AASTU EPI

Acknowledgment

First, to the department of manufacturing engineering, I would like to acknowledge
my gratitude for all the Industrial workers and administrators.. It was very
educational. And to the workers of Ethiopia Plastic Industry

And finally I am grateful to all the teachers who helped me in every aspect. Especially
to Instructor Mahri E. for helping me to organize the paper

INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT i

AASTU EPI

Preface
This internship paper is divided in to five chapters. The first chapter contains the
general introduction of the paper which includes background of the internship,
objectives of the internship, significance of the internship,. The second chapter deals
with the literature review. The third chapter company structure. The fourth chapter
deals with the process description. The fifth chapter tries to forward relevant
conclusion and recommendation of the internship.

INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT
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AASTU EPI
Table of Contents
Chapter One............................................................................................................................... 1
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background of the internship .................................................................................... 1
1.2 Company Profile ........................................................................................................ 1
1.3 Objective of the Internship........................................................................................ 2
1.4 Basic Internship Questions ........................................................................................ 2
Chapter Two .............................................................................................................................. 4
2. Literature Review .................................................................................................................. 4
2.1 Types of Plastic .......................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Types of Production System ...................................................................................... 5
2.3 Available Raw Material for Ethiopia Plastic Industry ...................................................... 5
Chapter Three ............................................................................................................................ 6
3. Ethiopian Plastic Industry Plants ........................................................................................... 6
3.1 Poly and Printing Plant .................................................................................................... 6
3.2 Injection and Blow Molding Plant ................................................................................... 6
3.3 Profiling and Ceiling plant................................................................................................ 6
Chapter Four.............................................................................................................................. 7
4. Process Description and Unit Operation ............................................................................... 7
4.1 Unit Operation ................................................................................................................. 7
4.1.1 Mixing of Raw Materials.......................................................................................... 7
4.2 Process Description ......................................................................................................... 8
4.2.1 Poly and Printing Factory ......................................................................................... 8
Chapter Five ............................................................................................................................ 22
5. Conclusions and Recommendations ................................................................................... 22
5.1 Poly and Printing............................................................................................................ 22
5.2 Profiles and Ceiling Plant ............................................................................................... 24

Reference……………………………………………………………………………27

INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT
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..13 Figure 4: Internal view of extruder (screw) ....................................................13 Figure 5: Block Flow Diagram of Profile and Celling ...................................8 Figure 2: Block Flow Diagram of Poly and Printing Plant ......................................11 Figure 3: Film blowing machine .21 INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT iv ................................... AASTU EPI List of Figures Figure..........................................................................................................................................................1: Unit Operation (Basic Operations) ..........................................................17 Figure 6: Block flow diagram of injection and blow molding...........................................................

........................................................ AASTU EPI List of Tables Table1.........................16 Table 3: Raw Materials for Ceiling . Co-monomer Content and Density Ranges for Commercial LLDPE Resins ........................................................9 Table 2: Raw materials for profile ...............16 INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT v ......................................................

Polyvinyl Chloride LDPE.High Density Polyethylene UPVC. AASTU EPI Acronyms EPI .Un Plasticized Poly Vinyl PVC.Ultra High Density Poly Ethylene INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT vi .Ethiopia Plastic Industry PE.Poly Ethylene HDPE.Low Density Poly Etylene UHDPE.

including highly professional plastic technologist. the military government took ownership of 55% of company. In 2000E. It has about 700 workers.000 birr. The industry strives to satisfy the needs and wants of the customer requirement for plastic related materials. 1. Its capital was 2. Introduction 1.C Ethiopia plastic industry (EPI) was totally owned by the government and continuous the production and sales of products under the supervision of chemical corporation.C Ethiopia plastic industry was established as fully state owned public enterprise with a capital of 29. AASTU EPI Chapter One 1. its total asset reaches about 97.C. It has helped me see.679. Currently Ethiopia plastic industry has a capital of 29. what I have learned theoretically.000 birr. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 1 . leaving the remaining 45% to the original owners. In 1978E.1 Background of the internship The industrial internship to Ethiopia Plastic Industry (EPI) is to take it as an input or reference material for any students who have interest in plastic Industry. In addition to find new ways to produce the raw materials in Ethiopia that is imported from other countries. This is beneficiary to Ethiopia Plastic Industry since the students could improve the production process and could find new ways to better the products. The industry was transferred and operates under metal and engineering cooperation in 2003E.670. practically.200.000 birr.5 million birr. processors.2 Company Profile Ethiopia plastic was established in 1960 by a group of five Italian entrepreneurs in 1973. engineers. management and marketing professionals.

2 Specific Objective The specific of the internship include  to understand the fundamental processes involved in plastic industry  the identify the different product types produced in plastic industries and their process  to evaluate our country plastic production technology with the world available processes technologies and  to identify the advantage and disadvantage off our country plastic process technologies 1.What are the advantage and disadvantage of the plastic processing technologies applied by Ethiopian Plastic Industry (EPI)? 4.If there is disadvantage what are the possible solutions and recommendation available to overcome the problems? INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 2 .3 Objective of the Internship 1.3.What kind of plastic process technologies are available in Ethiopian Plastic Industry (EPI)? 3.3. Beside this it helps me to increase my altitude towards the basic principle behind production process. raw material utilization.1 General objective The general objective of the paper is to improve and built up my understanding on the practical industrial practice.4 Basic Internship Questions In this study it will be attempted to investigate and seek answer to the following four basic questions 1.What are the available plastic production technologies in the world? 2. AASTU EPI 1. 1.

The result of the internship may also be an interest of Manufacturing Engineering Department of Addis Ababa Sciences and Technology University to take it as an input for any students who have interest in plastic Industry. The result of the finding may serve as a base for taking action and to examine their process technologies. AASTU EPI 1. The result of that could be obtained from these internship may be an interest of Ethiopian Plastic Industry (EPI) in particular.5 Significance of the Internship The primary significance of the internship is to build the capacity of student’s practical skills and experience sharing from industrial professionals and technical experts. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 3 .

When cooled significantly below their softening point they again become rigid and usable as a formed article. They are brittle in nature and are generally used with some form of filler and reinforcement. chemical. Literature Review Plastic is any synthetic or semi-synthetic organic polymer. Additives are added to polymers in order to obtain or improve certain properties such as strength. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 4 . Thermoplastic materials are. This type of polymer can be readily recycled because each time it is reheated it can again be reshaped or formed into a new article. calcium carbide are added to reduce the cost and to increase harness.1 Types of Plastic Thermoplastic polymers. better rigidity. Thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are the two types of plastic. AASTU EPI Chapter Two 2. in general. Their lower stiffness and strength values require the use of fillers and reinforcements for structural applications. and solvent resistance. thermosetting polymers will become soft. They can be either amorphous or semi crystalline. ductile and tougher than thermoset materials. Upon heating. Thermosets may soften to some extent at elevated temperatures. They become soft and formable when heated. Thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics generally exhibit poor creep resistance. resistance to weather and flammability. and higher electrical. especially at elevated temperatures as compared to thermosets. most industrial plastic is made from petrochemicals. most common use of plasticizers is in PVC. color. toughness and dimensional stability.are normally produced in one step and then made into products in a subsequent process. but cannot be shaped or formed to any great extent. strength. Plasticizers are added to obtain flexibility and softness. Thermosets offer greater dimensional stability. and will definitely not flow.are normally produced and formed in the same step as thermoplastic. stiffness. silica flour. 2. Its resins provide easy process ability and better fiber impregnation because the liquid resin is used at room temperature for various processes. Fillers such as fine saw dust. While plastics may be made from just about any organic polymer. The polymer melt can be formed or shaped when in this softened state.

The most commercially used is polyethylene. 2. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). 3. Blow molding system. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 5 .2 Types of Production System Generally there are three types of production system 1. PPR. Extrusion produces items such as pipe/tubing. thermoplastic coatings. AASTU EPI 2. window frames. poly ethylene (PE). plastic films and sheet. deck railing.the mold of the desired shape is fitted around the outside of the plastic.The raw material is placed on the needed place and the mold is pressed on the plastic which gives it the desired shape and it is next cooled with cold air. It exists in four form. weather stripping. Extrusion system. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). and wire insulation. fence. 2. and a recent technology produces Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). Next air is blown into the tubes which dries it and molds it. Injection system.3 Available Raw Material for Ethiopia Plastic Industry The raw materials used are PVC. master batch (as a coloring pigment) etc.Plastics extrusion is a high volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile.

But these paper focus on poly and printing plant.1 Poly and Printing Plant This plant is used to produce poly sheet. poly bag. Pipe plant.3 Profiling and Ceiling plant Extrusion system is used in this plant. It uses extrusion system. The raw material it uses is LDPE or LLDPE and master batch for colored pigment. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 6 . recovery. The raw materials used are PVC compounds. military product and construction. poly tabular and poly roll. recovery and master batch. Ethiopian Plastic Industry Plants Ethiopia plastic industry has five plants these are Poly and printing plant. Profile and selling plant. HDPE and master batch.2 Injection and Blow Molding Plant Here the products that are produced can be used in house holding. Profile and ceiling of different size and shape are produced in this plant with PVC resin and other chemicals. injection plant and profile and ceiling plant. Injection and blow molding plant. Wire and cable plant. 3. 3.  There is also boots machine which produces boots with PVC compound. 3. AASTU EPI Chapter Three 3. It uses blow molding and injection systems.

AASTU EPI Chapter Four 4.5 Mashing It is one of the unit operation involved in the production of plastic. It is one of the unit operations that help us get the desired product. 4. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 7 . Process Description and Unit Operation 4. It is a size reduction process (crushing).4 Cooling This unit operation is done by using water.1.1. cooling.1 Mixing of Raw Materials This is the first process or unit operations in the production of plastic. dying . The raw materials that are needed will be proportionated and mixed together with the master batch to give it the desired color. 4.2 Heating of the Mixed Raw Materials The mixed raw materials will be transferred to the hopper where it will be heated to be shaped into the desired shape. 4.1.1 Unit Operation The major unit operations (basic process) involved are mixing. 4. mashing and cutting.1. heating. If not cooled and dried the product could easily deform.1.3 Dying This process is simply shaping the melted raw materials in to the desired shape. 4.

2 Process Description 4. A lot of poly and printings are processed in word but in Ethiopia plastics some products of poly and printing are processed. AASTU EPI 4.6 Cutting After the product is cooled and dried.1 Poly and Printing Factory Poly and printings plant are processed in Ethiopia plastic industry and it is one of the five plants in Ethiopia plastic industry.2. Poly factory currently uses the following three raw materials LLDPE(linear low density polyethylene) LDPE (low density polyethylene ) Master batch (colorant) INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 8 . it is then cut in to the size that the customer wants. In poly and printing plant there are two basic works to be done processing and finishing.1. Mixing Heating Dying Cooling Mashing Cutting Figure 1: Basic unit operations 4.

For LLDPE. 4-methyl-1-pentene. Table1. The Table below shows co monomer content and subsequent density ranges for commercial LLDPE. EPI poly and printing factory use two types of master batches which are called general purpose master batch and polyethylene master batch General purpose master batch can be used as a colorant for every type of raw material Polyethylene master batch used as colorant for raw materials of polyethylene polymer Raw material identification: Before buying raw materials EPI take 25kg samples of raw material suppliers and melt flow index analysis will be done in the lab to identify whether the INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 9 . there are common product family subsets. 1-hexene. and also lower density ranges. and  Heavy duty Master batch (colorant): Color pigments are mixed prior to extrusion process with the raw materials in order to give the desired color for the film to be produced. Conventional LLDPE basically covers the density range of 0. density is strongly controlled by co monomer content. Within that density range. the four most commonly used are 1-butene.915–0. and 1-octene.940. Co-monomer Content and Density Ranges for Commercial LLDPE Resins Chain Structure LLDPE comprises linear molecules of ethylene and α-olefins and can be generally represented by the formula where n is the number of carbon atoms in the α-olefin LDPE (low density polyethylene) Have a wider molecular weight distribution and contain long-chain branching LDPE can be categorized in two 3 based on density difference as follow  Light duty  Medium duty. AASTU EPI LLDPE is made by the copolymerization of ethylene and α-olefins although practically any α-olefin from C3 to C20 can be used as co monomer for LLDPE.

Melt flow Index: Melt flow index test is simple method of identifying the raw material which is a function of temperature and load applied on piston. Load) = (Tref × M)/T where: MFI=Melt Flow Index : Tref= reference time (10 min= 600second) : T= cutoff time interval in second : M= average mass in gm of the cutoff : Temp=test temperature in : Load=normal weight in Kg Density Test Another method of identifying raw material is to check its density by measuring fixed mass of raw material and the volume of alcohol or water it displaces ƍ= M/V where ƍ: density M: mass of raw material taken V: volume displaced by the raw material Finally compare your result with the EPI reference INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 10 . MFI (Temp. For different conditions the applied load and temperature is different in EPI for polyethylene polymers you will take 20 samples in each 30 seconds interval you will calculate the average mass flow rate (mass/time) and finally check with the EPI and ISO standards to pass the raw material for the desired production order. AASTU EPI sample is really the desired raw material or not and to ensure optimum processing temperature of thermoplastic raw material.

AASTU EPI Receiving poly production order Application of raw materials For film applications LDPE raw material and master batch requested and as per ordered quality For conduit production Mixing LDPE with master batch Machine setup Film blowing production Quality inspection Cutting and Rolling film Printin sealing Packing Cutting and sealing Stacking and packing Recording of voucher Sales/custome data r Figure 2: Block Flow Diagram of Poly and Printing Plant The raw materials are first feed in the hopper. The hopper feeds the resin into the extruder by the help of gravity. The molten poly flows evenly up and INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 11 . Heating elements and the turning of the extruder screw melts the resin into molten form and forces it through the extruder.

This is known as IBC (Internal Bubble Cooling). usually vertically. The lay-flat film is then either kept as such or the edges of the lay-flat are slit off to produce two flat film sheets and wound up onto reels. The flattened bubble is now known as a lay flat tube. Mounted on top of the die. The plastic is then air cooled and pulled away on take-up roller.5 to 4 times the die diameter. AASTU EPI over the circular die. and is pre-flattened using a collapsing frame (also known as v-boards or A-frame) until it passes through nip rolls. air is blown inside the hollow tube to stretch and thin the tube to the desired size and wall thickness. the tube of film is made into bags by sealing across the width of film and cutting or perforating to make each bag. The drawdown between the melt wall thickness and the cooled film thickness occurs in both radial and longitudinal directions and is easily controlled by changing the volume of air inside the bubble and by altering the haul off speed. This allows manufacturers to run at higher rates without losing bubble stability. to form a thin walled tube. the air inside the bubble is also exchanged. This is done either in line with the blown film process or at a later stage. If kept as lay-flat. In Blown Film Extrusion (Film Blowing) Plastic melt is extruded through an annular slit die. This gives blown film a better balance of properties than traditional cast or extruded film which is drawn down along the extrusion direction only. On higher output lines. This lay-flat or collapsed tube is then taken back down the extrusion ' tower' via idler rollers. the expansion ratio between die and blown tube of film would be 1. The tube of film then continues upwards. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 12 . Typically. Blown film extrusion is the process by which most commodity and specialized plastic films are made. a high- speed air ring blows onto the bubble to stabilize the bubble and cool it. As the flattened plastic tube emerges from the die opening. Air is introduced via a hole in the center of the die to blow up the tube like a balloon.

AASTU EPI Figure 3: Film blowing machine Figure 4: Internal view of extruder (screw) Here we need to know that  Solid conveying is feeding zone  Melting is the melt starting and compression zone  Melt pumping is metering zone INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 13 .

Product In poly and printing factory there are three types of products such as poly bag. This molten plastic is then forced. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. and poly tubular. 4. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it. After solidification at the frost line. The polymer material starts in a pellet form. In addition to this in poly factory finishing works also done side by side with production process. During this stage. so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. or surface treated. viscous liquid. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble. AASTU EPI Operating procedure for film blowing machine: 1. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. depending on the application. or extruded through an annular die. the film may be slit to form one or two films. such as soldering and printing. the film may pass through a treatment center. Machine capacity In order to know the machine capacity of one extrusion machine we need to give consideration for the following conditions: Speed of the extruder : Speed of the nip roller : Velocity of air conditioner : Raw material type : Presence of scrap or continuousness of the process INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 14 . the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. 3. poly sheet. which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous. 2. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers. while maintaining the bubble diameter. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble.

Product application  Agricultural film  Bags  Industry packaging.2. hardness and softens are different with the amount of the compounds that we mix. stretch film  Consumer packaging. shrink film. AASTU EPI Product distribution Poly and printing factory machines have the ability to produce the following product ranges Length 5cm -3m Thickness 50µm-450µm These different products distribution can be achieved by using the appropriate machine for the desired thickness and length. Those products are produces (processed) from different raw material composition with different amount (ratio). INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 15 . Their color. food wrap. So we have to care at the compounding area. PVC profiles are widely used in the world for different purposes. transport packaging  Laminating film  Barrier film  Multilayer film 4.2 Profiles and Ceiling Plant Profile and ceiling plant are processed in Ethiopia plastic industry and it is one of the five plants in Ethiopia plastic industry.

AASTU EPI Table 3: Raw materials for profile Raw material for PVC Ratio Cleaner profile PVC resin 100kg PVC resin-----ratio (20) CaCO3 (filler) 8kg Caco3 (filler)---ratio(8) TiO2 4kg Tio2 ratio 20 CPE (chlorinated poly 6kg ethylene) SMS (stabilizer) 3. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 16 . it is forced through the mold to form continues profile. other chemicals such as CaCO3 .HST.6kg The main raw materials used in the production of profile and celling are PVC.TiO2 . CPE.5kg DOP (plasticizer) 0.125kg Table 4: Raw Materials for Ceiling Raw materials for ceiling Ratio Clinker PVC resin 75kg PVC resin 25 CaCO3 (filler) 22kg CaCO3 (fille) ratio 8 TiO2 2. Once it has melted.90liter Wax –paraffin wax 0.WAX . The raw material is first fed into the loader to be mixed and heated at 1500C up to2200C. DOX as .3kg HST (lubricant) 0. SMS . After passing through the mold and achieve the desire shape it is allowed to cool by water and dried by air.6kg TiO2 ratio 20 CPE (chlorinated poly 4kg ethylene) SMS (stabilizer) 2.

The scrap will be collected and recycle Recovered material storage R/m from factory short term storage R/m loader Plastic recovery center Extrusion process Scrap collecting storage Profile or ceiling cutting (sizing) Work in process Finished (semi-finished) goods storage Printi ng Finished (semi- finished) goods shipping Figure 5: Block Flow Diagram of Profile and Celling INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 17 . AASTU EPI Then cut to desired size and assemble as a door and /or window based on the desire customer design.

sliding sash 17.tappet 9. sliding double glazing 8. inserting panel 16. casement double glazing 23.Then by extrusion process the row materials will be melt by different heating zones and the melted plastic pass through the mold to have the desired shape that we need to manufacture. door sash out side 14. sliding T -frame 10. sliding sash 5. celling 11. window sash inside 21. corner check list 12. These are 1. T casement frame 19. partition INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 18 . Then it pass through water to be cool and harden finally the desired product is manufactured and catted by the cutter with length that we need and transferred to store. flat hallow pipe 13. window sash outside 20. curved corner 2. In PVC profile and celling factory there are 26 processes which are processed through the extrusion processes. Consumed main frame 15. AASTU EPI Process for both profile and celling Type-extrusion process First the raw materials were mixed in the mixed zone (compounding zone). sliding main frame 6.cover board 4. square pipe 3. H. profile t connector 24. casement single glazing 22.sliding single glazing 7. door sash inside 18. celling t connector 25.

Product Raw material test -density On process.Length . It Raw material –HDPE ( high density poly ethylene) .2. There are two types of machines in injection and blow molding factories. master batch INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 19 . Those are  blow molding machines  injection machines Blow molding machines –it use air to blow and mold the desire product.Color Products .3 Injection and Blow Molding Plant Introduction –it is one of the five plants in Ethiopia plastic industries.blow molding grade. AASTU EPI Quality Laboratory testes – raw material .Centrist . recovery .Temperature .Thickness .On process . It have a lot of processing steps to give the product that we need from the row material that we feed for.They are the same as on process with surface roughness test 4.

one liter bottle 3. recovery (PVC injection grade). Products of injection molding A lot of plastic material are processed using an injection machine . Here after the die there is mandrill and it must have to adjust for both the upper is and lower mandrill to protect our resource from wastage. 10 liter Jeri can Injection machine This machine uses an injection machine system or injections the material through its nozzle in to the molding area of the machine. There are two kinds of blow molding machines in Ethiopia plastic. Their process is the same but they have the only difference on their molding. Products of blow injection (molding) In Ethiopia plastics a lot of products are processed through a blow molding machines. hand grip 4.some of them are 1. butt stock short and long 2. military coda 2. It is a new matic pressurized system machine. butt stock type 3. These are used the same kinds of raw materials with the some process with that of different master batches. liter Jeri can 4. lower hand guard INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 20 . Raw materials used are PVC. PKM butt stock 5. Some of them are 1. AASTU EPI The raw materials are processed through a lot of steps the desired product. 5 liter Jeri can 5. Steps of processing of injection molding Nozzle it is the feeder part of the machine to the molding part of the machine.

AASTU EPI 6. honey jar 11. helmets 13. main control unit front cover 8. upper hand grip 10. but stock cafe 9. main control unit back and front base 14. fittings 12. plastic mug Receiving Raw Properly mount Machine set up production order material the mold Fill hopper with granular plastic Turn on heater Turn on motor granular plastics change to liquid Yes Qualit Mold opened Final product y of finished product Liquid plastic forced shape taken into mold Adjust machine Recycle bin control Figure 6: Block flow diagram of injection and blow molding INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 21 . magazine body 7. jog 16. boots 15.

•Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film. AASTU EPI Chapter Five 5. and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength •Scratches on nip and winding rollers –this may cause unfair load distribution over film width •Improper raw material and product handling INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 22 . reduces optical properties. •Thickness variations in the film. or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Common Problems •Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling. •Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations •Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface.1 Poly and Printing Conclusion From the careful observation and calculation I can conclude that  Most machines work for over 50 years so they pay all expenses spend on them  The machines are prone to aging problem such as sudden pressure drop  The instrument installed in the machines are unreliable  The machines work through trial and error  Some machines are not functional so the factory may losing its valuable machines due to rusting  Due to lack of raw material the machines are currently idle  We can also say that the poly and printing factory is not working with its full capacity  The machines at poly and printing factory are working at the industry efficiency expectation. Conclusions and Recommendations 5.

 Output fluctuation can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition  Variation in thickness can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run.  Clean or replace nip rollers to balance load distribution  Follow safety precaution for raw material handling  Perform tests other than melt flow index such as infrared spectroscopy.  Melt fracture can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. AASTU EPI Recommendation  Possible solutions to the air entrapment between film layer and roller is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. or by using heated die lips  Die lines can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 23 . adjusting the air speed of the cooling system. solvent test .and flame test in order to assure the raw material is right for the desired order  Perform tensile strength for poly bags in order to know maximum load it can handled  Perform tests other than dart test on the products such as thermal resistance to know maximum working temperature of the product  Write product precaution in order to help the customer to handle and use the product properly.

For door These products are designed of assembled at the workshop room to show as a sample or choice for the client (market sample). Problems •The printing machine is not on the way of manufacturing the printing product which is mostly attracted most of the customer because it is a colored product and more useful for roof working. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 24 .2 Profiles and Ceiling Plant Conclusion In PVC profile and ceiling factory a lot of products are manufactured for a different purpose. some of their purpose is- For partition purposes . AASTU EPI 5. If must have to solve within a short time to make this company economically efficient.For window -For roof covers . They are widely used by the customers for their home and window to seams decorated or attractive especially the printed ones. •In this factory there is not process for recovery and a lot of PVC raw material is draw out of this factory when it is not manufactured the quality product and it may make if economically un efficient. •This machine is not working because of the shortage of color(ink).

These are used for water. The injection machines can use recovery raw material and virginal. So those are not mostly processed from recovery or it is not tolerable to process those house hold products from recycling. milk.PVC for boots (injection grade) -recovery. These the products are used for different purpose on their consumer. It differs from the other injection machine type on its four time part cycles. For example – military purposes -construction -house hold -shoes The above are produced through blow molding and injection efficient. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 25 . Boots machine It is an injection machine type. oil and generally for liquid holding uses. Row material. AASTU EPI 5. The product wastage can be recycled to process for other product or for itself. -master batch The final product is collected manually after the dead time. These products are processed for different purpose and they are distributed to their consumers to fit with their purpose.3 Blow Molding and Injection Molding Conclusion A lot of products are produced through blow molding and injection molding for different purposes. Most of the products in injection and blow molding are from recovery and they are economically beneficial. These products are processed through an injection machine with changing the molding part of the machine.

Especially in boots machines there is a centering problem and a lot of melted row material (plastic) is blowing out of the nozel outside of the machines and it is not only wasting of our resources but it is a rescue and danger for the employee who are work INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 26 . Centering and timing of the machines there is the key for the decrease and increase of our wastage (scrap) and we should have to take care of centering and timing of up and down moving machines. AASTU EPI Problems To be economically efficient wastages like scrap must be decreased the amount of scrap is our wastage is increased and our companies profit is related with that and campaniles benefit is decreased.

Encarta 5. AASTU EPI Reference 1.et 6. Thermoplastic. Ethiopian Plastic Industry main web page.epi. www. manufacture process PDF. EPI Docx by HabtewoldTeshome. Company Employer 7. 1st Edition 2000 2.com 4. Andualem Besfat INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 27 .com.chemtrend. www.