daily by mouthful for the one dark half of the month beginning with fifteen at the full until it is moon reduced to one at the and then increasing it in like new moon manner during the fortnight of the moon's increase. The second kind carry three (bamboo) staves (tied together) and a waterpot. and wear tuft of hair (s'ikha).. five nights in a town. S'uka. With 1 One who lives on bhiksha or alms.

live alms. the foot of trees. cavities. being free from the sense as of duality and from covetousness. simply to keep the body and soul together. the sand in the bed of rivers. the places of agnihotra. and sthandila (the level piece of ground square prepared for sacrifice). temples. 1 33 BHIKSHUKA-UPANISHAp them. they quit this body through pure the methods prescribed for Paramahamsa Sannyasins. begging from all without distinction on any of caste and look upon everything as Atma alone. They look upon gold and stone and clod of earth with the (of indif same. potteries. mountain-caves. Being (naked) nature made them. and purity and impurity. These are the Paramahamsas. waterfalls. straw-huts. the hollows of trees. eye ference). they reside in ruined houses. ant-hills. and begging at stated times. . meditating on A"ma. being engaged in con pure templation (s'ukladhyana). Having advanced far in the path of Brahman. there are no dualities as dharma and adharma. and being in mind. gain and loss. Such is the Upanishad.

Ga. observed Narada the son of Brahma and the devotee of the Lord. Once upon a time. 3 with human face. after roaming over all worlds and cleansing. without hate. the years knowers of all. Ri. with a mind that had attained purity. fixed and movable (or mental and bodily). Ma. the ornament of Parivrajakas (roaming ascetics). and Ni (of the gamut). filled with Rshis that were engaged in the contemplation of Reality and had attained the greatness of the ordained bliss (there) through the recitation of stories about . Kinnaras. Kimpurushas1. celestials. fascinating the crowds of beings human. and Uragas3 (collected there). (Thereupon the) great Rshis S'aunaka and others who had been engaged for twelve in sattra sacrifice well-skilled in the recitation of Vedas. he entered (the forest). A semidivine serpent a . observed. associated with the musical motes of Sa. Hari (Vishnu). Dha. and in different towards all (objects). animal.3 Apsaras (Houris). and upon instilling divine devotion. Narada. quiescent and patient. and the good practisers of tapas. A higher being with a a 3 A higher being with a human form but with the head of a horse. through merely by looking at the places of pilgrimage able to impart rare religious merits. NARAD APARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAD OF ATHARVANAVEDA TJPADES'A I OM. and having 1 the form of horse but with human head. Pa. able to impart indifference to objects and to make one look down the universe. the forest of Naimis'a (the modern Nimsar).

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after giving up his previous wanderings in city and village.marry a girlfit for his family and dear unto him. he should bathe thrice dailyfor twenty-five and take only one meal in the fourth period. and assuringhimself that the inquirywas truly for the purpose of escaping from the pain of samsara." Thus prayed to by Narada. 0 Narada. he along with others was duly seated under the orders of Brahma. under his (the guru's)orders. he should live years alone in the forest. thou art the knower of all . said thus : " The mystery that was imparted before by Virat- Purusha of illimitable form according to the Purusha-Sukta- Upanishad is now being divulged to you. Brahma eyeing Narada.born of good family.after the performanceof upanayana accordingto the rules. he should beget a son with the only desire of perpetuating the family.Having made and prostrations rendered useful service to him. and without desire for fruit. (forester's) be . Having studied all departments of knowledge and rendered service for twelve years.a knower of Yedas. and of (good)qualities free from duplicity. thou art the knower of the secret of all learning. Who else but thee is fit to tell the secret dear unto me ? It is this. a lover of S'astras.136 THIRTY MINOE UFANISHADS Himself. should. It is fit to be hearkened to with great attention. and after duly making pro strations to and eulogisingBrahma engaged in meditation upon Brahman.find a virtu ous guru that is other than his father. he should respectfullyacquaint him with his intention. thou shalt therefore tell me one secret.should perform the karmaa incidental to that and order of life.he took the rshis along with him to satyaloka. of faith. After thus spendingtwenty-fiveyears in the performance of household dharma. is of good custom and habits. Please tell us the rules of the real sannyasa (asceticism). he should. thou art father . one born in a good familyand obedient to his parents. Brahma surveyed all in the four quarters. Then having performed for twenty- five years the karmas incidental to a householder and attained the status of a Brahmana that has performed sacrifices and the rest." After the sattra sacrifice was completed. It is very mysterious. and after meditating for one muhurta (48 minutes). Then Narida addressed Brahma thus : " Thou art guru .

The Paramahamsa sannyasin stated before (as fit to take sannyasa) is the one qualified. the limbless. have burnt up desire. the dumb." UPADES'A III Then Narada addressed the grandfather thus : " 0 Lord. the maimed.. bearer). Hearken carefully. the heretic. The eunuch. sannyasa taken while a person is afflicted. by whom. the vaikhanasa the (forester). Even though they have become sannyasins. the youth. the lewd. Haradhvaja (carrierof Sava's flag).jealousy. Such is the Upanishad. What is the opinion of aryas (Hindus) on the time (fit) for atura-sannyasa (being taken) ? The time when prana (life)is about to rise (out of the body) is called atura. Even in atura-sannyasa. the bald-headed. the blind. one that had undergone sannyasa twice or thrice. is it fit to be taken ? To which Brahma replied: " After first expounding the of qualifications sannyasa. Then he becomes fit for sannyasa. one without fire (sacrificial) " all these. the outcaste. after attaining the of qualifications " sannyasa.). the wise should according to rules. erivy and egoism.the Linga- wearer. the outcaste. the reciter of Vedas for hire " all these are not fit for regular sannyasa but only for atura-sannyasa (viz. NARADAPARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAD 137 / without desire for objectsseen and heard.they are unfit to be initiated into the mahavakyas (sacred vedic sentences). the rules of sannyasa will then be stated.It is stated in the smrtis that he is a parivratwho is not afraid of others. the sinful. A eunuch. the youth. even though they have attained vairagya are unfit for sannyasa. the door-keeper. one without fire (sacrifice). he should be devoid of desire for all.as others are not afraid of him. The time other than it is in capableof conferring (upon one) the path of salvation and is not atura. Being skilled in the forty samskiiras.the vaikhanasa.have a purified mind. etc. the deaf.the chakri (discus- the heretic.the bald-headed.the reciter of Vedas for hire. and have developedthe four means of salvation.the Lingi (Liiiga-wearer).the discus-bearer. initiate themselves into sannyasa after recitingthe 18 . the Haradhvaja.

otherwise they are fallen. Anything done without mantra cannot be termed karma. That Brahmana who is celibate. There is no karma without mantras. Then he becomes fit to eat the alms-food (of sannyasa). the wise man should take up When the reality of the eternal Parabrahman is sannyasa. Else he becomes a fallen man. in the mind. After complet ing in water the observances of karma through the mind. One who does not. perform the prajapatya sacrifice in water and then take up sannyasa. then he should take up one danda (staff)and abandon the holy thread and tuft of hair. Therefore placing jfiana in the forefront. it i* stated to be atura-sannyasa. the wise man should attain sannyasa. Having known samsara as one ceremony without sara (oressence) and not having undergone any mar of the desire to know the sara (or essence riage on account of God). When. stomach. 0 Muni. understood. " Therefore. the recitation of mantras is stated to be in atura-sannyasa. having become devoted to Paramatma. One who attains vairagya should take sannyasa. should he take sannyasa. One who is always duly doing agni- hotra should. That vile twice-born with desire. (hence) karma needs mantras. Any karma done without mantra is like an offeringmade in ashes. Hence mantras should not be given up. indifferent to those that are not-Paramatma and freed from all desires. sexual a organ. (that being the best time for it). 138 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS mantras again and again in the course of respectivemantras.then men should long after sannyasa. There is no difference between regular and atura-sannyasa in the mantras to be uttered at the time of taking sannyasa. and hand may become a sannyasin without undergoing the of marriage. (fire-sacrifice) when he quits (the house) for foreign places through indifference. He becomes fit to be the eater of . Through the con ciseness (ofthe performance) of the karmas. indifference to all objectsarises. they become sannyasins on account of the practiceof the vairagya. The characteristic of pravrtti(path) is the supreme performance of karma. that of nivrtti is jnana. reaches hell. or the recitation of mantras. should remain at home. who has under control his tongue.

purityof (mind and body). purity (of mind and body). honesty. having practisedthe ten kinds of dharmas. as when he is worshipped or prostratedto. devoid of desires. poverty.mind. be in the order of life of kaivalya. he should wear it as his upper cloth. rshis. . and absence of anger " these ten are the characteristics of dharma.one ragged cloth. but he may be in one place alone in the rainy season. s'ama (control of mind). Nothing more is ordained (in his case). through actions. One who while in may life is not affected by pleasuresand pains. is fit to become a sannyasin. and one staff. He may be with one cloth or even without it. sacrifice. having. shame. Having stitched together old and clean cloths into one and having coloured it with red (ochre). Having quite aban doned his family. knowledge. NARAD APARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAp 139 alms-food who preserves the same countenance wnen he is beaten. He in whom are existent s'anti (control of the organs). arjava (straightforwardness). Having become quiescent (through the control of the mind). and non-ostentatiousness should be in the order of life of kaivalya (sannyasa) . " An ascetic of the Paramahamsa (order) shall wear two loin-cloths. Cour age. truth. and one who does not rejoicein the present.as the body is unaffect ed by them after death. Should he through desire wear more than these.and pitrs). he will fall into the hell of raurava and be born into the womb of an animal. including son and wife. the ascetic should wander incognito. vedanta. One who is able to control within.the control of the body. one should take up sannyasa. and having paid the three debts (to devas. nor forward into the future. and the sacred thread. studied vedanta.according to rules. control of the (inner) organs. the external organs. or speech.commit any sinful action to any being. otherwise named Vasudeva. One who does not look back (with pleasure)upon past enjoyments. fortitude. then he becomes fit for eating alms-food.santosha (contentment). He should roam about alone with the sole vision (of Brahman). satya (truth). may be in the order of life of kaivalya. He becomes tit to be the eater of alms-food who is of the firm certitude that he is no other than the non-dual and indestructible Brahman. the inner organs and without. When one does not.

even when (violently)palled by another.140 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS Having given up all faults. perishable. is of bad odour. who regardsequallya clod of earth. Just as fire increases with the oblation (ofghee. or smelling is a jitendriya(conquerorof the organs).completelyand always. account of bodilyrelation ship. from doing injuryand tale-bearing. coated over with flesh and blood. He should abandon (all identification with) this feeble. and delusion.He be comes fit for salvation through the control of the organs. No anger should be directed in turn towards one who is angry. He moves about happilyin this world. he becomes subjectto fault. One desirous of bliss should dwell in this universe through the aid of Atma alone. If an ignorant man be fond of this body firmlyknit together .who does no in jury to any livingcreature.and without the desire of blessing(others). and is freed from all. pride. or gold. which is strung by the nerves. None should be treated with On disrespect.and impure body of five elements whereof the bones are the pillars. seeing.poured into it) so also lust waxes strong (with enjoyment). covered up by the skin.touching. It should be known that that man who does not rejoiceor grievethrough hearing. the de struction of love and hate and non-injuryto beings. He whose speech and mind are well brought under control attains.. intent upon Atma. full of urine and faeces is ever haunted by dotage and miseries and is the seat of all ills. Lust when enjoyed is never gratified. Through attraction to the senses. " That Brahmana who is always afraid of respect as poison and always longs after disrespect as nectar. stone. etc. free from desires.such as passion.desire. all the fruits of vedanta. That ascetic reaches salvation who is associated with Atmajfiana. there is no doubt : through their control. p He is a muni who is devoid of love and hate. No untrue words should be uttered.eating.anger.who is freed from ostentation and egoism.even should afflictions arise to the seven gates (of the body).he gains perfection.none should be made inimical. The one who treats him with disrespectperishes. Soft words (only)should be spoken. the parivrat (ascetic)should become one that owns nothing. sleepssoundly and rises happily even though he is treated with disrespect. All cruel words should be endured.

or. after taking up sannyasa. On account of the accomplishment (of salvation). He who having understood the effect of being alone never derogates from it. " One (fitto reach salvation).is never left in want. the foot of the tree. He should . the state of being without help.with a quiescent mind. There is no doubt of it. That is alone the Maha-Vichi-Vagura (hell). and ever devoted to the One (Brahman). with three. " He (theascetic)should be alone and desireless. spoken. and bodily actions.after leaving all meritorious actions to those dear to him and all sins to those not dear. and being freed from all pairsof opposites. the equalityof vision in all these are the characteristics of the emancipated one. it becomes a (orvillage). He should not converse with anybody. Such one is a bhikshu (alms-taker). fat. Through such intercourse (of ascetics). Being alone. a be fortiori. it is called mithuna (a pair or union) . and an ascetic who commits these three (offences)falls from his duty. with more. faeces. fond of hell. having the three-knotted staff and bowl. Such a man.and bones. That of the (identification body with the Self) is alone the seat of the Kalajutrahell.Should two unite.remains in Brahman alone. friendship. he should be moving about alone and without any help. blood.and malice occur between them. though all should perish.justas a low-caste woman eating dog's flesh is unfit to be touched. That love of the body is not fit to be felt by one intent upon his welfare. Such Asipatravanas'reni an idea of the body being the Self should be strenuouslyabandoned.tale-bearing.and urine. it is a nagara (or city). He should neither rejoiceat dying or living. mithuna should be made. he should be meditating upon Brahman in all mental. The bowl. enter may a village. No city grama or village.nerves. NARADAPARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAD 141 with flesh. at tains the eternal Brahman through dhyana-yoga. pus. The ascetic should ever be utter ing the word Narayana in each sentence. Ttjitis alone the (hell). the tattered robe. He should be the anticipating time when life will close. gives up little by little all associations.all kinds of talks connected with the king and alms. he would. One intent upon the welfare of all beings. through the ordinances.

That clever ascetic is said to be an idiot who is ever in a state of sleep. has his vision extended to no more than four yokes' distance on the ground. deceit. nor should he be glad of living. the eunuch. He need not observe upavasa (fast).without desires. is as if he does not hear them. white cloth.or falsehood. He should ever practisethe upanishadic vidya tending to salva tion. the deaf. having his organs non-agitated by objects. pleasant or painful to the mind. saying that this is good and that is bad.deceit. eatables. though hearing words. the oblations to pitr deva^as (they being with desires). The ascetic need not bathe daily. An ascetic who plays the part a-' the dumb.and the illusion (of confounding them). beneficial or non-beneficial. who whether sittingor walking. pride. the lame. without dualities. To the ascetics.the stories of women. He who does not move about for more than the distance of a yojana for alms or for the calls of nature is a lame man. gambling.without . He is said to be deaf who.142 THIETY MINOE UPANlSHApS not be glad of dying.treachery.) love. who speaks only words that are beneficial. He who is engaged in Atmic contemplation should carefullyavoid a long journey. and moderate is said to be the dumb. and the idiot is emancipated through the (above six)means. He is a eunuch who is no more affected by the sightof a sixteen years old girlthan of a new-born female baby or a hundred-years old woman.without possessingany object as his own. etc. There is no doubt of this. " The ascetic should never in thought even think of others with the six (viz. He who has not fondness for eating.without without prostrations. even though near. That parivrat (ascetic)is said to be a blind man.hate.as it were.. He need not be one that is able to produce a commentary (lecture) . like a turtle its limbs (withinits shell). love towards women. lovely women.He need not be one that had studied Yedas. having withdrawn the organs within. He who. and enjoyables. sleep during the day.true. and vehicles.the following six are sinful : cot.. women in their monthly course.He should be biding his time like a hireling(forhis pay). He should daily observe acts without sin.is with the actions of the organs and the mind annihilated. the blind. He should never observe the followingsix " the scenes of dancing.

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a Brahmana should take up sannyasa. On account of (suclanat) its being an indication. fame or disgrace. trustworthy relatives.slander of others. He who wears (inhis heart) this sutra of Brahmic Reality is alone Brahmana.staff. wife. He should wear.144 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS tuft of hair. as his sutra (thread).and whose meditation is upon jnana. pride. "Having known it.it (thread)is called sutra. ostentation. It is said that jnana alone is able to purify. love and hate. not an impure one. Sutra V the Paramapada (supreme seat).the indestructible and supreme Brahman. The wise man that is in supreme yoga should abandon the outer sutra (thread). friend. or according to rules. To those whose s'ikha (tuft of hair) is jnana. etc. only as an auxiliary to the karmas.he may be (naked) as nature made his body.and covering. jnana alone is supreme.whose holy thread is jnana. greed and . should be. That wise man alone who possesses the jnana-s'ikhalike the s'ikha (flame)of agni (fire) is said to possess s'ikha (tuft of hair).should be worn by the yogin that has known yoga and tattva. anger. The Brahmanas and others that are entitled to perform the vedic karmas are allowed to wear the (external) thread. Those only whose sutra is internal. pleasure and pain.with one cloth. It is only vedic. Enduring all pairs of oppositeswithout cold or heat. malice. it becomes not a rejectedone.having the holy thread as jnana are the real knowers of the sutra . I-ness. Those that have mere s'ikha are no s'ikhis.. The knowers of Brahman know that all Brahmanya (the state of Brahman) accrues to him only that has the jfianamaya s'ikha (knowledge-tuftof hair) and the tanmaya (That or Brahman- ful)upavita (holythread).the loin-cloth. and should abandon his son. in order to bear the bodily afflic tions. He by whom that sutra is known is Brahman. happiness or grief. jealousy. they are said to possess the yajnopavita(holy thread). Through wearing this higher sutra. bald-headed and without having anything as being required (for his use) . cast off the holy thread. Such a sannyasin. That sutra (thread of Brahman) in which is strung the whole universe like beads on a sutra (string).without the six changes. as well as all karmas and love for the universe. passion.

Rbhu. Rshabha. or an insane man. cave. Durvasas. like the analogy of the wasp and the worm. mantra or non-mantra. SVeta- ketu.and having a firm conviction.and cloth. or in a temple. subterranean vault.and having given up all" that one who ever utters Brahma-Pranava. eatingthe food that is obtained without asking. He should ever be engaged in Atmic deliberation. being ever settled firmlyin the Brahmic path. NARADAPARlVRAJAKA-UPANISHAp 145 delusion and regarding his body as a mere carcase. without thinkingof all the things. loin-cloth.river.like a lad. Nidagha. Varuadeva. tank. having eradi cated all actions. Jadabharata. meditat ing upon Brahman. Vatasiddha. having a pure mind.Vaideha (Janaka). aim or non-aim. others or not-others . staff. with the actions of a madman though not mad. or like the naked personages. in the palm as vessel.vessel. Without without prostrations. are other than Self.internal and that external. Sam- vartaka.1 gives up the body as a 1 the Referring to the idea of the worm becoming wasp. mountain-rill. without having another's or (his own) settled place of residence. or a ghost. For him.he should be in a desolate house or at the foot of trees. he should wander about of his own accord. Raivataka.stick.bowl. after discardingin water the three- knotted the stringedsling(bag). with the blissful and non-dual jnana.being equal mind of whether the object is gained or not. waist-string. being with Atma-nishtha. a plenteous turfed spot. virtuous and sinful. Being in his natural state without being affected by the pairs. S'uka. without receiving anything. without having aught of his always own. meditation or worship. the \forshipof devas and pitrs and without praise or condemnation. sand-heap. with the latter's frequent stinging. or in another's vessel in order to merely protect the body at the tim- required. and after rising above the three bodies (to Brahman). Dattatreya. Sanatsujata. that "I am Brahman' alone. there is no invocation or dismissal (of deities). and Goraksha.. a potter'splace or that of agnihotra or sacrifice. 19 . He should not receive gold and others. the place prepared for sacrifice or forest . he should roam about as nature made him. without being recognised and without any means of discovery of his course of life.

shame.observance.vijfiana. honesty. son. the Vedas..begging.his place and time. A good ascetic should not make known his caste. mental firm restraint. Even in dream. and other relatives. and welcome to one." UPADES'A IV " One who after giving up the world. malice. The following are prohibited(in his case): Thirst. kama (pass ion) desire. etc. I-ness. Even should he witness or hear of the happinessor griefof his wife.penance. service to the guru.goes into a debased state. He should neither receive presents.age. He should give up all stories connected with women. He who performs these interdicted things. an ascetic should never direct a person (to do work for him).patience. brother.mine-ness. studied by him. The mind of an ascetic who through delusion adopts the above four things connected with women is necessarilyaffected and thereby perishes. A muni who has moksha as his supreme seat should address such respectful words as " " Please come. history. pleasestay. He should neither converse with women nor remember the women he had seen. pilgrimage and the accomplishment of fruits of mantras.. faith. clearness celibacy. steadiness of mind.non-coveting. his family. and medicines. greed. He should abandon all joy and sorrow. truth. manual work. " To the ascetics their mind.the pleasant and the unpleasant. lecture. is Slid to have done all his work (in this world).indifference. the Vedas. straightforwardness. endurance. humility. nor ask for them to be given to others. please go. compassion. moderate food.non-attachment (to any). delusion. yoga.etc. controlling the following are their svadharmas (own duties): Harmlessness.etc. the obstinacy of curing diseases. falsehood.high-spiritedness. gotra (clan). Such is the Upanishad. jfiana. deceit. and . and sweet words.146 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS sannyasin.yoga. attains the supreme abode. the ob jectsand the organs is in Atma alone. He should not even see the figure of a woman in a picture. and conduct.bodily restraint. . of mind. name.he should not be affected thereby. even though he be his intimate friend.

solita riness. ? And what are the the qualities. He may live in the wintry season (longer)in one place surrounded fullyby water. with the cast on eyes the earth. That paramahamsa an is without dualities. should so. He may live one day ill a village and five days in a city. At other times he should live in ofcher places (such as forest.in pure places.desirelessness. the deaf. He should not live in a village for two days he do desires and the rest will arise in (even). yoga. at the end control and with no place there He live in the of the villagewhere are no persons.blood. Bathing being not prescribedfor a paramahamsa.is no other than the actual Narayana Himself. He should live him and thereby the earth with his mind under like a (harmless) worm on settled of residence. may the He should about on the same place in wintry season.. three living creatures. yoga-posture. vasana of the .and equal vision over all.silence. etc. observingthe duties of his order of life.phlegm. he should abandon all the modifications of the mind only . flesh. fat. mar row. he becomes fit for hell. roam earth with one or no cloth. may one a days in a town.always follows the pure of a sannyasin who sattvagunn. 147 NARADAPARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAD of ascetic in the order of life courage. etc.). the hunch back. one bath only is ordained . bone. and sees all equally. He should not roam about in night. and the dumb. endurance.seven things are ordained. The ascetic should regard all crea tures as Self and dwell upon earth like the blind. for two days in a hamlet and for five days in a city. no actions of the wise and with meditation. viz.midday or the two twilightperiodsin which are places void or difficult to be waded through or likelyto injure He live for day in for village. the insane. nerves. but five months in the wintry season. In the case of the one having one staff. with the one vision (of Brahman) with condemnation of the alone. but none in the case of a parama hamsa. with no desires (ofobjects). what is the difference between the worms and the men that rejoiceover this ill-smelling body which is but a collection of skin. That yogin of an ascetic and should go about. offal and urine ? What is the body but a collection of all. In the case of hamsa. The bahudaka and the forester should bathe thrice a day.

krchchhra penance should be done and then the eight s'raddhas.148 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS beauty." sign (ofnon-identification) Then Narada asked the Grandfather about the rules of " To which Brahma assented and said : Before sannyasa.etc.such signs are useless for gaming moksha. effulgenc^'. knower of religiousbooks or not. follower of good conduct or bad conduct. (men are deluded). yet through the difference of the mind. ? (They are opposed to one an other.) The ignorantman that is fond of this body.blood. two Vis'vedevas called Satyavasu and the (Trimurtis called)Brahma. should roam about. fat and bone. i vill be fond of hell too. and Mahes'vara. He is a (true) brahmana who cannot be iden tified as sat (good person) or asat. a knower of dharma. engaged in the actions of Brahman and a knower of the secret mysteries.should ever be in medita tion with either loin-cloth or no cloth. body. Therefore that learned man who is without signs.or the mute.Kajarshi. Prostrations to those that sport in that piece of flesh which is rent in twain and tainted with the breaking of the wind. in lieu of (eight)s'raddhas. then . In each of the brahmanas should be fed. prana. the ill-smelling urine and offal. which is but a compound of lesh. Such men are said to be without dead) though (viz. A yogin who is thus in medi tation becomes fit to be Brahman.. Though he may have some signs (of identification to pass under this order of life or that).and Manushyarshi . He should go about on this earth without any caste or order of life and without being (even) doubted (regarding his identity)by any beings. Then (even) the angels become fond of him who has a quiescentmind. either the atura or regular sannyasa is taken. like the blind. etc. the idiot. no sign (of identifica tion).The muni who is without ( mine7 and fear.there is nothing to do. Vishnu.nerve. in Devas'raddha first .with quiescence. The cause of salvation is jnana alone. It is the dictate of the Vedas that the itself is Kaivalya. incognito. alive. without dualityand eatingleaf (alone). then in Rshi- sTaddha in lieu of Jpevarshi. Though there is no difference between the women's secret parts that cannot be described by words and an (ever)oozing tubular wound. What more revoltingthing is there than this ? " To the wise.

he should attract Agni (fire) unto . uttering Gayatri a thousand times. or eight days. prthivl. whiskers and mustache and nails shaved. Then performing brahmayajfia.. and Sanatsujata. grandfather and great-grandfather. then in manushyas'raddha in lieu of Sanaka. with the mantras of his s'akha in one yajfiapaksha or eight yajnapakshas. . and then in Atmas'raddha. in lieu of mother.ttien in matrs'raddha. he should have the hairs of his head. After shaving. Sanandanl. He should perform the eight s'raddhas in one day. etc. in lieu of himself. without sleeping. should his father be alive. mother's father and mother's grandfather. . etc. Then having done viraja- homa and sipped water.he should bathe at the end of the four yatnas and after cooking the oblation of (rice)in the fire.he should gladden the brahmanas with the tambula (nut and betel. then in bhutas'raddha. Rudra. he should maintain the fire .in lieu of father. he should establish his own fire and acting up to his s'akha. then seated north of the fire on a deer-skin. in lieu of Vasu. and ^idityas. Ex cept his arm-pit and secret parts. golden vessel. he should bathe and perform the evening sandhya. Then for the accomplishment of the remaining karmas.. he should pluck off seven hairs . he should eat thrice the fried rice-powder. then again for finishingthe rest of the karmas.and then sippingthe water.etc. his father and grand father or of himself. Sanatkumara. in lieu of the five great elements. Then he should worship and feed the brahmanas according to the rules contained in pitryajna. eye and other organs aril the four kinds of collections of bhutas Pitrs'raddha. With the prescribedmantra. then in grandfather and great-grandfather.he should be engaged in the study of Puranas . NAKApAPAKIVRAJAKA-DPANISHAp 149 in Divyas'raddha. he should hold seven or eight hairs and have the head shaved. should perform the oblation of ghee according to what is said therein till the ajya portion with those (mantras beginning with) Atma. he should close it with the gift(to brahmanas) of cloth.Then offeringthe pindas (ballsof rice to the pitrs).)presents and dismiss them.he should offer it to the fire in sixteen oblations accordingto (the mantras of) Purusha-Sukta.and cows along with presents of money and then dismiss Brahma (who had been invoked).

he should cast aside in water the cloth and waist-cord. 3T*R ^^J^TT TO: *riST^KTI the water should be sipped and having taken the water with the two hands. he. leaves and water. The mantra prescribed for this should be uttered through the mind and voice in high. Then in the morn trating before ing performingUandhya and utteringGrayatri a thousand times. Aftei. But an as pirantafter wisdom. the Then de he should mak^ upasthana (worship) to sun..be addressed by the teacher and other Brahmans thus : " 0 Mahabhaga (very fortunate person). and then uttering the mantras sff^:9 etc. he should pluck his hair (yet left)and uttering the prescribedmantra and having torn off the sacred thread and taken it in the hand with water. roots and water should abandon his body in mountain caves. juice. after walking a hundred steps. middling. Having thought himself to be the abdicator of all karmas.he should dismiss it.150 THIRTY MINOR UPANlSHApS himself. .barks.Should he be a sannyasinlearned (inthe Vedas. into water to the navel. he should get etc. he should sip the water. leaves. should. uttering the Pranava. being in the meditation of his own Reality as nature made him. forest and temples. himself initiated into Pranava from his teach er and go about at his own free will with the thought of there being none other but his Self. then should leave to Grayatri. live in mountains. Having uttered ^Ff F. and feeding his body with fruits. That lover of salvation who after sannyasa roams about naked in all places with his heart full of the enjoyment of Atmic bliss. With the mantra. meditating upon and coming round and pros Phe fire. should go as before northwards with hands upraised. and low tones.stay.making Savitri enter into he give vyahrti. he should make arghya scending up to the^guardians (water-offering) of the eight quarters. it should be drop ped on the east.with the fruit of avoidance of karmas and maintaining his life with fruits. should he become a sannyasin. should ' utter offvfc " go to the ocean and cast them down as oblation in water i"aft jj:^N^T W I affgfT:^TO W I offW *FTO TOT II Having uttered thrice and saturated thrice (the water) with (the influence of) the mantra.).

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there are two (sub-)divis ions.etc.152 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS The vairagya-s*nnyasin is one who becomes an ascetic after be ing in a vicious condition of lust.. and after thinking that the whole of the universe should be given like vomited food. books and world. in the form of grain. in the form of truth. in akas'. envy. though he has no vairagya. " (There is another fourfold The classification. A gusted with is one who becomes ascetic with the four jnana-sannyasin! an means of salvation. and then. as nature made him. A karma- sannyasin is one who. to the householder and then to the forester. In karma-sannyasa. pearl. vividisha-sannyasaand vidvat-sannyasa.etc. A vairagya-sannyasinis one who becomes an ascetic from the celibate order being (directly). The krama (regular)sannyasa is animitta.in the realisation of the Reality. Atura-sannyasa is on account of defective karmas. dwelling in all. becomes dis the' objectsthrough his former good karmas.in water. after practising enjoying all. etc. from the celibate.. in all men. becomes an ascetic as nature made and him. and becoming familiar with the experiences of the world of virtue and vice. after abandoning anger.Atura-sannya- sa (on account of the cause of approaching death. after controllingthe organs through book- wisdom. disease. in the sacrificial pit as of the form of fire. When sannyasa is taken at the time of death. Animitta is that when one becomes duly a sannyasin when the body is strong. in the form of the .etc.fish.becomes an ascetic by regularlypassingfrom one as'rama to another.). after giving up the three vasanas of the body. jealousy. through jfianaand vairagya.that body and others should be given up.) four kinds are : jnana-sannyasa.in the moon. and having the body alone remaining. is nimitta-sannyasa. ahankara and all sannyasa productive of identification.moving in the antariksha (middle world) as of the form of vayu. it is called nimitta. which are of the form of desires for women. in the form of the conch. wealth and earth. on earth.. (afterbeing convinced) that all created things are subject to destruction. nimitta (causal) and animitta (non-causal). in the supreme angels. that all Atmas (souls) " each one shining in the pure Akas'. karma-sannyasa. A is one jnanavairagya-sannyaasin who up.

The paramahamsa is he who is without tuft of hair and holy thread. Should the atura-sannyasinbe alive (aftertaking sannyasa). wears the tuft of hair.he should take up regular sannyasa. is said to remain in one place only on account of its huge body. and teacher.loin-cloth. The rules to be observed in the case of the (three). bahudaka. eatingthem with his mouth like cows. like kutlchaka.begs food in one day from five houses. or boa constrictor. taking any food that may come to its mouth as it is lyingthere. following the course of the boa from constrictor.who worships mother. Kutichaka is one who wears the tuft of hair. in the form of the rivers f roirj the mountains. The turi- yatita is one who either may take fruits. bahuclaka and hamsa are the same as for the orders of life from the celibate to the sannyasin.bowl and staff. "There are six classes of sannyasins kutu!haka.who is utteringmantras. Such an one is the turiyatita. has one loin-cloth.as well as the three marks. father. turlyiit.it a and avadlmta. loin-cloth and tattered cloth. who has potsherd and sling.kutlchaka. The hamsa is one who wears matted hair and the three vertical sect- marks and eats the alms-food without any limit (as to the morsel) and wears the bare loin-cloth only. noly thread.tattered cloth.etc. paramahamsa upwards. paramahamsa. or if he is an eater of food. gets his food (in his mouth). vertically. who takes food in one and the same place. and is ever engaged in the realisation of the Real.cloth. (sect-) but who eats eightmorsels of food through getting alms. For the three. The naked man having the body alone has the bodily actions like (quiescent).wears one red cloth alone and sacred ashes and has given up all. may beg food from three houses. The avadhuta is he who is without any rules.1 all persons except persons of and ill-repute outcastes. the white earth (on the forehead as sect-mark) and who has a staff. Bahudaka is one who.who wears. staff. Such are the rules. They may get food from all castes and should be as nature made them. the dead body. 20 . in the form of truth and the great one " are jno other than ' Brahman and that others are but perishable.bowl. 1 The snake.. NAR ADAPARI VRljAKA-UPANISHAD 153 limbs of Vedas. " hamsa. they have no waist-cord.

Among the turiyatita and avadhuta (ascetics). . bowl.he wUist-cord. for the bahudaka. . they will but pain his vocal He should not converse with people through the organ. should roam about. He should be without even the slightest tattered cloth. He should not make prostrations to any one. He should not talk many words . he should not be a practiser of anything but the realisation of Reality. for paramahamsa. eight morsels in eight houses. to hamsas. There is nothing for the ascetic to do.even though one is junior. " To the aturas and kutlchakas.he should not make prostrationsto another. The ascetic should not dwell in one place for many days. (-He should neither utter anything other than Pranava. a senior who has known the Eeality.. No exchange should be made. he should be free from pilgrimage. He should not study logic or grammar. loin-cloth. Nothing should be purchased or sold (by him). swargaloka the . He should not climb up a tree. tapoloka . there is no limit. (for ava dhuta). If there is anything for him to do. he should beg with his hand as the vessel in five houses . etc. and after casting aside in water the staff. He has no worship of Grod and no witnessing of festivals . for the harnsa.the world they attain is bhur- loka and bhuvarloka to the bahudakas. nor talk nor' hear. He should not talk in other language (than Samskrt). nor get into a carriage. he should take food like a boa constrictor in all castes. Kaivalya in Atma according to the analogy of the wasp and the worm through the realisation of Reality. He should not swim with his hands and cross the river. Therefore the only thing he is qualified to do is reflection.154 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS " At the time of the sannyasa. no ostentation for him. for the turiyatita.cloth. the recitation of the Vedas should be madeUill the mind is cleared . etc. The other rules of ascetics are : The kutichaka should beg alms in one house only . It is the command of the Vedas that whatever form one thinks of at the last (death) moment and before leaving the body is attained by him and no other. vocal organ. satyaloka. Knowing it thus. he should eat fruits with his mouth like cows. to the paramahamsas. he will perish. To the turi yatita and avadhuta.

having the hand as the vessel (for eating) and having the quartersalone as the cloth. ahankara and chitta. he should be beyond karma and knowledge and unfit for salutation and repeating the names of the Lord. He will duly get the benefit of the karmas (ofhis order of life). rnanas. there is the difference of the agent presiding over them. Like a cobbler. To such a one who does not apparently know them. there is no entry into yoga books. Through the difference of states. Taijasa in the dreaming state and Prajna fn the dreamless sleeping state. Having given up all like the foam (separating from itself) the castor oil. even the dreaming state forms the same (dreamlesssleeping)state. " To the ascetic. then it will be like an ornament to a dead body. To the fourteen (the ten organs of sense and actions and the four organs organs of the mind in these states. Through the differences of actions of the vrttis. Such a one is termed Jivanmukta.. Should there be any entry into other books (than the one treating of Reality). The same one (Atma) alone is styled Vis'va in the waking state.there arise the differences of separate functions. Then he will be one that will practiseaccordingly. viz. he becomes a useless person like a camel bearing saffron paint. To one that has attained jgya. no study of sahkhya books.as there is no other observance for him. There are four vrttis. in the heart.his jnana-vair salva tion is in the Self. the dreaming state . as if he were in dreamless sleeping state. Through the practices of (the study of) books foreignto the realisation of Reality. Knowing these and that the turya is the indestructible.one should not hear or see anything in the waking state.the ascetic .having the mental staff which controls the mind clingingto objects. no practise of mantra or tantra. NARADAPARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAp 155 Through the observance of any other. the turya (or fourth) state.there should be no desire of this world or the higher. When (thepresidingagent is) in the eyes there is the waking state . in the throat. To him. buddhi.) the outer and inner vrttis (modifications) are the material cause. All the Vedas say that there is salvation to such a one. and in the head. the dreamless sleepingstate . he goesjto the world of that other.

What is meant by the protectionof life. the food with the mouth only (without the use of the hand). he should be engaged in the sole protectionof life. Through the gains obtained with much respect. he becomes of equalvision to all beings. Those who have pure mind should not over-step the limits like the ocean. He should always look down upon the gains obtained with much respect (shown to him). goes to the terrible hells called Maharaurava. (The sense of) greatness in his case is likened by the rshis to the pig'sdung. nor rejoice at things obtained. wisdom. Like a coolie abiding his appointedtime (of pay). avairagyaand the beginning with qualifications s'ama (control of mind/ is the spoilerof the order of life of an ascetic. the ascetic should bide his time (of death). The great ones do not give up their self-restraint like the sun. There is no salvation obtained through the mere of the staff making the head bald other dis assumption or or guise or through ostentatious observances. When the muni takes. One who lives by taking alms without of) pa (the qualifications tience.or ghost. An ascetic who. Having given it up.156 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS should go aboift like a lad. That man who has jnana as his staff is said to be the ekadandi (one having Brahman alone as the staff) . he should move about like a worm. he may sip water. Food and cloth without being begged for by him should be obtained involuntarilythrough the will of others. he may go to the houses of caste people that are fit for taking alms from. He should neither grieve for things not obtained. eats all in (indiscriminately) all places. the ascetic though released becomes bound. is this : When the fire (of the hearth in a house) had been extinguished and all have taken food.idiot. A naked (ascetic) may bathe at the wish of another. With the organs not attached to objects. The yogin who has his hand only as his alms-bowl should not often take alms. A man who practisesthe the meditation Self in the dreaming state as in the waking upon is said to be the foremost and first of Brahmavadins. so in the middle (of may taking food). Then . He take (food) standing or sitting. He should neither desire to live nd" die. like a cow. having merely a wooden staff without jnana.

never lies through the vocal organ. A muni who goes about with no cause for instilling fear into all beings need never have any fear from them. according to the direction pointed out by the sun. or muni. One without any abhimana (identificationwith body) or egoism or dualities or doubt. for alms. the muni should go about like an idiot. He should conduct himself in such manner as not to be known to others. He should not take any disciples. is fit to be of the nature of Brahman. He who after going to the forest dwells with jfiana as the sacrifice and the organs under his mastery and awaits his time (ofdeath). The muni who has a dusty body. He should neither do nor talk anything. He should not associate with a forester or householder. He should not discourse. or a lad. Rejoicing in That within himself. He should not live dependent upon any. an uninhabited house or the foot of a tree as his abode.but not to a house where it is closed. Without any distinguishing characteristics and without lettingothers know his opinions. having visited all sacred places. does not do injury to living creature and any any gets alms at the proper time. He should not do or cause to do works tending to (his)fame or pains or people's benefit. He should not be glad of anything. He should roam about on earth like a worm.or a mute person. He should not think of a good or bad thing.He should not study many books. He disputatious should not joinany party (fighting with another). that wise man. He should not be inclined towards vicious books. never is angry. II"?should go (for alms) to a house where the door is ajar. Neither should he commence any works. any settled place and with patience and the organs under control. He may. ever intent upon the Brahmic vision.should live without any desire in any place obtained. and . never hates. should exhibit himself to people like an idiot. NARAD APARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAp 157 he becomes tit for salvation. without any without fire-worship. go from a forbidden house to a non-forbidden one.is fit to be of the nature of Brahman. He should give all up over- reasoning. sleeping where t4ie sun sets. withoiX) anything dear or not dear to him. That person who. He should about alone without associating with roam any.

and vairagya " these are said. being without stain like vayu. beasts and others. never thinks of it in order to reach a superior state in yoga. Wearing the red cloth. anger. That learned man versed in Brahma-vidya fehould talk like a madman. and playing like a child. The clever jnanisportingin Atma. should wander about like an idiot. Till the mind becomes pure.eating whatever comes to hand. horse. etc.delusion and other faults should be without fear.158 THIETY MINOR DPANISHADS with the senses under control. preserving silence. and thus make them lift themselves through their own Selves. pride. He should do all that is right through the actions of mind. Then when the mind is purified. Daily he should live upon begging. or having urine and faeces thrown upon him by them. should always think well of them though pained.in theopinion (of the great).a good jnana. roaming everywhere. cow. The ascetic after giving up passion. being equal in happiness and pains. thinkingever of Brahmic .and with patience. A yogin whether praised or afflicted by others. or hindered by the vicious.he may be anywhere as a parivrajaka. he should live either at the foot of a tree. He should follow the observances 'of cows (by eating with the mouth. preserving silence. to be the dharma of the ascetic. outside the village. specialmedi tation. Eating alms-food.or burnt by their acts.tapas.desire. or in the temple. attains a higher state in yoga. Agoodjnani whether pushed. disregarded. meditating through the mind upon Vishnu that is Paramatma and Is'vara. A yogin never goes against the actions of the virtuous. equally regarding without any hate brahmana. slighted. causing no trouble to anybody). looking upon all with equal vision like an Atma-jnani. and being ever in dhyana-yoga. ever delightingin Atma. the learned man should thus be moving about. or afflicted in various other ways. A yogin who is slighted by people. He should not eat one food alone (from one only). Seeing Janardana in and out everywhere. He is the same whether people slight him or do not desire his associa tion. beaten. He should harbour no malice against any and give up all clingingto things. speech and body to all beings born out of the embryo or the egg.

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through buddhi.becomes a jivathinking that the body is itself.to jnana . The functions of the fourteen organs. through chitta. (he is) in the four states of the dreamless sleeping and others . the anus excretes . in (the middle of) the to vairagya. in the southern petal.such states are not. to sleep and laziness . he understands.Prajfia. in the south-eastern petal.the skin feels . One should (always) utter: ' I am Brahman alone/ Else in the waking state. the second is the dreaming . Each avastha (or state) has its sub-states. to peace of mind . the subtle and the causal 1 " " also Probably others refer to the subdivisions of the dreaming .to Atma-deliberation. (he is)in the four states of the waking state and others i1 in the dreaming state. . the leg walks . in pericarp.to travelling the northern petal.160 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS dreamless sleepingin the midnight. he is'inclined to virtuous actions .to love of . and others mutually dependent are the following: The eye perceive forms the ears. who is presiding over the gross. lifts. tastes the nose. odours .to sinful ac tions . Taijasa. Taijasaand Prajfia. the fourth turya .he thinks through ahankara. All .he. Through the identification with the house (thebody).to cruel actions . When he is in the east ern petal (of the heart). in the turya. in petal. that which is not these four is turyatita. sounds . (he is)in the four states of the dreaming state and others . to the turyatita that is nirguna. the tongue perceives eyes . in the dreamless sleeping state. " The jivais dwelling in this body. the sexual organ enjoys. the filament. these should be abandoned. the hand . in the south-western petal. the third is the dreamless sleeping. in the sport (or to flirt) north-western . in the north-eastern petal. the vocal organ speaks. There is only one witness in all the states of Vis'va. so of other states. in the western petal. (he is)in the four states of turya and others . the buddhi being perceives objects. under the control of the organs. Such are the different aspects to be understood (in the heart) . The first livingavastha (ofjiva)is the waking . like a householder. The one Lord alone that is witness and without qualities appears (asmany) through the differences of Vis'va.and Tatastha (the neutral). he says ' I '.

). speech. etc. And (conversely)through the abhimana of the body. caves and forests. then he up does not identifyhimself with the body (i.and with So'ham. there is the abhimana of the jiva. of agency and enjoyment is not the seer. Through such a screen. The one other than jiva (viz. The yogin who has always controlled (his mind and organs) should ever diligentlycommence his meditation in empty places. is without vairfigyaand is not intent upon the obser vances of his order ? He is an ascetic " not any other " who does 1 With Hamsa. Having known thus.. go He should not against the actions of the wise. he reaches self-realisa tion through the mantra " ' Hamsa-So'ham' ' having the charac teristics of inspirationand expiration.one should make the mind enter into meditation. Having given up abhimana and anger. The state of the jiva is as a screen (to screen Brahman) like (the pot and house in) the pot-akas'and the house-akas'. etc.e. Through the abhimana of the jiva. there is the ex- piration. when smoke has ceased and fire has been extinguished (in their houses).there is the abhimana of the body. Is he not a degraded ascetic who. If it is said that the jiva is not so (con cerned with egoism). in s'raddha sacrifices. there is the inspiration. being content with moderate food.Tatastha) is not concerned (with egoism. The knower of yoga who is bent upon accomplishingthe end should never be engaged in giving feasts to Brahmanas. That ascetic is said to be a supreme person who begs alms-food of worthy brahmanas.. not attain the state of jiva). then it is not a fact. The well-controlled yogin should about as if people had treated him with disrespect.. and body. if he should give the identification with the body. though holding the staff and begging food. That great go ascetic is said to be a tridandin (or having a three-knotted staff) who holds firmly the three-danda (control)of mind. etc.. festivals or crowds.or in going to places of pilgrimages. . the jiva that is affected by the egoism. NiRADAPARIVKAJAKA-UPANISHAp 161 (bodies).Such a one is stated to be Brahman. having conquered the organs and having controlled the avenues (of the organs). Is Tatas^ha the seer ? or is he not ? As (to Tatas^ha). there is the property of seeing.

there arises indifference. etc.etc. relatives. practiseBrahma-jnana. which is the direct and chief means of salvation. 0 Narada. and learn with a steady firm mind the meaning of the sentences ' ' of the Vedas. the body . etc. there is nothing to be given up or not .. to Atma. etc. the castes and orders of life which are foreign (to Atma) are attributed falsely. Then being devoid of ' I and ' mine and of all attractions. etc.transcends them all and remains in Atma alone. He who knows thus through vedanta is beyond all castes and orders of life.and having attained peace of mind.etc. as for son. To the Atma that is of the nature of jnana. He is said to transcend all castes and orders of life who realises the self -shining supreme Tattva that is without body and organs. can never exist. having destroyed (or done away with) all fondness for everything. He should always be a practiser of vedanta.. there are no rules ordained nor prohibited. being master of the mind. the real vijnana that is of the form of bliss.. he sees Atma in himself.. of vedanta. for those that are Brahma-jnanis. such an idea as : ' the order of life. That person is said by knower of the meaning of the Vedas to be ativarnas'rami (beyond caste and order of life)who after crossingall castes and orders of life abides in Atma alone. and through love of vedanta-jnana. he should satisfythe guru for a long time through service. Having an equilibratedmind. the all-witness. the one named paramahamsa should possess the qualities of the control of mind and body. He from whom all castes and orders of life slipaway through Atmic vision. The aspirant after salvation who is called paramahamsa should. by the ignorant.162 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS not go to the house where he expects to find specialalms or which he already visited..wife.he should approach a guru who is a knower of Brahman with gift(in his hand). similarlynothing else (for them). Through observing the faults of sarnsara. Having attained indifference to all objectseven up to Brahma's seat. In order to attain Brahma- jnana. There is no doubt that sannyasa arises in one who becomes disgustedwith samsara. 0 Narada.. through the hearing.and having faith in the path of salvation. Therefore.is mine/ being generated out of may a in this body.

with purity. and roam about on this earth without going against dharma . That jnani alone and none else is able to cross samsara who has his mind at peace. having given up association (with wife.should be shunned at a distance. nor any rules of observance. 0 Narada. At the end of that (year). and disputatious arguments should be given up. with a firm mind. Therefore. there is neither bath nor muttering of mantras nor worship nor homa. ho should attain the supreme jnana-yoga. O Narada. taking leave of the guru.as well as anger. nor religious observances. having a worn-out loin-cloth. He should give up all karmas and worldly observances. and being content with moderate food and having controlled the senses. without the pairs (ofopposites). The householder who does not perform karma. as well as the supreme * jnana-yoga. nor adharmas. etc. mere sight of whom is poison..with a mind that is full of Brahman . with mind under control. nor karmas to the pitrs nor pilgrimages. having his directed intelligence towards Reality.without attaching him self to any. NARApAPARIVKAJAKA-UPANlSHAp 163 and the organs. nor means of accomplishment. dancing.and being bald-headed or naked. he should give up the three orders of life and attain the chief as'rama (ofsannyasa). etc. Then. Each becomes intoxicated through drinking seeing alcohol. nor other any worldly karmas. He should have the of the knower great intelligence ' of vedanta. and sight of.. roam through the world with vision ever directed inwards. He should be careful to observe yama (re straint)and niyama (religiousobservance). Therefore women. nor any karma of fire-sacrifice. and the ascetic who performs karma " both become fallen through their perverse doings. he should wander over the earth.. singing. being without fear and egoism. a yogin without { I and * mine * and being equal and friendlyto friends and other beingS. women. Each becomes intoxicated through women.bird or tree. he should live with him for one year. With the grace of the guru towards him. That yogin of an ascetic who is a learned person. Such things as conversation and proximity with.should never injureany worm or insect. nor dharmas.etc.using violence ^against persons. to such a one. (or)at the end of one year. nor worshipping with flowers.

does (orshould) not dwell in countries where there is no king. the capitalof the town as the hell called Kumbhlpaka.repliedthus : " "The ascetic that has attained indifference (toobjects). after eulogizing Narada who asked about the observance of ascetics.sandal-coating. and then for (theremaining) eight months should wander alone. He should not create an attraction (inhis mind) that may serve as an obstacle to his going about. the cloth a.s a defiled vessel. nor witness the festival of a God. nor ascend a tree. he should be with his body emaciated by taking food (from each house) like the bees (from each flower).the oil-bath as sexual union.as offal.there is neither praisenor prostration. the gladdening of a friend as urine. Like a deer that does not stay in one place on account of fear.the different tastes as the degraded caste.the place of assembly as the burning ground. nor the propitiationof devas or pi^rs. He should not cross a stream (by swimming) with his hand. desires as cow's flesh. the country known to him as the outcastes' place.. should be content with whatever Ite gets.he should not stay in one place. nor partake of regal food. Regarding such royal food as flesh.164 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS and all attraction given up within.forgettinghis country and the . The muni that goes about alone.gold and women as cobra or deadly poison. Then also the ascetic should not stay in one and the same place for more than a day.He should not increase the fat (in the body). or changeless(inAtma). should stay in one and the same place in the rainy season (for four months).etc. he should discard ghee like blood. he should be without any worship of God other than the Self . and ever thinking of the bliss of his Self like the bliss arising from the discovery of a lost object. Thus the ascetic who has his abode changeful*- (in body). Thus is the Upanishad. and royal food as balls of rice offered to the dead. (In his case). nor do the external worship of God." UPADES'A VII The Grandfather. and having given up all the actions of the world and his own country. Having dis carded all things other than the Self.

there is the vertical sect-mark. 3 The six changes are birth. anger. the jnana. once . there is the holy-ashes sect-mark . NARApAPAEIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAp 165 fondness for his body. for the turyatita. . to the avadhuta. being realisation. twice . existence. both . For the kutichaka. and annihilation. is formed a city. five days in a town. Two persons should not join together. pride. being without the six human infirmities. and knowing that his body should be slightedlike a carcase. decrease.he should live for one day in a village. there is created a village thereby . delusion.till his body falls (a prey to death) . he should understand the four kinds of svarupa (in Ta^tvamasi) and should live in the realisation of Reality. " In " Tvani also there are two.and non-dissipated having deliberated within himself that there is none other than the Self.. 3 " " Tat has its two aspects of tho word and its meaning which is Nirguna. ever intent upon the through meditation. he should dwell away from son. for the bahudaka. freed from all karmas. the ascetic should not give scope to his fourteen Having attained wealth of vairagya through organs. grief. having burnt up air* passion. In it. Should three join. relations and native place. of Brahma-Prafiava.. With no settled place of residence and with a firm mind. for the 1 The six human infirmities are hunger. viz. dotage. five days in a sacred place. having seen the Reality everywhere.and five days in sacred waters. delusion. for the hamsa. he should attain Jivan- mukti. having transcended the three gunas. he should dwell alone in mountain caves without uttering falsehood. for the paramahamsa. Therefore he should live alone in a village. and death. with four. to the bahudaka. thirst. to the hamsa. etc. malice. transformation. like a thief released from prison. " To the kutichaka there is (prescribed) a bath three times daily.1without the six changes. greed. Till prarabdha 3 karma is over.there is the spot-sect-mark. growth. there is the holy-ashesbath . Taking whatever comes to him without effort. to the para- mahamsa there is the mental bath. there is the wind as the bath. there is the three-lined (horizontal)sect-mark .the discipleand the jiva. to the turyapta. ~ speaking tho truth and being opposed to all savoury things.

for the hamsa there is a pieceof cloth . for the turyatita and avadhuta. in the case of the turyatita and avadhuta. there is mental worship . Thus the aspirant after should salvation'. there is the Brahma-pranava (always). Such is the Upanishad. the turyatita. there is (the uttering of) the mental pranava . to dhyana (meditation). according to each one's capacity.166 TH1KTY MINOR UPANISHADS avadhuta or for the turyatita and avadhuta. For the kutichaka and bahudaka. Thus the ascetic. for the hamsa and paramahainsa. shaving takes place once in two months . ever be utteringthe Pranava which en ables one to cross samsara. For the kuti chaka. the bahudaka should take alms (inmany places). once in four months . The kutichaka and bahudaka are entitled to mantras and japas. the hand is the vessel . for the hamsa and paramahamsa. but they are entitled to the initiation of the sacred sentences of the Vedas . there is s'ravana (hearingand study).should ever be seeking the means to attain Kaivalya." . the turyatita and avadhuta are entitled to none . and for no others. The kutichaka and bahudaka are not entitled to initiate others . and the parama- hamsa should be naked or have only a loin-cloth . for them. they should be as nature made them. there is the idea that they alone are Brahman. it is like the action of the boa constrictor (opening the mouth and taking whatever comes into it). for the avadhuta. for the hamsa and paramahamsa. for the hamsa and parama hamsa. for the bahudaka. there is manana (think ing and remembering) . so also the paramahamsa. there is none. For the kutichaka and bahudaka. should take food with the mouth as the cow . For all these. For the kutichaka. none 'at all. there is the internal pranava (in the heart). once in a year . for the bahudaka. for the turyatita and avadhuta there is nididhyasana (profoundmeditation ever). there are two cloths . there is one cloth . for the hamsa and paramahamsa. the hamsa and paramahamsa. there is necessarily the meditation upon Atma. or if wanted. for the turya tita and avadhuta. and be livingas a Jivanmukta. there is (prescribed)a deer skin. For the hamsa and paramahainsa. for the turyatita and avadhuta. none. there is the worship of the divine (image) . The kutichaka should take the food in one (placeonly).

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He has four feet. able to confer sal- ( vation and eulogizedby vBrah ma-sound (Vedas). Vedas. the realisation of Parabrahman should be attained. Having experi enced this one Om as immortal and ageless. since Atma is of four kinds through his identification with.present.and there is none else. the five pranas. the five organs of action. The one presidingover the waking state is gross. indestructible. and the enjoying of. He is the enjoyer of the subtle and is chaturatma.168 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHADS of the whole universe. is blissful. and S'iva. He is said to form the second foot. past. and since he is the enjoyer of Vis'va (the universe).he becomes the (gross consciousness).of the nature of eternal bliss and the Atma in all creatures. named Taijasaand the protector of elements.Prajfia. time. the gross as well as the enjoyer of the gross. become convinced that your Atma. He alone is Vis'vajit(the conqueror of the universe).that is mentioned in the Vedas of the nature of the Upanishads. yet he is enjoyer of bliss. Turya) in order. and Taijasa. Sushupti (or the dreamless sleep) is that state where one sleeps without any desire and where one sees not any dreams.has chetas (consciousness)as his (one) foot. When this Lord at tains the dreaming condition. sthula-prajfia He has nineteen1 facets and eight parts. . presiding over the gross (or subtle matter rather). He is the enjoyer of the gross and is the chaturatma called Vis'va. associated with the three bodies.. This Omkara should be sought after. 1 The nineteen are the five organs of sense. Know that this Otnkara is the Atma that is indestructible during the three periods of time. He is pervading everywhere and the Lord. and through his identification (with the third body) enjoying bliss in the fourth. and future. the subtle as well as the enjoyerof the subtle. is Parabrahman. The one identified with this dreamless sleepis Prajnana-ghana. He alone is the Hiranyagarbha. Through Yis'va and others (viz. He alone is the Purusha called Vais'vanara. of the form of all aksharas (letters). and the four of the mind. is all-pervading. he is the sukshma-prajna (subtle consciousness).and having brought about the Brahma-nature in this body. O conqueror of all. he is the one having eight limbs. This is the first foot.

like the sun everywhere . This should be known." UFA DBS' A IX Narada asked : " Who is Brahma-swarupa ? " To which Brahma replied thus : " Brahma-swarupa is thus : Those who know that ' he (Brahman) is one and I am another ' are only pas'us (animals). He alone is the Lord of all. it is the support. and is named Prajna. nor is it prajna itself (of the causal body) : 0 muni neither is it the trifling prajna. It cannot be be reached by thought. It is the auspicious. the latent one. it is Prajnana-ghana.nor is it the dual prajna. and antara (the inner). It can never be known by the organs . the third foot. as he is Sat. this Brahma-Akas' is shining always. so is sushupti.the fourth. Thus is the Upanishad.and himself 22 .As it alone is Brahman. Brahma-pranava. As is svapna. To the aspirantsafter salvation. NARApAPARIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAp 169 chaturatma and the Lord. It is with the waking state. ends as the fourth and follows (upon the heels of each of the above states).nor is it the internal prajna. it is the Self-light. The wise man who knows Brahman thus (ashimself. Chit and Ekarasa (theone essence). It can not proved.The real pas'us (animals)are no animals. though it is without prajna.the subtle- thoughted. even in this state. The chaturatma. Such a one is thought to be Turya. There is no other Turya.is the knower of the means of vikalpa- jfianaand is the anujnata (the one following knower). etc. He alone is the originand the destruction.with changes. These three (states)are obstacles to all creatures obtaining (the fina1!) peace. nor is it the very subtle prajna. is he svapna not (tobe known as) Sat-Chit-Ekarasa ? This shall be expressed as differentiated thus : It is not even the gross prajna. This alone is Brahman. Having known them.it (also)being'said to be illusory. and the cause of all creation. nor it can be known by the reason. and known as maya the three vikalpas of sushupti. without a second. It can be realised by Self-realisation alone. it cannot be grasped by the organs of action. nor is it the non- prajfia. It cannot be proved by analogy. the knower of all.

which has five which whirlpools.)attain samadhi in Brahman and are absorbed in Brahman. Those (Rshis) followingdhyana-yoga have beheld. Him (we worship as a river) which has (water) oozing out of the five currents (of organs). This is declared as Brahman. the enjoyed and enjoyment).whose pranas are the five waves. we consider as the wheel which has one circumference.. has one rope of various forms. as the cause. as it is subject to pleasures and pains. he gains salvation through such (a blessing). etc. as the and the indestructible. It is not the union of them. l " Is time the cause (of origination of universes)? or nature ? or karma ? or accident ? or the (great)elements ? or Purusha ? This Should be considered. but Atma (jiva-) is not the Lord.170 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS as Brahman) escapes out of the mouth of death. which are manifest and unmanifest . which is terrible and crooked through the five causes (ofelements).which has sixteen end-parts. the devatma- s'akti concealed by its own qualitiesof that One that presides over all the causes associated with time and Atma. Hence it is the firm abode (of all). . etc. (Then) there iscthe Atma. which has the threefold path. but the not-ruler of (jiva-)Atma is bound through the thought of its being the enjoyer . is whirling deluded the jiva.which has fiftydifferences (or has the five miseries). is Impel led by the velocity of the five pains. which is the support of life and the last abiding place of all beings.thinking that it is different from the one (Lord) Ordainer. There is no other path to salvation.and which is infinite. In this wheel of Brahman.are the three (the supreme enjoyer. which has six times which eight (nails). which is covered by three (layers). Him (the Universal Soul).. The knowers of Brahman having known Brahman within (the universe. ami which has delusion arising from the twofold cause.which has fiftyspokes and twenty counter- spokes. Is'vara upholds this universe. which hasbuddhi. and having known the Lord is freed from all 1 The Svetasvatara Upanishad begins thus. Being blessed by Him.as the root cause.and which has the five obstacles. In it. closely associated with the destructible and the indestructi ble.

lifts objects without hands. the universe) is released from bondage. is in the cave of the heart of all creatures. alone engaged (in this world). Through the removal of such pains. to him where then is grief? Where then is delusion ? Therefore the Virat is the past. It is pradhana alone that is destructible.and enjoyment are nothing but Brahman. the one remaining after all. sees without eyes and hears without ears. That. on account of the enjoyment of the enjoyers.* Whoever knows . fit to be known through the meaning. the supreme objectfit to be known. whoever meditates upon the (Atma-)svarupa. the Brahman that is threefold ^as 'Is'varaand jlva. that is the atom of atoms and the greatest of the greatest. Atma is endless. one (the former is jnani and the other is ajnani. There is none but It to be known. He is not the agent. " Atma. He should know with certitude that all the three things (viz.) the enjoyer.and future time. Through the meditation of that Para mes'vara. He knows all. . the third body is acquired after this (physical) body. The one Lord (Is'vara) ordains Pradhana and Purusha. (The goddess of) Brahm- (latter) is birthless.the support of all with incomprehensiblepower. Brahman contains in itself all excellence. and are of the nature of his own Self. and is of indestructible nature. All Atmic knowledge is through tapas (only). avidya and the rest are destroyed.the supreme of the supreme. present..knows the A^ma capable of neither increase nor decrease through the grace of Is'vara through the non-attraction or to the objectsof the senses. Having known Atma that is bodiless in this fleetingbody. He is said to be the foremost Maha-Purusha. the great.of all the Upanishads. is iitma-s'tikti. One without the thought of objectsand without grief. all wealth is enjoyed. Both ts'vara and jlva are birthless . " The illusion of the universe disappearsthrough medita tion on union (or absorption)and sattva-bhava of Parames'vara always.there is freedom from birth and death. It is Is'vara that is immortal and indestructible. The universe is His form. the all-pervading.the enjoyed. etc.. Having known thus. He (Atma) walks speedilywithout legs.but none knows Him.and he attains whatever should be attained. Through knowing the Lord. NARADAPAEIVRAJAKA-UPANISHAD 171 fetters.

being happy. and middle. able to get wealth (if wanted). Such is the Upanishad.nor controlled his organs. the ordainer of all. etc. Through fear. from which a yogin that has gone to it does not return. having crossed jnana and ajnana as well as happiness and grief. of the nature of the . " This (Brahman) is neither internal nor external conscious ness . being fit to be known by the Vedas. and where the sun and the moon do not shine. end.172 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS the all-knowing.. books." The Lord Brahma said that he becomes an emanci pated person. five elements with theu expansion of all the quintuplicated creation. Such a Parivrat will be without delusion. the eternal. of the nature the undaunted grieves.the cause of Brahma. the one without beginning. Such a Parivrat attains the supreme abode of Vishnu. he attains liberation in himself. without action or causing others to act. Having given up all but his body. Vishnu. he is like a terrified deer. nor jnana. the one fit to be worshipped by all angels. and having abandoned all samsara. He who knows that which is by Itself alone is an emancipated person. the Lord. being absolved from teacher.being Self-effulgence. nor is it the state between the waking and the dreaming states. able to confer siddhis and remaining himself as Brahman. having known all. He does not return. It cannot be cog nised by the organs . He who knows Reality is a Parivrat. . nor up mastered his mind.One who has auspicious. he will live like a bee. and Rudra. ever meditat ing upon Reality. superior to the greater than the supreme. Such a Parivrat roams about alone.nor ajnana . the eternal and the greatest. personage never neither given vicious actions. is neither gross. without being enveloped by his own limbs of quintupli cated objects.disciple. nor brought his mind to one state (or point). Such is Kaivalya. is within. of effulgence. nor given up longing after fruits of actions though the mind is undisturbed. He will not be opposed to going anywhere. is not subjectto proof.the foremost of all foremost beings. Such a Parivrat roams about thus " without wealth. and without consideringothers as foreignto himself .will not attain this At ma. the one that has all the universe latent in himself. without limit or destruction.

daya. dharana. There yama eight asanas. . Kshama is the bearing patiently of all pleasant or unpleasant things. mitahara. Dhyana is of two kinds. or body. " Under (forbearance) are ten :l ahimsa. Dhrti is 1 Under yama and niyama Patanjali has five kinds only. five kinds : so also is dharana. through the actions of one's mind. and sama- ma. or body. Pranayama is of three kinds pratyahara is of are . Asteya is not coveting of another's property through the actions of one's mind. or body. kshama. Of these. or body in the performance or non-performance of the actions ordained or forbidden to be done. and s'aucha. Daya is kindliness towards all creatures in all places. Brahmacharya is the refraining from sexual inter course in all places and in all states in mind. dhrti. any speech. niya- pratyahara. speech or body. such as praise or blow. S'andilya questioned Atharvan thus : " Please tell me about the eight (parts) of Yoga which is the means of attain angas ing to Atma/? A^harvan replied : " The eight aiigas of yoga are yama. Satya is the speaking of the truth that conduces to the well-being of creatures. speech. Arjava is the preserving of equanimity of mind. dhyana. S'ANDILYA-UPANrSHAD OF ATH ARYAN A VEDA CHAPTER I OM. dhi. ahimsa is the not causing of pain to any any living being at time through the actions of one's mind. satya. asteya yama brahmacharya. Of these. speech. pranayama. speech. asana. and samadhi is of one kind only. is of ten kinds : and so is niyama. arjava.

Is'varapujanais the worshipping of Vishnu. earned lawfully. etc. '"Dana is the giving with faith to deserving persons. the external is the cleansingof the body by earth and water . significance Hrih is the shame felt in the performance of things contrary to the rules of the Vedas and of society. viz. Astikya is the belief in the merits or demerits of actions as stated in the Vedas. " Under niyama (religious observances). the. The spoken is of two kinds " the loud and the low.siddhanta-s'ravana. The mental (gives)a reward a crore (of times that). dana. Rudra. is the eman cipation of the body through the observances of such pen ances as krchchhra. placing each foot between the thighsand knees of the other. Gomukha is (the sittingat ease with the body erect. santosha. chandrayana. simha... money. Japa is the practisingof the mantras into which one is duly initiated by his spiritual instructor. This (the latter)is to be obtained by means of the adhyatma-vidya (scienceof Self). internal is the cleansing of the mind. and vrata. " Svastika is the sittingat ease with the body erect. and mayura.. etc. grains. Of these.are ten.. The mental is associated with contemplation by the mind. leaving one-fourth of the stomach empty. Of these tapas. hrih.and which is not against (the rules of) the Vedas.174 THIRTY MINOE UPANISHADS the preserving of firmness of mind during the periodof gain or loss of wealth or relatives. astikya. external and internal. Is'varapujana. It is of two kinds " the spoken and the mental. svastika. padma.)placingthe hollow . viz. Mitahara is the taking of oily and sweet food. Siddhanta-s'ravana is the inquiryinto the of Vedanta. Santosha is being satisfied with whatever comes to us of its own accord. (the postures)'are (chiefly) gomukha. bhadra. Mati is the faith in the paths laid down by the Vedas. Vrata is the regular observance of or the refrainingfrom the actions enjoined or prohibited by the Vedas. according to rules. japa.. S'aucha is of two kinds. " Asanas eight. vira. The loud pronunciationgives the reward as stated (in the Vedas): (while)the low one (gives) a reward thousand times (that). mukta. with pure mind according to one's power. tapas. etc. mati.

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He who through.1 It closes by its head (the opening of) the brahmarandhra. In this body. there are fourteen principal nadis (viz. it is the middle of the heart. Payasvini. In it. so prana moves about here.is the seat of kundalini. please tell me. Vis'vodharl. Sarasvati. it is the middle of the body. In the middle of the chakra. Pusha. In its (the region of fire's)centre." To that A tharvan replied(thus): "This body is ninety-sixdigitsin length. Two digits above the anus and two digits below the sexual is the centre of the body for men. For four-footed organ animals. The kundalini s'akti is of the form of eight prakrtis (matter) and coils itself eight ways or (times).wheel) with twelve spokes. it (fire) In birds. driven by its good and bad deeds. In its midst is the navel..and subtle flame is situate. Yas'asvim. Sushumna is said tc be the 1 In Varaha Upanishad and later on. Hastijihva. and during the time of (the practice of) yoga is awakened by the fire (in the apana). Pingala. The movement of vayus (vitalairs)checks duly the food and drink all round by the side of skandha. Lying in the middle of the navel and above it. animals. Sushumna. it is round. Varuni. the jiva(Atma) wanders. the purifying. Depending upon kundalini which is situated in the centre. is situated the chakra (viz. In men. the practiceof yoga reduces his prana within his body to make it equal to or not less than the fire in it becomes the greatest of the yogins.. S'ankhini. the jiva rides upon prana.Kuhuh. the region of fire which is triangularin form and brilliant as the molten gold is situated in the middle of the body. As a spider flies to and fro within a web of fine threads. Herein is described the web of life. In four-footed is quadrangular. Nine digits from (or above) the centre of the body and four digits in length and breadth is situated an oval form. then it shines with in great brilliancy the akas' of the heart in the shape of wisdom. . Alambusa. Of them. For birds. this is named " Kandha ".176 THIRTY MINOR UPANISHApS How do they arise ? What us (vitalairs)are located in them ? vay What are their seats? What are their functions? Whatever is worthy of being known in the body. Prana extends twelve digitsbeyond the body.)Ida. and Gandhari.beneficial.

the calves. and Dhananjaya " these ten vayus (vital airs) move in all the nadis. }in" on the right is ^ Pingala. Krkara.the thighs. Apana moves in the anus. Prana moves in the nostrils. Payasvini to