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AIAA SciTech

5-9 January 2015, Kissimmee, Florida

AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference

**A Design, Analysis, and Verification framework for
**

Adaptive Flight Control

Mario Luca Fravolini1

University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy, 06125

Tansel Yucelen2 , Daniel Wagner3 and Benjamin Gruenwald 4

Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, 65409

Nhan Nguyen5

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035

**Safety-critical aerospace systems require stringent stabilization or tracking performance
**

that have to be guaranteed in the face of large system uncertainties and abrupt changes on

Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3, 2015 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.2015-0611

**system dynamics. Considering Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) schemes, while
**

aggressive adaptation rates can, theoretically, produce a fast convergence of the tracking er-

ror to zero, this is often achieved at the expense of high frequency chattering and peaking in

the control signal that could be unacceptable for practical applications. Due to the inherent

nonlinear nature of MRAC schemes it is not easy to rigorously predict the response of the

uncertain adaptive systems especially during transients. This is testified by the lack of clear

and easy verification procedures for existing adaptive control schemes that relate design pa-

rameters to time domain specifications. To face this problem, we propose a design and vali-

dation framework where stability and performance requirements for the adaptive system

are all formulated in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities. This brings the advantage that the

adaptive controller design and verification can be analyzed and optimized through the solu-

tion of a convex optimization whose objective is to guarantee the evolution of the error com-

ponents within an a-priori specified invariant set. This approach was applied to verify the

performance of a recently introduced MRAC scheme featuring a feedback contribution in

the reference model that is proportional to the current tracking error. This architecture is

deemed particularly appropriate to face uncertainty in real applications. A detailed design

example applied to a generic flexible structure aircraft transport model is presented to high-

light the efficacy of the proposed verification architecture.

I. Introduction

Adaptive control systems are well-known for their ability in compensating for large uncertainties, faults and time

varying disturbances in linear and nonlinear plants1. For a wide class of adaptive control schemes a model is used as

reference for the actual plant and the error between the states of the system and the states of the model is used as

teaching signal for the adaptation of the controller parameters. Although a large number of adaptation laws and ro-

bust modifications have been proposed for years to guarantee the asymptotic convergence of the system to the model

states, the problem of predicting the tracking error during transients and the problem of relating controller parame-

ters to time domain specifications is still an active area of research 2. The difficulty in predicting the transient re-

sponse originates from the inherent nonlinearity in Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) schemes.

It is universally known that fast error tracking can be achieved by increasing the adaptation rate, but it is also well-

known that this could cause chattering and peaking in the control signal that can easily induce the actuator saturation

and the excitation of unmodeled dynamics that could lead to the instability the actual system3. Clearly, these prob-

lems are of primary relevance for safety critical applications such as aerospace systems and the ability to guarantee

by design a predictable transient is a challenging problem from the verification and validation standpoint 4,5.

1

Assistant Professor, Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, mario.fravolini@unipg.it.

2

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, yucelen@mst.edu.

3

PHD student, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, drw5ff@mst.edu.

4

PHD student, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, gruenwbc1@gmail.com.

5

Research Scientist, AIAA Associate Fellow, nhan.t.nguyen@nasa.gov.

1

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Copyright © 2015 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

The proposed verification method was here used for the design and performance optimization of a MRAC controller for a generic flexible structure aircraft transport model19. for this rea- son. the system operative regions are overestimated as a function of the norm of the error vector. the convergence of the tracking error Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. available upper bounds turn out to be extremely conservative and. Typically. max (M ) (min (M )) denotes the maximum (minimum) eigenvalue of the Hermitian matrix M. validation and verification framework for adaptive systems in the context of neuro-adaptive control14. Typically. specifically. a priori. still at the design stage. the analysis. of scarce utility for a practical design. by design. captures a desired closed-loop dynamical system behavior modified by a static feedback term proportional to the tracking error between the uncertain dynamical system and the reference system.aiaa. The notation used in this article is standard. 12 and 13 proposed methodologies that address. to define as suitable region containing the poles of the tracking error dynamics. at the design stage. 2015 | http://arc.2514/6. the in- terplay between the size of the tracking error residual set and important design parameters such as the adaptation rate and the parameters defining the regional constraints for the placement of the poles associated to the reference model transfer function. with the purpose of verifying. design and performance verification in the MRAC context is carried out through the Lya- punov redesign method that is used to design the control law and to prove the asymptotic stability or the conver- gence to a residual set in the tracking error space. In particular. For these reasons it is crucial the development of novel performance validation schemes that provide non conserva- tive estimations of operative bounds for adaptive controllers for real-world applications. so that high fre- quency oscillations and aggressive transients of the control signal may be avoided. a specified transitory performance6.17. thus preventing a selective verification of the performance along the different components of the error dynamics7. Specifically. and tr () is the trace operator.18 that add a static feedback error term to the standard (open loop) reference model with the purpose of modifying the tracking error dynamics and of mitigating large transient excursions of the adaptive control due to large initial errors while pre- serving stability. MRAC featuring a closed loop reference model Motivated by the will to improve the transient performance of MRAC systems some authors have recently proposed modifications of the standard model reference adaptive control scheme by introducing in the control loop also a feedback contribution proportional to the current tracking error 3.2015-0611 within specified domains.15 that is based on the invariant set theory16. it is shown how the approach can be employed to perform parametric studies to analyze. Recently adaptive H 2. whether the tracking error components of the closed loop system.18. Only in the last years for examples the authors in Ref. The novelty of the approach is that stability and transitory requirements for the closed loop system are expressed in terms of pa- rameterized Matrix Inequality (MI) constraints.20 in the presence of degradation in the control effective- ness. evolves in the specified region. the feedback term allows one to limit the frequency content of the system error dynamics by shaping the position of the closed loop poles error dynamics. The proposed reference system. whether component-wise tracking error bounds can be guaranteed for the selected performance variables. 18. In this paper the method was recast to verify the performance of a new class of MRAC schemes 3. the purpose of the methodology is to prevent the update law from attempting to learn through the high-frequency 2 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . In addition. This fact is important not only because it allows a direct control on the track- ing error dynamics but also for the fact that the tracking error signal is employed to drive the adaptation law. A well known limitation of this technique is that it could be not effective in providing constructive guidelines for the selection of the design parameters that guarantee. H and L1 approaches have been proposed for instance in Refs 8.11 with the purpose of minimizing specific per- formance metrics with the effect of improving in general terms the response of the system but with not a clear rela- tion with the a priori specified boundedness region for the tracking error 12. Finally. In particular the framework provides a systematic method allow- ing one to both define.10.9. In the present study we propose a scheme similar to the one presented in Ref. a priori. That is. The advantage of this modification is that it allows. shown in figure 1. desired boundedness regions for the tracking error and for the initial state.org | DOI: 10. II. The method can be applied to a wide class of adaptive control systems whose design is based on quadratic Lyapunov functions. || ||2 denotes the Euclidian norm.17. In order to overcome this problem the authors proposed a new design. To highlight the potentiality of the verification method we compared the opti- mized tracking error componentwise bounds with the bounds estimated applying standard conservative bounding functions. This implies that the adaptive law parameters can be analyzed and optimized via a convex optimization formulation. and to also verify. || ||F denotes the Frobenius norm.

the update law only learns through the low-frequency content of the system error. MRAC featuring a closed loop reference model III..aiaa. consider the feedback control law u(t ) un (t ) uad (t ) (6) where the nominal control law un (t ) is given by un (t ) K0 x(t ) (7) mn where K0 R is chosen such that Ar A BK0 is Hurwitz.2015-0611 Figure 1.org | DOI: 10. and hence. xc (0) xc0 (3) where Ep is a binary matrix used to select the subset of the x p (t ) states to be followed by c(t ) . yields for the nonlinear system x(t ) Ar x(t ) Br c(t ) B uad (t ) W T ( x(t )) (9) 3 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . The “ideal” reference model is xr0 (t ) Ar xr0 (t ) Br c(t ) xr0 (0) xr0 0 (8) Using (7) and (2) in (1).2514/6. p 2 ( xp ).. content of the system error.. (4) where x [ xTp . Ap R and Bp R np m are nomi- nal system matrixes. Bp) is controllable and that uncertainty in (1) is pa- rameterized as ( x p ) WpT ( x p ) (2) where Wp R is an unknown constant weigh matrix and p ( x p ): R R is a known basis function of the form sm np s p ( xp ) [ p1 ( xp ). Mathematical formulation of the frequency limited adaptive control Consider the nonlinear uncertain dynamical system18 xp (t ) Ap x(t ) Bp u(t ) Bp ( x p (t )). Now. without incurring in high frequency oscillations in the transients. 2015 | http://arc. u(t ) R is the control input. I ]T R nnc Next. (1) can be aug- mented with (3) obtaining x(t ) Ax(t ) Bu(t ) BWpT ( x p (t )) Br c(t ). xcT ]T Rn (n np nc) is the augmented state vector and Ap 0 nn B [ B pT .. Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. Furthermore we assume that (Ap. x p (0) x p0 (1) n p n p n p m where x p (t ) R is the state (accessible) vector. 0]T R nm A R (5) E p 0 Br [0. ps ( xp )]T. To address command following let c(t ) Rnc be a given smooth command signal and xc (t ) Rnc the integral of the tracking error satisfying xc (t ) E p x p (t ) c(t ). ( x p ) R R is a matched system uncertainty and is an positive unknown diagonal np m control effectiveness matrix4.

specifically in this effector the Ke(t ) contribution will be used to place the poles of the of the error dynamics in a desired region of the complex plane so that damping and decay rate requirements can be specified at design level.eo .aiaa. eo0 . e0 (t ) 0. Details on the derivations can be derived from Ref. 18 it is easy to derive the following theorem: Theorem 1: Consider the nonlinear uncertain system in (1). and eid (t ) 0 asymptotically as t . aggregated. eo (0) 0 (14) Now. in order to analyze the performance of eid (t ) it is requested to analyze the joint performance of e(t ) and of eo (t ). 2015 | http://arc. the resulting error dynamics is e(t ) Ar e(t ) BW T ( x) Ke(t ). Transient and steady state performance (standard approach) In this section.W ) eT Pe T 0.2015-0611 Substituting the adaptive law (11) in (9).(1 I ) K0 ] is an unknown. Aggregating the dynamics of e(t ) and of eo (t ) and defining the overall state vector and matrixes as follows e(t ) A K 0 B z (t ) At r Bt (16) eo (t ) K Ar 0 then.3. 18 and are based on the stability analysis carried out using the following quadratic Lyapunov function 1 1 eo P2eo tr (W ) (W ) V (e. Based on Lyapunov stability arguments and applying the results presented in Ref. xr (0) xr 0 (12) where the K if a free design matrix. the V (e. the closed loop reference system in (12).W0 ) Rn Rn Rsm. that is: e(t ) 0. weight matrix and T ( x) [ Tp ( x p ). P2 ) R . since the primary purpose of the control is to track the ideal reference systems it is also defined the error be- tween the system and the ideal reference model that is eid (t ) x(t ) x r0 (t ). Note that (12) presents an additive static feedback term Ke(t ) compared to the ideal reference model (8)2.W ) zT Pz 1tr (W 0. basis function vector. the ideal tracking error satisfies the transient performance bound 4 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3.2514/6. the scalar γ>0 is the learning rate and e(t ) x(t ) xr (t ) is the error between the system and the closed loop reference model that is defined as follows xr (t ) Ar xr (t ) Br c(t ) Ke(t ). this difference is quantified by the error eo (t ) xr (t ) x r0 (t ). xT ]T R s n is a known. e(0) e0 (13) ˆ where W (t ) W (t ) W is the weight estimation error. the overall dynamics of the uncertain closed loop adaptive system is z(t ) At z(t ) Bt W T ( x(t )) z(0) [e(0)T eo (0)T ]T (17) IV. Since eid (t ) x(t ) x r (t ) x r (t ) x r0 (t ) this implies that eid (t ) e(t ) eo (t ) (15) Therefore. the closed-loop error dynamics (17) is Lyapunov stable for all (e0 . The adopted adaptive control law is u (t ) Wˆ T (t ) ( x(t )) ad (10) where Wˆ (t ) R( s n)m is the estimate of W satisfying the update law Wˆ ( x)eT P1B. aggregated.eo . we report transient and steady-state performance bounds for the adaptive control architecture under investigation computed using standard bounding approaches. Then. where W T [WpT .W ) can be equivalently expressed as function of the aggregated z(t) variables that is V ( z. Due to the feedback error term the ideal and the actual refer- ence models deviate during the transitory. Considering the error model in (16-17). and the feed- back control law in (6) and (7).org | DOI: 10.5 )T (W 0.5 ) (19) 2n2n where P diag (P1. Further. Wˆ (0) W0 (11) where matrix P1 0.5 (18) where matrices P1 and P2 are positive definite and is a positive scalar. This term is used to shape the tracking error dynamics17. The dynam- ics of eo (t ) can be achieved from (8) and (12) yielding eo (t ) Ar eo (t ) Ke(t ).5 T 0.

Clearly results . similar to (20).org | DOI: 10. Further. Similar invariance definition can be introduced for the two boundary sets and . w) zT Pz 1wT w and that the sets and can be redefined as z. the trajectory of the system remains in Ω for any t 022. A. the methodology that will be introduced in the next section will compute compo- nentwise bounds as the results of an optimized design leading to the estimation of less conservative bounds. 0 (24) B. Transient bounds. Requirement on the derivative of the Lyapunov function From the stability demo of theorem-1 in18 results that the derivative of the Lyapunov function is such that V eT AtT P PAt e. This change of variable implies that the Lyapunov function (19) can be rewritten as V ( z. being function of the norm of the state vector does not allow a selective analysis of the response along the sin- gle error components. are proposed by many authors in literature.5 ||W (t )||2. that is z. we introduce an intermediate scalar variable w(t) such that |w(t )| 0. it can be shown that inequality (25) can be ex- pressed in extended form by the following MI requirement T Ar Q1 Y1 0 Ar Q1 Y1 0 Y 0 (26) 1 Ar Q2 Y1 Ar Q2 5 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . This is verified if the following MIs hold: P1 0. Matrix Inequality formulation of the performance requirements In this section we show how stability and componentwise transient performance requirements can be expressed in Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. Unfortunately.2015-0611 terms of matrix inequality (MI) constraints. At this point we are ready to introduce a set of MI requirements that provide sufficient conditions for the positive invariance of the sets Ω and for the fulfillment of tracking error performances. Conversely. Definition-1: A set Ω is said to be positively invariant for the system (17) if.5 2 z (t ) F t0 (20) min ( P) Note-1. Q1 P11 . in order to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. P2 0. Requirements on the Lyapunov function We require the Lyapunov function V ( z. for every initial state . 2 z (0) 2 max ( P) 1 W (0)0. V. and using (16). the bounding re- gion. we define the following two boundary sets: is the set in case max and in case min . w R2n 1 | zT Pz 1max wT w 1 (22) z. w R 2 n 1 | z Pz min w w 1 T 1 T (23) It is now introduced a positive invariance definition for a compact set. In the following analysis it is assumed. Considering the fact that in the following analysis the MIs constraints will depend on the norm ||W (t )|| then.W R2ns | zT Pz 1||W ||22 1 (21) Since is unknown. w) to be is positive definite. Q2 P21 and KQ1 Y1 . for simplicity. for performance analysis purpose. these bounds turn out to be overly conservative resulting of scarce utility for practical design purposes. therefore for stability we require that: AtT P PAt 0 (25) 1 Defining Q P .aiaa.W ) 1. that m=1 (one in- put) consequently the uncertain is a bounded scalar such that 0 min max .2514/6. In order to carry out the boundedness analysis define the ellipsoidal sets that originates from the Lyapunov function level set V ( z. 2015 | http://arc.

the correspond- ing zMi can be set to infinity (in practice to very large values).. Requirements on the initial conditions Considering the fact that . max 1 ]) and τ is an arbitrary scalar >0. for these states the constraints (30) and the corresponding MIs in (32) can be simply omitted.. the size of the set z ..2514/6.. C. 2n (31) In the optimized design.... To analyze the trajectories of the error z(t) it is also defined the subset z z | zT Pz 1 that is the projection of the sets ( and ) in the error variables subspace... Note 3. Define also the (scaled) error performance polyhedron z z | zi (t ) | i zMi i 1. or equivalently. Upper and lower ap- proximation for the set Ω are provided by the sets and defined in (22) and (23) respectively.. We require that 0 .. 2n (32) i i2 zMi where gi [0. 2n (30) where the zMi are desired reference requirements and the i are scalar (scaling) optimization parameters that will be determined through the optimized design... T th 2n Note 2. and W0 || W (0) ||2 are user defined values. max 1 ]) diag ([Q1 .aiaa. Q inv( P) diag ([Q. therefore the MIs (32) guarantee the performance (30) for any such that 0 min max .. Requirements on the tracking error In the proposed framework it is possible to specify componentwise tracking error requirements as follows: zi (t ) i zMi t 0 i 1. 6 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics .. as much as possible.. In case there are no specific performance requirements on some components of the z vector. by minimizing the values of coefficients i. 2015 | http://arc... w | [ zT w]P0 [ zT w]T 1 (27) where 1 z01 2 0 0 0 0 .. 16 it was shown that the containment of the ellipsoid 0 in another ellip- Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. the objective will be to reduce. Q2 . we require the set to be “large enough” to contain an a-priori specified initial condition set for the errors and for the weights error. In this study we considered for initial condition a set having an ellipsoidal shape defined as follows 0 z.2015-0611 soid is equivalent to the following MI condition P0 0 I 0 1 0 0 (29) I 0 Q where P diag ([P. then.1.org | DOI: 10.. To satisfy constraints (30). Note 4. 1max ]). D. 0 0 P0 Q01 (28) 0 0 z02 2 0 n 0 0 0 W02 and the z0i.. 16 that the condi- tion z z holds if and only if the following MI are satisfied Q Qgi (Qg )T 2 0 i 1. 0] is the i base vector of R . This also implies that along these components the z set is unconstrained. defining the semi axis length of the ellipsoid 0 along the i-th direction. Since the parameter γ is unknown (but bounded) it is not possible to define exactly. In Ref. Note that the set z does not depends on the unknown parameter in (21).. Exploiting geometric considerations it was show in Ref. that will be introduced shortly. we require the containment of the ellipsoid z within the polyhedron z .

Due to the fact that the design requirement have been all expressed as a set of MIs. it is possible to improve the nominal (ρi=1) tracking error requirements given in (34). then it is of interest to verify if. VI. while the third condition limits the damping coefficients of the closed-loop poles that. conditions (24) implies that V ( z.(32) and (33-35). while MI (26) ensures that V (t ) 0..(29). 2015 | http://arc. thus limiting the controller authority and placing an upper bound on the bandwidth of the closed-loop error dynamics. if V (0) 1 for t=0.32) and. we are in the position to formulate the design and performance verification as a convex optimization problem relaying on a linear cost function (to be defined) whose optimization variables are the free pa- rameters and matrices that are involved in the MIs (24).. Proof. Conditions (29) guarantee that the initial conditions set 0 is internal to remember that ) while (32) (for ρi=1) guarantees the containment of z within the performance set z . n of Ar K to belong to a desired region S (rmax . Pole placement requirements In the proposed scheme the feedback error term Ke(t) in the reference model (12) influences the position of the poles of the Ar K matrix governing the dynamics of the tracking error e(t) that.W ) 1. In this effort it was decided to choose as optimization objective the minimization of the "size" of the scaled error performance polyhedron z . The three conditions are expressed by the following MIs 23: rmax Q1 Ar Q1 Y1 ( A Q Y )T 0 rmax Q1 1) (33) r 1 1 2) Ar Q1 Q1 ArT Y1 Y1T 2rmin Q1 0 (34) Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. Theorem 2: Consider the adaptive system (17). by construction. since the boundary of is.2015-0611 sin( )( Ar Q1 Y1 Q1 A1T Y1T ) cos( )( Ar Q1 Y1 Q1 A1T Y1T ) 3) T 0 (35) cos( )(Q1 A1 Y1 A1Q1 Y1 ) sin( )( Ar Q1 Y1 Q1 Ar Y1 ) T T T where Y1 KQ1. 2) xi rmin 0. it will be V (t ) 1 t 0.26.2514/6. E.aiaa. The first condition places the poles with- in a maximum radial distance from the origin. A Convex optimization approach for the design and verification of the performance requirements In is now introduced a methodology allowing the systematic design and verification of the above specified invari- ance and performance requirements which is formulated as a convex optimization problem.. In order to control the placement of the poles of the Ar K matrix we considered additional MIs constraints that guarantee the poles si=( xi jyi) i 1. then the set Ω is positively invariant and the system satisfies the nominal componentwise error bounds (30).. Therefore each trajectory originating inside will be confined in forever imply- ing that is a positive invariant set. Q2 0 and learning rate γ >0 such that the MIs (24. To evaluate the nominal performance requirements the reduction coefficients i in (30) are set equal to one.then.W ) is a positive definite Lyapunov function. the Lyapunov function level set V ( z. with initial condition belonging to the compact set Ω0 defined in (27) and assume nominal reduction coefficients ( i 1) in (30). The second condition implies a lower bound on the error dynamics settling time. (33-35) are satisfied. This objective is quantified by the following linear cost function: 2n J i i (36) i 1 7 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . ) of the complex plane such that: 1) | xi jyi | rmax .29. control the oscillations in the response. initial conditions bounds (27) and pole placements re- quirements. in turn. The proof is an immediate consequence of the requirements A-B-C-D-E introduced in section V. A. given a specified initial condition set Ω0. in case feasible solutions exist. Design and Performance Verification Framework In this section it is introduced a procedure that provides sufficient conditions to verify the invariance of the set and to verify the transitory performance requirements for the error variables. In fact.org | DOI: 10. Final- ly (33-35) guarantees the pole placement requirement for the error dynamics. drives the adaptation law (11). in in turn. If there exist matrixes. rmin . Q1 0. The method is based on the follow- ing theorem. we have that. Now. Considering Theorem-2. and 3) tan( ) xi yi 23.(26).

14 and 15. The problem is thus formalized as the following minimization problem minimize J subject to MIs (37) Q1 . In our specific problem. In the case the solving procedure yields a sub optimal solution characterized at least by a i 1.96 10 -3.42 10 3. .1110-2 -1 3.1110-3 -3. This brings along the well-known problems of nonlinear optimization such as the locality of the sub optimal solution.25 -8. ..89 102 2.32 and 3335 It should be noticed that problem (37) is not linear due to the presence of the product between some of the optimiza- tion variables in the MIs. the reduction coefficients i were included in the subset of the free optimization variables since these are involved in the cost function J in (36) to be minimized. 2 n . Finally.. therefore unfeasibility does not means. 29. but simply that the method is not able to guarantee the performance for the current values of the design parameters. Optimization Procedure The engineering approach used to solve the nonlinear optimization problem (37) is to fix a subset of the optimiza- tion variables (Q1 .52 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Ap Bp (38) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1. B.75 0 3.45 -9. 19 and 20 to develop a flexible generic transport model which accounts for the interactions be- tween wing bending and torsion on aircraft. In the fol- lowing section we will apply this procedure to a case study showing how different combinations of grid and contin- uous design parameters can be established to perform specific parametric studies and to evaluate. but this does not satisfy the (nominal) performance requirements (34). Then. The aeroelastic model is then used to formulate a state space model of the rigid body pitch dynamics coupled with the flexible body dynamics. Infeasibility of the linear problem implies that at least one of the MI in (24). 0.. 2 . 2 . 26.13 10 -1.org | DOI: 10. Q2 . p ( xp (t )) 0) is obtained in the form of: -8.. The solving procedure proposed for the numerical solution of the nonlinear problem (37) requires the re- peated solution of a convex problem on a grid. Aeroelasticity theory was used in Refs.. 1 . VII.65 10-1 1. today.2015-0611 search on the subspace of the fixed variables. systematically. The selection of the subset of the (grid) variables depends on the particular design aspect under investigation.26 0 -2.Q2 . that the performance cannot be fulfilled by the adaptive system. a linearized model under nominal conditions ( 1.. the very fast exploration of large dimensionality domains. the resulting linear optimization problem is repetitively solved by performing a discretized grid Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3.01 10-1 9. For the configuration with 50% fuel.75 10-1 7.39 9. The availability of efficient linear pro- gramming solvers for large scale optimization problems (such as the one available in the MATLAB Robust Control Toolbox24) enables.. .62 102 -5. in general.40 10 3 1 1 -3 -3. grid size and resolution. K ) so that the reduced optimization problem turns out to be linear in the remain- ing variables.63 -1. where the i are weight coefficients that are used to emphasized the importance of specific error variables in the op- timization. 1 .2514/6.Design and performance verification of a MRAC controller for an Aeroelastic Generic Transport Model The design and verification method was applied to an Aeroelastic Generic Transport Model.14 10 1.09 10-1 5.8. This was experienced in the following case study and also in the problems considered in Refs.52 10-1 -3. . K 24.aiaa. In other word the proposed method provides sufficient conditions for the satisfac- tion of the requirements. Note 5.46 10-4 -2. the interplay between the many design parameters. the solution leading to the minimum value of J on the grid is considered as the suboptimal solution.42 10-3 6.78 with the state vector and control input being defined as 8 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . . 2015 | http://arc. (29).50 10-2 -2. 2 n .26 10-2 5. this means that a feasible solution exists. (26). Note 6. (32) or (33-35) cannot be satisfied for the current set of design parameters. and with an altitude of 30000 feet and a Mach number of 0.

0. w(t ).0. B. rmin 0. K 24. In this effort we considered the pitch an- gular rate command following problem. C. for each fixed grid value of γ. Specifically. 25. (30) 15 deg 10 deg/s 15 deg 10 deg/s Reduction coffs. we decided to set as grid parameter the learning rate γ. Eq. 26.02. 3 . The reference tracking errors requirement for these errors are re- ported in Table 1. 5. (15) results that the ideal tracking error eid (t ) depends both on the e(t ) and on the eo (t ) errors.Q2 .aiaa. (t )] (39) u (t ) e (t ) where α(t) denotes the angle of attack. the nominal controller gain matrix K0 in (7) was computed by using QK0 = diag[1. (t ).0]. As for the control effectiveness we considered a possible uncer- tainty of 50% that is we fixed min 0. . Componentwise tracking error requirements From eq. the optimization in (37) reduces to the following problem: minimize J subject to MIs (40) Q1 . 29. K were set as free continu- ous optimization variables.5. 125] and RK0=10.09.0. 0. 0.1. w(t) denotes the bending modal amplitude. The cost function used in the optimized design was J i 1i i . 2015 | http://arc.0.org | DOI: 10. 0.1 while for the pitch rate where chosen 2 4 1 to put more emphasis on the minimization of the tracking error requirement for the pitch rate. With this setting. Effect of the learning rate In the first study it was investigated the influence of the learning rate on the tracking error performance and the fea- sibility of the problem.5. Requirements on the initial conditions The initial condition ellipsoid Ω0 in (27) is specified by the lengths of the 7+7+1=15 semi-axis.0.0]. For this study it was selected a very wide region of the S plane for the placement of the closed loop poles of the tracking error matrix At K by setting in (33-35) the values rmax 2000. 0.5. (30) ρ1 ρ2 ρ4 ρ5 Table 1. 4 .2514/6.0.5. further we assumed a matched uncertainty persistent contri- bution (t ) W11 (t ) 10sin(5t ). Error Requirements e1(t) e2(t) e1o(t) e2o(t) Track.0.45.2. The Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) approach was used to design the nominal linear controller. while the maximum norm W0 of the initial weight estimation error W (0) was assumed conservatively equal to 25.50.100.1|0. The above linearized model un- der nominal conditions is unstable and non-minimum phase due to coupling effects and the low damping of the tor- sional mode. In this study we considered as performance variables the tracking error for the angle of attach α(t) and for the roll rate q(t). 2 . and e2o (t ) qr (t ) qro (t ). 5. this implies that we have to define requirements for the errors e1 (t ) (t ) r (t ). while the reaming variables Q1 . Error zMi Eq.(3335) 9 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . 1 . this makes the control of this system particularly challenging.0. respectively. θ(t) denotes the torsional modal amplitude. Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3.2015-0611 A. and therefore. The controller gain matrix resulting from the LQR design is given by K0 18. .1. 2 .5 and max 1.3.0. 4 . and δe(t) denotes the elevator deflection.5.54.5.3. to penalize x(t) and u(t).01. Basing on a simula- tive analysis of the system in uncertainty free condition we fixed the following values for the semi-axis lengths: z0 [2. The weighting coefficients ρi for the angle of 4 attach variables were fixed at 1 3 0.24. we set Ep [0.32.1. e2 (t ) q(t ) qr (t ) and for e1o (t ) r (t ) ro (t ).0.150. 1 . analysis and performance evaluation for the Aeroe- lastic Generic Transport Model. 0. considering the setup of the optimization problem (41). q(t ). Then. x(t ) [ (t ).12.02. q(t) denotes the pitch angular rate. 3 . Reference tracking error requirements for the selected performance variables. w(t ). In the following sections it will be illustrated the MRAC design. Q2 .

The learning rate is kept at γ=950. [1000 : 0.2. therefore for the following tests it was selected the minimum value γ=950. It can be observed that rmin has an important impact on the performance. Further. rmin . In particular it is requested a closed loop reference model significantly faster than the adaptation dynamics.org | DOI: 10. 3 and4 and ||K||2/3000 as function of the learning rate γ. the problem (40) was solved by varying the rmin in the range [-0. By decreasing W (0) it is possible to get feasible solutions for smaller values of γ. On the other hand.9 so that the resulting region of the complex plane is S (rmax . In particular it is evident a compromise between the increase of |rmin| and the decrease of the tracking performance. Effect of the pole placement constraint for poles of the closed loop reference model In second study the analysis was focused in studying the effect of the K matrix on the performance. 0. D. The result of the above analysis is that. it is not possible to decrease the learning rate below a threshold value and that the increase of the learning rate does not produce significant improvements on the tracking performance. the reference per- formance (i ≤1) can be achieved only for the variables e1. 2015 | http://arc. A fast error dynamics can be enforced by assigning a suita- ble large value to the parameter |rmin| in constrain (34) that establishes the minimum absolute value for the real part of the eigenvalues of the At K matrix.0. Figure 2 shows the performance scaling coefficients 1. in order to get feasible solutions. 0. 2. for larger vales it 10 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . Actually. In particular. As outlined in section II the high frequency chattering that could be present in the adaptive control contribution during transients can be reduced by speeding up the response of the closed loop error dynamics. Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. It can be observed that feasible solutions can be achieved only for γ≥950 and that the increasing of γ does not produce significant improvement on the performance. ) (2000. 3. we observed that the minimum learning rate to get feasible solutions is strongly influenced by the initial uncertainty W (0) . As for the norm ||K||2 it is observed that this remains substantially constant.2514/6. In more details we observe that it is possible to in- crease |rmin| until 11 without worsening significantly the reduction coefficients.1]. (Pole regional constraints for the At K matrix in the region: S (rmax . e2 and e1o. while for e2o results 4 >1 even for large values of γ.aiaa.9). This can be achieved by increasing the module of the real part of the poles of the Ar K matrix.5) ). that is linear in the optimization variables and therefore can be solved using the procedure introduced in section VI- B. ) (2000. rmin .1. To investigate the relation between the achievable tracking performance and rmin. in order to get a damped dynamics we fixed a minim damping coefficient for the poles ξ>0. The linear grid search over γ was performed in the range [1-2000] with step 1. Optimized scaling coefficients 1. Figure 3 shows the optimized performance reduction coefficients ρi and the norm ||K||2 as function of |rmin|.1:-1000] with step -1 assuming a fixed value for rmax=-2000.2015-0611 Figure 2. 4 defining the scaled performance polyhedron z in (31) along with the norm ||K||2 as function of adaptation rate γ.

in fact ρ20 turns out to be larger than one for each value of |rmin|. ρ2.org | DOI: 10. ( 0. Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3.aiaa. ρ3. 11 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . E. is observed a monotone increase in the reduction coefficients ρi. thus evidencing the need of a more effective control ac- tion.1]. It is evident that the baseline linear controller is not able to compensate for the decreased control effec- tiveness (=0. Learning rate γ=950. Command following response with LQR control only.5). Reduction coefficients ρ1. even for small values of |rmin| it is not possible to guarantee ρi<1 for all the performance variable.5) and the time dependent uncertainty (t). rmin . ρ4. 0. 2015 | http://arc. ) (2000. [1000 : 0.2514/6.2015-0611 Figure 3.9). and ||K||2/1000 as function of |rmin|. It is also observed that. Time domain analysis To highlight the effects of the considered modelling uncertainty in figure 4 it is shown the response of the system to a square wave reference command for q(t) when the uncertain system is controlled only by the baseline LQR con- troller un(t). Regional pole constraints for At K in the region: S (rmax . Figure 4.

It was verified by simulation studies that the insertion of the adaptive control contribution generally lead to perfor- mance improvement. ) (2000. Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3.5. while the values of the optimized scaling coefficients defining the set zare: 1=0. ) (2000. -606.16.2015-0611 This fact is not surprising. Therefore the optimized design was repeated for |rmin|=600 so that the pole placement region now is S (rmax . 600.16. Conversely for e1o and e2o it is not possible to guarantee the reference bounds. -675. 2015 | http://arc. In other words we have consciously decided to accept a potential increase of the transitory tracking error in favor of robustness. Effect of abrupt changes in the control effectiveness and of measurement noise The optimized adaptive controller (for γ=950 and |rmin|=600) was also evaluated to test the capacity of counteracting abrupt variations of the control effectiveness. For this purpose the control effectiveness was changed at t=3 sec from to and at t=5 sec from to =1.3. Regarding the adaptive control contribution uad(t) this resulted smooth without any control peaking or high frequency content (the low frequency oscillations in uad(t) are due to the compensation of the sinus- oidal disturbance (t)). As explained in section II an effective suppression of potential high frequency oscillations in the adaptive control during the transients can be achieved by designing a closed loop error dynamics significantly faster than the adaptation dynamics. 3=3. ρ4=7. -604.27. The optimized poles of the Ar K matrix are placed in s=[-601±j0. Command following response for γ=950 and r min=-600.01. The optimized reduction coefficients are: ρ1=0.0.5 indicating that for the performance variables e1 and e2 it is not only possible to guarantee the ref- erence requirements (ρi<1) but it is even possible to improve the tracking error bounds.9) ). however.27.org | DOI: 10. For the above settings the optimized solution of problem (40) provides a matrix K R77 having a norm ||K||2=1923.8. 600.2514/6. - 672.9. Figure 5 shows the tracking response of the system to a square wave reference command for q(t).4. Figure 5. in fact figure 3 indicates clearly that large values of |rmin| implies a significant increase of the upper bounds especially for the e1o and e2o components.9). It is important to point out that the above bounds.58. In the present study it was verified that an effective smoothing of the high fre- quency content in the adaptive control command is achieved by setting the values of |rmin| in (34) larger than 500. rmin . ρ3=3.aiaa. 2=0.The corresponding response in shown in figure 6.6]. and matrix P1 Q1 R77 (to be used in the adaptation law (11)) with norm equal to 63. -672. ρ2=0.1. Pole regional constraints for the At K ma- trix in the region S (rmax . rmin .5 and4=7. are extremely less conservative compared than those computed applying the standard bounding formula (20) as it will be shown in section VII-H.57. F. It can be ob- served that that the adaptive controller is able to counteract promptly the parametric variation without inducing con- 12 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . 0. It can be observed that in the first part of the transitory the q(t) signal tracks very quickly the qr(t) reference signal provided by the closed loop reference model and that the transitory for the tracking of the qr0(t) signal provided by the ideal model lasts less than 3 seconds.

2015-0611 Figure 6. from to Figure 7. Figure 7 shows the corresponding response.2514/6.aiaa. It is evident that a the adaptive controller is able to guarantee a good tracking despite the significant parametric variations. Command following response for γ=950 and r min=-600. Command following response for γ=950 and r min=-600. G. trol peaking or high frequency oscillations. In the last experiment it was studied measurement noise immunity. Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. Effect of the initial error and invariant sets As observed in the previous studies the initial error e(0) has a significant impact on the transient repose. from to and significant measurement noise. Abrupt change of control effectiveness at t=3 sec from to and at t=5 sec. For this purpose we added significant measure- ment noise on the 7 feedback signals. 2015 | http://arc. To study this issue we performed a simulative study for the case of γ=950. from to and at t=5 sec. Abrupt change of control effectiveness at t=3 sec. and |rmin|=600 considering different initial condi- 13 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . It is evident that also in this case the control system maintains desirable performance.org | DOI: 10.

To perform this study we used the P and K matri- ces resulting from the optimization (40) in case γ=950 and |rmin|=600. Note also that. starting from the boundary 0. In the figure are also shown some closed loop trajectories with initial conditions taken on the boundary of the initial condition ellipsoid 0. It can be observed that the optimized bounding set zsolid line rectan- gleis tangent to the projection of ztestifying that the optimization tries to reduce. 2015 | http://arc.aiaa. 14 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics . analysis and performance verification for Model Refer- ence Adaptive Controllers. The method allows for the systematic computation of key controller’s parameters that are derived as the result of a constrained convex optimization problem. tions belonging to the set 0 defined in (27). while the (dotted line) ellipsoids are the projection of the initial condition sets Ω o. as much as possible. In the figure are shown some closed loop trajecto- ries originating on the boundary of Ωo. The approach allows for a quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs between the tracking error requirements and fundamental design parameters. Conclusions In this article it was proposed a framework for the design. Clearly.24 (where z [eT . such as the learning rate and the authority of the static gain con- troller used in the closed loop reference model. eoT ]T ). It can be observed that all the trajectories. This produced an upper bound Downloaded by AUBURN UNIVERSITY on November 3. the reduc- tion coefficients along the 4 performance directions. 0 and zset in the e1-e2 and in the e1o-e2o planes. zis external to the projection of the initial condition ellipsoid 0 (dotted ellipsoid). 2 e2(t) [deg/s] 0 -2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 e1(t) [deg] 100 e20(t) [deg]/s 0 -100 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 e10(t) [deg] Figure 8. |rmin|=600). Actually. Comparison with standard performance verification methods It is instructive to compare the optimized componentwise performance bounds defining the optimized performance polyhedron zwith the ‘standard’ bounds computed using (20).org | DOI: 10. being zpositively invariant. for the current design settings the optimized z set resulted slightly larger than 0. The method is based on the design of ellipsoidal invariant sets that originates from quad- ratic Lyapunov functions in conjunction with the use of LMI constraints to express requirements. This upper bound is extremely conservative compared to the optimized bounds provided by our approach. (learning rate γ=950.2514/6. remain within the set zand smoothly converge toward the origin. The solid rectangles indi- cate the projection of the optimized performance set z. In Figure 8 it is shown the projection of the optimized z. VIII. The ellipses (solid line) are the projection of the optimized z in the e1-e2 and in the e1o-e2o planes. each trajec- tory originating inside zremains within zindefinitely. H.2015-0611 || z(t ) ||2 9121. This fact provides a clear indication of the potential superiority of the proposed design and performance verification method compared to the standard ones.

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