Chapter one

1.0 Background


Material handling is defined as ‘‘the transportation or movement of raw materials semi-
finished products and finished products and finished articles of product through various
parts of production and housing is called as material handling’’ in the history of material
handling it is not a concept rather than it is part of normal activity of formal work. Mostly
The people use some animals for transportation purpose like donkey, mule, and camels’.etc.
but in the medieval period of time the people are faced to complicated way of transportation
of material. By this reason, they invent wheels, lorry, and makes material handling way of
transportation easier and easier. The recent time of material handling equipment history a lot
of material handling equipment were invented and improved the older models those which
is manual and automatics systems in order to save time and labor
In our project design magnetic belt conveyer is selected due to the problem that we seen
in industrial visit at Ethiopian crown cork and can manufacturing share company.

Fig 1 painting machine


1.2 problem identification

We visited the company which is called Ethiopian crown cork and can manufacturing share
company to observe all activities that are being performed in the company concerning to material
handling. The problems are listed below as follow.

 There are lack of safety and the way of handling the materials.
 No modern conveyors to transport the cork and can, some of the machine stop working.
 The working environment is not suitable for workers
 The workers have no interest of their work
 There is lack of supply raw materials for can and cork.

1.3 problem statement

As we seen in the company there is a lot of problems in material handling equipment mostly
they use labor force to carry all loads but they have two fork lift, one head crane and hand wheel
but they are not recent machines as a general in the company all machine are older and some of
them are stop working due to problem to maintain them. In this company, there is no modern
conveyer to transport the cork and can from machine to machine but they have an inclined
manual conveyer can and cork are used in the inclined surface of the conveyer. Therefore, in
order to solve this problem, we are interested to design magnetic conveyer and chain conveyer
that use electrical power and automatic system of control.

1.4 Objective
The main objective of this project is by visiting industries and observing how material
handling equipment is used in the factory. And based on the industrial visit identifying
problems concerning material handling equipment in the factory and lastly design the
problem solver material handling machines regarding the problem observed.

1.5 Methodologies


Literature review 2. An under layer of material to provide linear strength and shape called a carcass and an over layer called the cover. 2. A conveyor belt can be a slide and be controlled by the force of gravity. The most common carcass materials are polyester. such as grain. sand. - . Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley. nylon and cotton. with an endless loop of carrying medium—the conveyor belt—that rotates about them. coal. types of material handling equipment that exist in Ethiopian crown cork and can manufacturing share company are. The carcass is often a woven fabric having a warp & weft. Material flowing over the belt may be weighed in transit using 3 .1 Introductions to material handling equipment A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system (often shortened to belt conveyor). Covers can be made from more exotic materials for unusual applications such as silicone for heat or gum rubber when traction is essential. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors. Today there are different types of conveyor belts that have been created for conveying different kinds of material available in PVC and rubber materials. overburden and more. A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys (sometimes referred to as drums). Observation . A belt conveyor system is one of many types of conveyor systems. Many belts in general material handling have two layers. salt. One or both of the pulleys are powered.6 scope of project The scope of our project is as much as possible we are trying to observe problem of the company and design a material handling equipment that can solve problem occurred in the factory. ore. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN The methodologies way of our project design information gathering about the problem. The cover is often various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt. Interview 1. The belt consists of one or more layers of material.

Thomas Robins began a series of inventions which led to the development of a conveyor belt used for carrying coal. Michigan factory. as well as on many manufacturing assembly lines. Belt conveyor technology is also used in conveyor transport such as moving sidewalks or escalators.wikipedia. Incorporating a half-twist. and manufacturing distribution. the French society REI created in New Caledonia the then longest straight-belt conveyor in the 2. wholesale.8 km. Sandvik invented and started the production of steel conveyor 2. Stores often have conveyor belts at the check-out counter to move shopping items. (https://en. Henry Ford introduced conveyor-belt assembly lines at Ford Motor Company's Highland Park.3Belt conveyor systems Conveyors are durable and reliable components used in automated distribution and warehousing. it had the advantage over conventional belts of a longer life because it could expose all of its surface area to wear and tear. Intralox. Ski areas also use conveyor belts to transport skiers up the hill. In 1905 Richard Sutcliffe invented the first conveyor belts for use in coal mines which revolutionized the mining industry. a Louisiana-based company.wikipedia. In 1972. (https://en. the B. In 1901.2 History of belt conveyor Primitive conveyor belts were used since the 19th century. Goodrich Company patented a conveyor belt that it went on to produce as the Turnover Conveyor Belt System. In 1913. In 1970. Belt Conveyors are used in self-unloading bulk freighters and in live bottom trucks. modular belting. ores and other products. In 1892. Hyacynthe Marcel Bocchetti was the concept designer. Belts with regularly spaced partitions. F. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN a belt weight. at a length of 13. In 1957. known as elevator belts. It is considered a labor-saving system that 4 . In combination with computer controlled pallet handling equipment this allows for more efficient retail. Möbius strip belts are no longer manufactured because untwisted modern belts can be made more durable by constructing them from several layers of different materials. registered the first patent for all plastic. are used for transporting loose materials up steep inclines.

they can also be used for static accumulation or cartons. small items that would fall in between rollers (e.wikipedia. In heavy use applications the beds which the belting is pulled over are replaced with rollers. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN allows large volumes to move rapidly through a process. light and heavy. The rollers allow weight to be conveyed as they reduce the amount of friction generated from the heavier loading on the belting. A sandwich belt conveyor uses two conveyor belts. large or small. which reduces belt stretch and results in less maintenance for tension adjustments. (https://en. a sushi conveyor bar). These conveyors should use only the highest quality premium belting products. to firmly contain the item being carried. can be transported successfully. Belt conveyors can now be manufactured with curved sections which use tapered rollers and curved belting to convey products around a corner. Belt conveyors are generally fairly similar in construction consisting of a metal frame with rollers at either end of a flat metal bed. Terra Nova Technologies. In certain applications. making steep incline and even vertical-lift runs achievable. allowing companies to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller storage space and with less labor expense. ThyssenKrupp. HESE Maschinenfabrik GmbH and Tenova Takraf.4Manufacturers and service providers of belt conveyor The major global conveyor belt manufacturers and service providers are Fenner plc. or bags of product that would sag between rollers. The belt is looped around each of the rollers and when one of the rollers is powered (by an electrical motor) the belting slides across the solid metal frame bed. moving the product. Product is conveyed directly on the belt so both regular and irregular shaped objects.wikipedia. These conveyor systems are commonly used in postal sorting offices and airport baggage handling systems. Kale Conveyor. Belt conveyors are the most commonly used powered conveyors because they are the most versatile and the least expensive. Belt conveyors can be used to transport product in a straight line or through changes in elevation or direction.g. Rubber conveyor belts are commonly used to convey items with irregular bottom 2. ( 5 . face-to-face.

MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN 2. Peniel Industry Plc.1 Company profile Fig 2 working environment Chapter 3 3.5 Ethiopian manufacturers that use belt conveyors They are CGF Crown Cork and Aluminum Cap Manufacturing Factory. Daylight Applied Technologies Plc and Metal crown.2 Establishment and Development of the Company 6 .addisbiz.

The company which was started operations. 1964 by the government. Even In this company there is no modern conveyer to transport the cork and can from machine. Ethiopian crown cork and can manufacturing Share Company is a mid-sized organization in the metal can companies’ industry located in Addis Ababa. it was expected to grow its capacity with the installation of more machinery over the past decades. Board guidance Audit service 7 Manager General Human resource Workersand safety and General ProductTechnic technical General Marketing Salesadministration property administration guidance General service health service Finance accountant guidance Plan classservice and guidance Product information sales class of property administration .8-millionBr crown cork manufacturing plant in kality on September 13. But due to financial crisis and inability to service. Once the customers were St. it has approximately 180 full-time employees and generates an estimated $80 million in annual revenue. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN Ethiopian crown cork and can manufacturing Share Company is a decade old company and it is planted at 1964. it has not become a successful company. with production. This helps for easy management of the workers in their position of work. Even though this company was the first country to manufacture cork. which was landed on 600sqm area. George beverage factory. Harer beverage factory. But they have an inclined manual conveyer that is used in the inclined surface of the conveyer for can and cork. had a capacity of 100 thousand crown corks per year. It manufactures bottle cork and cans.3 Organizational Structure of the Company In order to perform a best result at the end of the annual budget. 3. It was the first company launched in Ethiopia since 1964. the factory have prepared an internal structure in which the job division is carried among the workers. repair. This is due to lack of not recent machines and some of them are stop working due to problem of maintenance. Ethiopia. Bedele beverage factory. It has launched its 1. the company is now undergoing failure and insolvency. Moha soft drinks beverage factory.

3. lithographed and then converted into caps and capsules. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN Quality assurance 3. blanking press.  The sheared section of the sheet is fed into the offset printer to be covered with the necessary design.4 Main Products/Service of the Company The main products of the company were crown corks and cans. The manufacturing of crown cork has the following processes:  The tinned sheet metal is cut into sizes to fit the table of the punching. 8 . they are now only producing cans.  The printed sheet is fed into the blanking press to punch out the discs.  The punched-out discs are fed into the forming machine press to acquire its final shape. But now due to old worn out machines.5 Manufacturing Process The main raw materials used for the production of caps is metal (steel and Aluminum) that is used in the shape of sheets that are varnished.

6 production process 9 . MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN  The interior of the crown cork is pasted with the adhesives for attaching the plastic interior cover. The manufacturing of can procedures: - (1) Raw Material Coil (2) Cutting into sheets (3) Lacquer (4) Heating (5) Slitting to smaller sheets (6) Rolling (7) Welding (8) Spraying & Curing (9) Flanging (10) Seaming (11) Sidewall beading (12) Testing (13) Packaging 3.

6. 3. 3.the end size of cork taken out.the operator control the operation process by using different switch in order to add or reduce amount of color entering to the printing valves. then the cork is transported by using lorry added to store. Then the end process is adding of plastic inside of the cork in order to remove the connection between the cork metal parts with soft drink. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN 3. Then the output product of the stage pass to the roller and coloring process will continue.6. In ultraviolet ray room under dark working condition.1 Production process of can. the new can press machine applies a 70-ton load on the sheet and cutoff the bottom parts of the can. and then the next process is liming compound which is done by liming machine in which the machine has heat to attach the rubber to the cutoff part of can in order to protect the can from leakage then forging process will continues and after liming process the last finishing process of can is done by the worker and packed to the customer.ray machine operation. Under this process large size rollers are applied in order to make the sheet shinier and beautiful . After this process is done. process imprinting of the company product symbol on the sheet. Germany at the size of four by four sizes which is suitable for production process. the operator put out the finished product symbol on the sheet. painting process on the sheet metal is done.7 material handling activities 10 .. Production process of can in the company starts from the raw material of sheet metals that are imported to the country mostly from Italy. After reaching to the company this sheet metal is transported to machine by using fork lift machine and then the operators put single sheet to the Newcan press machine having of standard die and a load presses 70 tons’ hydraulic press system when the operator press the pedal. the printed sheet metal is enter to the die machine through belt conveyer in order to finish corking size by the process of blanking and by using some dies .2 Production process of cork In the 1st stage of cork production process. In this ultra violet.

They have good raw material store and finished goods of the company.8 working environment Working environment of the company is good regarding to the size of the house. Transportation of raw material for production process of can is carried out by the operator therefore there is time lost and it has great effect on production time rate.10 Bench Marking 11 . 3.9 problems related to material handling activity In our industrial visit to Ethiopian cork and can share company we visit problem related to material handling activity in regarding to time wastage. It is one of time taking process. The working environment of the share company is placed in center for any customer for transportation purpose. And they have at the outside area waste product are collected and packed to akaki kality metal industry and for other metal industry as a raw material. 3. 3. loss of power of the operator. the color is removed from the ground which it is not visible to other visitor and new workers. They use man power to carry sheet metal from the store the new can press machine by using traditional system such as lorry and also the operator carrying some amount of sheet from the store. Most of the material handling activity taken by manual system by the operator and worker in company. Due to the duration. because it is more than enough for the operation process under very Hugh machine but they have a problem of color indication in the working environment the color which is used to indicate the danger place during machining operation time. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN Material handling activity during production process is mostly done manually by using different techniques. it have a great effect on the production rate and loss of power of the operator But some time they use fork lift machine in order to transport the bottom side of can to the liming machine for the safety of the metal because the share company is the oldest in Ethiopian industry all machine and instrument are older most of them are not working due to maintenance problems and accessory to the older machines.

Since the machine in your company are not recent and due to this your will not produce enough amount of product per day for the customer. Kebele 11 Addis Ababa Ethiopia Chapter 4 12 . MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN We suggest that the machines have to be get maintenance and service.7 Geographic Location House No 1510 Woreda 27. the working environment should be visible and clear. 3. in order to solve this problem your company must change with the latest and modern machine.

MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN CALCULATION It provides excellent value for transportation of small ferrous metal chips and cork stoppers. Operating conditions at room temperature Fig 1.5kg In order to determine capacity of belt of the conveyer 3. Path of travel in vertical motion of belts in order to puts the cork stopper in the reservoir of the machine. 4. Magnetic belt conveyer design calculation 1. Material to be handle is cork stopper 2. Feeding and discharging conditions The feeding and discharging conditions of the belt conveyer is belt energy source is motor and discharging methods is using pulley 5. It totally enclosed system. magnetic belt conveyer Standard for the design calculation 13 . Capacity of surge rate expressed in kg of cork stopper is 2.

5kg 2.2∗300 v= = =3.6∗q∗B∗V Where q distributed load in kg/m2 V velocity of the belt in m/s B belt width in m Total load on the belt=2.459 14 .275 x= = =2.6 m sin α sin 6 π 0.4 If the material conveyed in a unit load Q in ton per hour Q=3.2+ =6. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN N=300rpm Belt width B=150mm Driver pulley D1=200mm.06 m 2 10.4957 kg /m 0.14 m/s 60 60 Belt length π (( D 2−D1 )2 ) L= ( D1 + D2 ) +2 x + 2 4x Where x is the distance b/n the center of two pulley and determined by tilt angle of the belt 0 α =6 r 1+ r 2 0. N1=300rpm Driven pulley D2=350mm Belt speed π∗D1∗N 1 π∗0.152 L= ∗0.5 2 q= =5.55+5.

145 N where qm=0.05 Resistance force r 1=f∗qs∗l qs from the value 2.825∗2.6m for vertical magnetic belt conveyor Total resistance to motion R R=r 1+r 2+r 3=0.05∗0.124 N Force required overcoming the level of difference r 3=qm∗H=0.124+ 2.369 N 15 .4957∗0.6=0.98*22.369 ton /hr s 0 The magnetic belt conveyor has an inclination angle α =6 then the capacity Q will be reduced by a factor P Which p=0.825∗3.825kg/m r 1=0.825kg/m H=elevation difference=2.1 N Friction for due to material transported r 2=f∗qm∗l m=0.6=2.92 ton/hr Cross sectional area of the material on the flat belt ( B+ 4 )∗B2 4.145=2.369 ton/hr=21.825∗2.15∗3.14= =22. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN 62.03=0.48∗10 m 110 110 Cross sectional area of the material on the troughed belt Ac= 2Af = 2*8.15 =8.05∗0.1+0.03m=0.5kg/3.98 from standard table then Qs=P*Q=0.69*10-3m2 We select roller with ball bearing having of f=0.15 2 −4 2 Af = = ∗0.48*10-4 =1.12 kg Q=3.6∗5.

5∗10−4 m 2 Mass of the belt per meter length m 16 .005=7.5∗10−3=1500 N Where A=B∗t=0.38 T1 Maximum tension in the tight side of the belt T 1 =σ∗A=2∗106∗7. It’s must full fill high coefficient of friction in our design belts we select leather belts due to having behavior of good contact between belt and pulley and places the greatest tensile strength of the section on the outside Width of the belt B=150mm Thickness t=5mm Stress on tight side σ =2 MPa kg ρ=980 Density m 3 0 Wrap angle θ=22 =0.384rad Coefficient of friction μ=0. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN Belt tension calculation Belt design and its consideration In order to design the belt of the conveyer the material of the belt must be strong.15∗0. flexible and durable.

MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN 7.145 Motor power The power required at the driving pulley just for driving the belts is given by Effective tension Te=T1-T2 =1500-1297.5∗10−4∗1∗980 kg m= A∗l∗ρ= =0.735 kg /m m3 T2 Tension in the slack side T 1 μθ =e T2 T1 1500 N T2= μθ = =1297... maximum belt speed and type of material to be conveyed Type of belt conveyor………….5N T e∗v 202.8 W 1000 1000 Selection of idler Depending on the type of belt conveyor.14 Pd = = =635.magnetic Maximum belt speed…………….14m/s Material to be conveyed………….5 N e e0..V=3.5=202.cork stopper We can select idler diameter d= 60mm Design summary for pulley and belts Diameter of driven pulley =350mm 17 .5∗3.

As we ON the switch the belt will have a magnetic property. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN Diameter of driver pulley=200mm Width of both pulley=150mm Length of belt=6. The stripped ends will be wrapped around the two ends of the motors. 2. Strip insulation from the ends of the wire in order for the wire to effectively conduct electricity its ends must be stripped of their protective insulation. Attach the mechanical switch use a regular mechanical switch to make this electro magnet. We develop the simple electromagnet by the following steps 1. then at the end air blowing system is used in order to remove the cork from the leather magnetic belt that ‘ll be collected to the machine reservoir . in artificially created magnet or when they are induced to do so by an electromagnetic field. Wrap the large rod metal. Set up your supplies in small bowl made of plastic or wood. 4. Which create a magnetic field. 7. CHAPTER FIVE Conclusion and recommendation 18 . Additional way of giving magnetic behavior by the system of electromagnet Magnetic field are produced when all electrons in a metal object are spinning in the same direction either as a natural phenomena. 5. Selected magnetic rod length 300mm We select flat shape of magnetic rod in order to match with150mm width of the leather belts.06m Thickness of belt=5mm Belt width=150mm Magnetic behavior To give magnetic behavior for the belt conveyer by applying magnetic rod in between the gap of vertical belts in order to control the cork escaping out from the leather belt. OFF the switch it lost magnetic property. 3. Get magnet supplies. 6. Connect the wire ends to the motor. To make an electromagnet an electric current is run through a piece of metal.

19 . the working environment should be visible and clear. in order to solve this problem your company must change with the latest and modern machine. coefficient of friction. in order to design the magnetic belt conveyer. we have to consider the width of the bet. Recommendation We recommend that the company should provide and teach safety handling of material equipment. The machines have to be get maintenance and service. then at the end air blowing system is used to remove the cork from the leather magnetic belt which that can be collected to the machine reservoir . speed of the belt. We have also known that to give magnetic behavior for the belt conveyer. The selected material ‘’leather belt’’ must have a behavior of excellent contact between belt and pulley and also ought to have the greatest tensile strength of the section on the outside. driver pulley diameter. wrap angle. MAGENATIC BELT CONVEYER DESIGN Conclusion We have concluded that. In designing the belt conveyor. the stress on the tight side and slack side. belt length. the material of the belt must be strong. flexible and durable. thickness of the belt. The working environment for the workers should be suitable. Since the machine in your company are not recent and due to this your will not produce enough amount of product per day for the customer. applying magnetic rod in between the gap of vertical belts control the cork from escaping out of the leather belt.