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ELEMENTARY LINEAR ALGEBRA

Sept-December 2015

Lecturer:
Devvi Sarwinda

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Course Organization

Main text:
Elementary Linear Algebra, Howard Anton
Grading formula
Assignment 15%
Quiz, 15%
UTS, 35%
UAS, 35%
Bonus : Class participation
Cheating = Failed!
Semeter Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer
Course Outline
Linear Equation System
Determinant
Vector in 2-space, 3-space
Euclidean Vector Space
General Vector Space

Semeter Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Chapter 1
Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

1.1 Introduction to Systems of Linear Equations


1.2 Gaussian Elimination
1.3 Matrices and Matrix Operations
1.4 Inverses: Algebraic Properties of Matrices
1.5 Elementary Matrices and a Method for finding A-1
1.6 More on Linear Systems and Invertible Matrices
1.7 Diagonal, Triangular, and Symmetric Matrices

Semeter Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Objectives
Determine its consistent
Choose effective strategy to find its solutions
Solve it using substitution-elimination,
geometry, and Gauss-Jordan method
2x + y = 4

(0,4)

x-y=2
(2,0)

(0,-2)

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Pre-Test

Buatlah contoh sistem


persamaan linier dengan 2
unknown terdiri atas 2
persamaan. Selesaikan
sistem tersebut.

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Linear Equations Systems
Definisi 1.2: Sistem persamaan linier
Sistem persamaan linier adalah himpunan berhingga persamaan-
persamaan linier yang melibatkan unknown yang sama.

a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 + + a1nxn = b1


x1, x2, ., xn called unknown
a21x1 + a22x2 + a23x3 + + a2nxn = b2
(yang tidak diketahui nilainya)
: ai1, ai2, , aij, , ain : real
am1x1 + an2x2 + an3x3 + + annxn = bm number

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Linear System in Two Unknowns

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Linear Systems in Three Unknowns

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Subsitusion-Elimination Method
2x y z 3
Spl: x 2 y 2 z 11
3 x y 5z 8

1. Eliminate x 2 x y z 3 2 x y z 3 5 y 5 z 25
x 2 y 2 z 11 2 x 4 y 4 z 22 yz5

x 2 y 2 z 11 3 x 6 y 6 z 33 5 y z 25
2. Eliminate x
3 x y 5z 8 3 x y 5z 8

5 y z 25 4 y 20
3. Eliminate z
yz 5 y 5

4. Substitution y yz 5
5 z 5 z 0

5. Substitution y and z x 2 y 2 z 11
x 10 0 11 x 1

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


LES based on its Solutions
LES

Consistent No consistent
(have solutions) (No have solutions)

Only 1 solutions Unlimited solutions

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


LES in Matrices
a11 x1 a12 x2 a13 x3 ... a1 n xn b1
General LES a21 x1 a22 x2 a23 x3 ... a2 n xn b2

am1 x1 am2 x2 am3 x3 ... amn xn bm

a11 a12 a13 a1 n b1


Augmented Matrics a a22 a23 a2 n b2
A
21



am1 am2 am 3 amn b3

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Elementary Row Operation
1. Multiply a row through by a nonzero
constant.
2. Interchange two rows.
3. Add a constant times one row to another

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Look at this!!

1 0 0 8

1. 0 1 0 3
0 Karakteristik ke-3 spl:
0 1 2 1. elemen pertama tak nol adalah 1
1 0 5 (dinamakan satu utama)
0 1 7 2. satu utama baris berikutnya berada
2. lebih kanan
0 0 0
3. jika ada baris nol, ada di bagian
0 0 0 bawah
1 0 0 8 2 4. elemen yang satu kolom dengan satu
utama nol semua
3. 0 1 0 3 0
0 0 1 2 4

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


The major ones

1 0 1 utama

A= 0 1 bukan 1 utama
0 0

1 1 0
0 1 2
B=
0 0 1

0 0 0

1 1 0
C= 0 1 1

0 0 1

0 0 0

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer


Specification of row operation has
been reduced
Yes No
1) Elemen pertama tidak nol 1 0 2 4 1 0 2 4
adalah 1 (satu utama)
0 1 3 6 0 3 1 6
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

1 0 2 4 1 0 2 4
2) Satu utama baris berikutnya
berada lebih kanan dari baris 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 3
sebelumnya 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

1 0 2 4 1 0 2 4
3) Baris nol berada di paling
0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0
bawah 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6

1 0 0 4

0 1 0 6
0 0 1 0

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Thank You
Q&A??

Semester Ganjil 2015/2016 Aljabar Linier Elementer