Microprocessor Lab Viva Questions with Answers

1.What is a Microprocessor?
Microprocessor is a CPU fabricated on a single chip, program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and executes the
instructions.
2. What is Instruction Set?
It is the set of the instructions that the Microprocessor can execute.
3. What is Bandwidth ?
The number of bits processed by the processor in a single instruction.
4. What is Clock Speed ?
Clock speed is measured in the MHz and it determines that how many instructions a processor can processed. The speed of the microprocessor is measured in
the MHz or GHz.
5. What are the features of Intel 8086 ?
Features:
· Released by Intel in 1978
· Produced from 1978 to 1990s
· A 16-bit microprocessor chip.
· Max. CPU clock rate:5 MHz to 10 MHz
· Instruction set: x86-16
· Package: 40 pin DIP
· 16-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit
· 16-bit data bus (8088 has 8-bit data bus)
· 20-bit address bus - 220 = 1,048,576 = 1 meg
· The address refers to a byte in memory.
· In the 8088, these bytes come in on the 8-bit data bus. In the 8086, bytes at even addresses come in on the low half of the data bus (bits 0-7) and
bytes at odd addresses come in on the upper half of the data bus (bits 8-15).
· The 8086 can read a 16-bit word at an even address in one operation and at an odd address in two operations. The 8088 needs two operations in
either case.
· The least significant byte of a word on an 8086 family microprocessor is at the lower address.

6. What is Logical Address:?
• A memory address on the 8086 consists of two numbers, usually written in hexadecimal and separated by a colon, representing the segment and the offset.
This combination of segment and offset is referred to as a logical address
• Logical address=segment: offset
7. What is The Effective Address:
• In general, memory accesses take the form of the following example:
• Mov ax, [baseReg + indexReg + constant]
• This example copies a word sized value into the register AX.
• Combined, the three parameters in brackets determine what is called the effective address, which is simply the offset referenced by the instruction
8. What is Physical Address?
Physical memory address pointed by SEGMENT:OFFSET pair is calculated as:
Physical address = (<Segment Addr> * 10) + <Offset Addr>
9.What are the flags in 8086?
In 8086 Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary carry flag, Zero flag, Overflow flag, Trace flag, Interrupt flag, Direction flag, and Sign flag.
10.Why crystal is a preferred clock source?
Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency that doesn’t drift with aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of the times.
11.What is Tri-state logic?
Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance state. The high and low are normal logic levels & high impedance state is electrical open
circuit conditions. Tri-state logic has a third line called enable line.
12.What happens when HLT instruction is executed in processor?
The Micro Processor enters into Halt-State and the buses are tri-stated.
13.What is Program counter?
Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next instruction to be fetched for execution or the address of the next byte of a multi byte
instruction, which has not been completely fetched. In both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the instruction bytes get fetched. Also
Program register keeps the address of the next instruction.

14. What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor?
The processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32 bits.
15.Name the processor lines of two major manufacturers?
High-end: Intel - Pentium (II, III, 4), AMD - Athlon. Low-end: Intel - Celeron, AMD - Duron. 64-bit: Intel - Itanium 2, AMD - Opteron.
16.How many bit combinations are there in a byte?
Byte contains 8 combinations of bits.
17.Have you studied buses? What types?
There are three types of buses.
Address bus: This is used to carry the Address to the memory to fetch either Instruction or Data.
Data bus : This is used to carry the Data from the memory.
Control bus : This is used to carry the Control signals like RD/WR, Select etc.
18.What is the Maximum clock frequency in 8086?
5 Mhz is the Maximum clock frequency in 8086.
19.What is meant by Maskable interrupts?
An interrupt that can be turned off by the programmer is known as Maskable interrupt.
20.What is Non-Maskable interrupts?
An interrupt which can be never be turned off (ie. disabled) is known as Non-Maskable interrupt
21.What are the different functional units in 8086?
Bus Interface Unit and Execution unit, are the two different functional units in 8086.
22.What are the various segment registers in 8086?
Code, Data, Stack, Extra Segment registers in 8086.
23.What does EU do?
Execution Unit receives program instruction codes and data from BIU, executes these instructions and store the result in general registers.
24.Which Stack is used in 8086? k is used in 8086?
FIFO (First In First Out) stack is used in 8086.In this type of Stack the first stored information is retrieved first.

27.but it is passed to the instruction indirectly. Stos 36) What are different parts for 8086 architecture? A:.BIOS handles Int 00H-1FH.the maskable interrupts are recognised by the CPU. Xlat. . Parity flag. 45. Xchg.SI and DI in the default (either DS or ES) segment. 28.It includes microprocessor.in the default segment.SS is used fopr addressing stack segment of memory. Wait. which then resumes execution. Sti 35) What are String Instructions? A:.It has a 16-bit ALU. The BIU contains the circuit for physical address calculations and a precoding instruction byte queue & it makes the bus signals available for external interfacing of the devices. The EU contains the register set of 8086 except segment registers and IP.DS is used to points the data.Polling or device Polling is a process which idenfies the device that has interrupted the microprocessor.Extra Segment(ES) & Stack Segment(SS) registers. A CALL instruction leaves information on the stack so that the original program execution sequence can be resumed. Lock 34) What are Flag Manipulation Instructions? A:.CX. 31. <5> Indexed:-offset of the operand is stored in one of the index registers. 32) What are Data Copy/Transfer Instructions? A:.An interrupt operation suspends execution of a program so that the system can take special action. Direction flag.What are the different types of Addressing Modes? A:.What is Assembler? A:-The assembler translates the assembly language program text which is given as input to the assembler to their binary equivalents known as object code. C-Carry Flag:-Is set when there is carry out of MSB in case of addition or a borrow in case of subtraction.the address to which the control is to be transferred lies in a different segment and it is passed to the instruction indirectly sequentially.memory and I/O.What are Segment Registers & their uses? A:-There are 4 Segment Registers Code Segment(CS). and appears in the form of successive bytes.The interrupt routine executes and normally returns control to the interrupted procedure. Trace flag. <8> Relative Based Indexed:. In. 40.Mov.BX register is used as an offset Storage. Sahf. <2> Direct:-A 16-bit memory address(offset) is directly specified in the instruction as a part of it. O-Overflow Flag:-Is setif the result of a signed operation is large enough to be accommodated in a destination register. 26. Lea. Z-Zero Flag:-Is to set if the result of the computation or comparision performed by the previous instruction is zero. whereas DOS handles INT 20H-3FH. Push. MovSB/MovSW. Used to check whether the interrupt is Masked or not. Lods.25. Interrupt flag. <7> Based Indexed:-The effective address of the data is formed.fabricated using VLSI technology. <12> Intersegment Indirect:-In this mode.What is meant by Interrupt? A:-Interrupt is an external signal that causes a microprocessor to jump to a specific subroutine.the address to which the control is to be transferred is in a different segment. 42.What is an Instruction? A:-An instruction is a binary pattern enetered through an input device to command the microprocessor to perform that specific function. Hlt.It has a 16-bit ALU.Microcontroller is a device that includes microprocessor:memory and I/O signal lines on a single chip.CX register is used as default or implied counter. Overflow flag.What are the flags in 8086? In 8086 Carry flag.BX. Out.They are:- <1> Immediate:-The Immediate data is a part of instruction.The complete architecture of 8086 can be divided into 2types :-Bus Interface Unit(BIU) & Execution Unit. The EU contains the register set of 8086 except segment registers and IP.the processor enters the single step execution mode. <10> Intrasegment Indirect Mode:-In this mode. RIM is Read Interrupt Mask.the displacement to which the control is to be transferred. Auxiliary carry flag. Std. Cli.in this addressing mode. 41. 39. <11> Intersegment Direct:-In this mode.Rep. D-Direction Flag:-Is set for autoincrementing or autodecrementing mode in string manipulation instructions. and Sign flag. The time required to translate the assembly code to object code is called access time. Lahf. 30.There are 12 different types of Addressing Modes. 37. The BIU contains the circuit for physical address calculations and a precoding instruction byte queue & it makes the bus signals available for external interfacing of the devices. I-Interrupt Flag:-Is set. Lds/Les. Pop. AC-Auxiliary Carry Flag:-Is set if there is a carry from the lowest nibble during addition or borrow for the lowest nibble. 43.The effective address is formed by adding an 8 or 16-bit displacement with the sum of contents of any one of the base registers and any one of the index registers. Cmps.The assembler checks for syntax errors&displays them before giving the object code. <9> Intrasegment Direct Mode:-In this mode.Cld.DX are the general Purpose 16-bit registers.by adding content of a base register to the content of an index register. What are Machine Control Instructions? A:. Pushf.AX register as 16-bit accumulator.The Registers AX. S-Sign Flag:-Is to set when the result of any computation is negative.able to perform arithmetic and Logic operations.What are Flag registers? A:-Divided into 2 parts:-Condition code or status flags and machine control flags. 29.the address to which the control is to bve transferred lies in the segment in which the control transfer instruction lies and appears directly in the instruction as an immediate displacement value. <4> Register Indirect:-The address of the memory location which contains data or operand is determined in an indirect way. <6> Register Relative:-The data is available at an eefective address formed by adding an 8-bit or 16-bit displacement with the content of any one of the registers BX.ES refers to a segment which is essentially in another data segment. Popf 33. Zero flag.What is meant by Polling? A:. Used to mask the hardware interrupts.Dx register is used as an implicit operand or destination in case of a few instructions.is in the same segment in whgich the control transfer instruction lies. Microcomputer is a computer that is designed using microprocessor as its CPU.What is SIM and RIM instructions? SIM is Set Interrupt Mask.Data Segment(DS).What does the 8086 Architecture contain? A:-The complete architecture of 8086 can be divided into 2types :-Bus Interface Unit(BIU) & Execution Unit.What is Microcontroller and Microcomputer? A:.What is an Interrupts Def:. <3> Register:-Data is stored in a register and it is referred using the particular register (except IP). What is an Opcode? A:-The part of the instruction that specifies the operation to be performed is called the Operation code or Op code. 38. Scas.What are the General Data Registers & their uses? A:.CS is used for addressing memory locationin code.BP. 44.able to perform arithmetic and Logic operations.What is an Operand? A:-The data on which the operation is to be performed is called as an Operand.Nop. T-Trap Flag:-Is set.Explain the difference between a JMP and CALL instruction? A:-A JMP instruction permantely changes the program counter.

Huge:-Code and data both in any number of segments. The 8-bit (8-digit) binary number or code is called byte and 16-bit binary number or code is called word. The programs developed using these languages for a particular machine cannot be directly run on another machine .. It is an output signal from the processor. A digit of the binary number or code is called bit. 63. 65. MOVS=Move Byte/Word CMPS=Compare Byte/Word SCAS=Scan Byte/Word LODS=Load byte/Wd to AL/AX STOS=Stor Byte/Wd from AL/A 55. data in one segment (<=64K). Difference between "Shift" and "Rotate". A:-Shift and Rotate commands are used to convert a number to another form where some bits are shifted or rotated.. Small:-Code in one segment (<=64K).What are the basic units of a microprocessor ? The basic units or blocks of a microprocessor are ALU. Its format is .It is unsegmented. Define bit. 64.What are machine language and assembly language programs? The software developed using 1's and 0's are called machine language.What is the use of HLDA? A:-HLDA is the acknowledgment signal for HOLD.COM programs. Why data bus is bi-directional? The microprocessor has to fetch (read) the data from memory or input device for processing and after processing. What is the function of microprocessor in a system? The microprocessor is the master in the system. Without software the Hardware is an idle machine. Hence the address bus is unidirectional.Define Variable? A:-A Variable is an identifier that is associated with the first byte of data item. HOLD and HLDA are used as the control signals for DMA operations.MODEL SMALL? A:. 59. Flat:-Defines one area upto 4 gigabytes for both code and data.. which controls all the activity of the system. The Hardware refers to the components or devices used to form computing machine in which the software can be run and tested. arrays may be >64K. 53. for . which require more time for execution. Medium:-Any number of code segments.i.what is Software and Hardware? The Software is a set of instructions or commands needed for performing a specific task by a programmable device or a computing machine. An equivalent operation to LEA is MOV with the OFFSET operator.The program uses 32-bit adressing and runs under Windows in protected mode.That is.The following are the memry models Tiny:-Code and data in one segment. Basic difference between shift and rotate is shift command makes "fall of " bits at the end of the register. It issues address and control signals and fetches the instruction and data from memory. DI or SI for indexing an address in memory.e.the data moved out at one end is put back in at the other end. A rotate instruction is a closed loop instruction. 51. 58. . If READY is high then the periphery is ready for data transfer..Explain Dup? A:-The DUP directive can be used to initialize several location & to assign values to these locations. which generates slightly shorter machine code.Autoincrement mode. It generates 32-bit adresses. 47. JNC is Conditional Branch. (Some microprocessor manufactures refer the basic data size operated by the processor as word). Explain about "LEA"? A:-LEA(Load Effective Address) is used for initializing a register with an offset address.Autodecrementing mode. If this flag bit is 0 . It indicates whether the HOLD signal is received or not.this is known as Pipelining.i.46. Why address bus is unidirectional? The address is an identification number used by the microprocessor to identify or access a memory location or I / O device.What is the main use of ready pin? A:-READY is used by the microprocessor to check whether a peripheral is ready to accept or transfer data. byte and word.e.MODEL memory-model. Also.Explain about Direction Flag? A:-This is used by string manipulation instructions. 48. These peripherals are connected to microprocessor using the READY pin. The software developed using mnemonics are called assembly language programs.the string is processed from the highest towards the lowest address. A common use for LEA is to intialize an offset in BX. 54. Explain about . programs? The machine language and assembly language programs are machine dependent. The shift instruction loses the data that is moved out of the last bit locations. any number of data segments. A peripheral may be a LCD display or analog to digital converter or any other. 62. Where rotate command makes "wrap around" at the end of the register.Define Pipelining? A:-In 8086. Large:-Code and data both in any number of segments. 57. It generates 16-bit offset addresses. the bit is the fundamental storage unit of computer memory. What is the drawback in machine language and assembly language.Difference between JMP and JNC? A:-JMP is Unconditional Branch. What is a bus? Bus is a group of conducting lines that carries data. 60. If not the microprocessor waits until READY goes high.What are the 4 Segments? A:-Code Segment Register {CS} Data Segment Register {DS} Extra Segment Register {ES} Stack Segment Register{SS} 56. address and control signals.What is assembly language? The language in which the mnemonics (short -hand form of instructions) are used to write a program is called assembly language. 52. 61. 67.MODEL directive:-This simplified segment directive creates default segments and the required ASSUME and GROUP statements.programs.List the String Manipulation Commands? A:-REP=Repeat.. it has to store (write) the data to memory or output device. Otherwise. an array of registers and control unit. 66. The manufacturers of microprocessor give the mnemonics. data in one segment (<=64K). Then it executes the instruction to take appropriate action. no array >64K. Hence the data bus is bi-directional.to speedup the execution program. 50. Compact:-Code in one segment (<=64K). 49.the instructions fetching and execution of instructions are overlapped each other. the string is processed beginning from the lowest to the highest address.

22. What is processor cycle (Machine cycle)? The processor cycle or machine cycle is the basic operation performed by the processor. The segment registers of 8086 are Code segment. What is the difference between CPU bus and system bus? The CPU bus has multiplexed lines but the system bus has separate lines for each signal. Auxiliary carry Flag (AF) 8. Therefore the speed of I/O devices does not match with the speed of microprocessor. at OOOOH. Define T-State. 8355 and 8755. Now the DMA controller will perform DMA transfer. the program counter will have OOOOH address. The ports can be programmed to function either as a input port or as a output port in different operating modes. Write a short note on INTEL 8255? The INTEL 8255 is a I/O port device consisting of 3 numbers of 8 –bit parallel I/O ports. some of the addresses are allotted to I/O devices and so the full address space cannot be used for addressing memory (i. The DMA controller in turn sends a HOLD request to the processor. 34. The 8086 uses 20 bit address to access memory and 16-bit address to access 1/0 devices. The maximum internal clock frequency of 8086 is 5MHz. The signal M/IO is used to differentiate memory address and 1/0 address When the processor is accessing memory locations MI 10 is asserted high and when it is accessing 1/0 mapped devices it is asserted low. the processor will run one or more machine cycles in a particular order. Why EPROM is mapped at the beginning of memory space in 8085 system? In 8085 microprocessor. Overflow Flag (OF) 2. It requires 4 internal addresses and has one logic LOW chip select pin. What is the data and address size in 8086? The 8086 can operate on either 8-bit or 16-bit data. Explain the function of M/IO in 8086. or acknowledging an external request. What is the need for Port? The I/O devices are generally slow devices and their timing characteristics do not match with processor timings. The clock signal supplied by 8284 is divided by three for internal use.e. it will be executed automatically. Hence the clock generator chip. BX Base Register 4. When the processor receives a HOLD request. To execute an instruction. Machine cycle is defined as the time required to complete one operation of accessing memory. Write the flags of 8086. List the segment registers of 8086. DX .What is DMA? The direct data transfer between I/O device and memory is called DMA. 8155. which is used to hold the data transmitted from the microprocessor to I/O device or vice-versa. after a reset. Zero Flag (ZF) 9. 27. 25. List the components of microprocessor (single board microcomputer) based system The microprocessor based system consist of microprocessor as CPU. 8255. 69. 18. input device. I/O. Each functional unit works independently most of the time. where the memory requirement is less. 8284 is connected to the CLK pin of8086. If EPROM memory is mapped at the beginning of memory space. Direction Flag (DF) 5. Each instruction cycle of a processor indium consists of a number of machine cycles.\ 21. Write the special functions carried by the general purpose registers of 8086. and each T-State is precisely equal to one clock period. 39. 23. Trace Flag (TF) 3. CX Count Register 5. 24. semiconductor memories like EPROM and RAM. it will send a DMA request signal to DMA controller. Sign Flag (SF) 16. What is pipelined architecture? In pipelined architecture the processor will have number of functional units and the execution time of functional units are overlapped. AX 16-bit Accumulator 2. AL 8-bit Accumulator 3. 26. And so an interface is provided between system bus and I/O devices. i.68.e. it will drive its tri-stated pins to high impedance state at the end of current instruction execution and send an acknowledge signal to DMA controller. What is Instruction cycle? The sequence of operations that a processor has to carry out while executing the instruction is called Instruction cycle. Stack segment and Extra segment registers. T-State is defined as one subdivision of the operation performed in one clock period. Register Special function 1. The special functions carried by the registers of 8086 are the following. 37. The monitor program is a permanent program and stored in EPROM memory. 32.Data Register 19. Data segment. What are the interrupts of 8086? The interrupts of 8085 are INTR and NMI. The INTR is general maskable interrupt and NMI is non-maskable interrupt. 28. Hence the I/O devices are connected to system bus through the ports. 29. Parity Flag (PF) 7. This cycle may consist of three to six T-states. The 8086 has nine flags and they are 1. 17. Interrupt Flag (IF) 4. 33. 8156.What does memory-mapping mean? The memory mapping is the process of interfacing memories to microprocessor and allocating addresses to each memory locations.Give some examples of port devices used in 8085 microprocessor based system? The various INTEL I/O port devices used in 8085 microprocessor based system are 8212. physical memory address space will be reduced). 36. Define machine cycle. 35. Carry Flag (CF) 6. What is interrupt 1/0? If the 1/0 device initiate the data transfer through interrupt then the 1/0 is called interrupt driven 1/0. Hence memory mapping is useful only for small systems. What are the modes in which 8086 can operate? The 8086 can operate in two modes and they are minimum (or uniprocessor) mode and maximum ( or multiprocessor) mode. 20. then the monitor program will be executed automatically after a reset.What is a port? The port is a buffered I/O. .What is the drawback in memory mapped I/0? When I/O devices are memory mapped.. How DMA is initiated? When the I/O device needs a DMA transfer. What are the functional units available in 8086 architecture? The bus interface unit and execution unit are the two functional units available in 8086 architecture. 31.. output device and interfacing devices.. 38. (The multiplexed CPU lines are demultiplexed by the CPU interface circuit to form system bus). Why interfacing is needed for 1/0 devices? Generally I/O devices are slow devices. How clock signal is generated in 8086? What is the maximum internal clock frequency of 8086? The 8086 does not have on-chip clock generation circuit. These subdivisions are internal states synchronized with the system clock. If the monitor program is stored from this address then after a reset.

40.What are the internal devices of 8255 ? The internal devices of 8255 are port-A. then the baud rate and bits/sec are same. Why status signals are provided in microprocessor? The status signals can be used by the system designer to track the internal operations of the processor. How the 8085 processor differentiates a memory access (read/write) and 1/0 access (read/write)? The memory access and 1/0 access is differentiated using 10 I M signal. What is opcode fetch cycle? The opcode fetch cycle is a machine cycle executed to fetch the opcode of an instruction stored in memory.data transfer at a stretch and then relieve the bus to processor. Then the processor keeps on polling the status of the device. during the first T -state of every machine cycle the low byte address is latched into an external latch using ALE signal. 43. then the interrupt is called Hardware interrupt. In Demand transfer mode the DMA controller will complete the entire . it will inform the output device to collect the data. What is Hardware interrupt? If an interrupt is initiated in a processor by an appropriate signal at the interrupt pin. The device can be programmed by sending control word in the prescribed format to the control register. 50. 49. What are the different types of Polling? The polling can be classified into software and hardware polling. What is baud rate? The baud rate is the rate at which the serial data are transmitted.. latches. What is fetch and execute cycle? In general. ports. 77. 86. 47. Every instruction starts with opcode fetch machine cycle. The priorities of interrupts are programmable. 3. The interrupt vector addresses are programmable. 44. What is USART? . port-B and port-C. It manage eight interrupt request 2. Once the output device accepts the data. 4. the hardware takes care of checking the status of interrupting devices and allowing one by one to the processor. When the port receives the data. These instructions are inserted at desired locations in a program. In some synchronous schemes a small delay is allowed after the request. all the interrupts except TRAP are disabled.What is Polling? Polling is a scheme or an algorithm to identify the devices interrupting the processor. List some of the features of INTEL 8259 (Programmable Interrupt Controller) 1. How the interrupts are affected by system reset? Whenever the processor or system is resetted . 79. After sometime another block of data is transferred by DMA and so on. 48. In software polling the entire polling process is govern by a prograrn. What operation is performed during first T -state of every machine cycle in 8085 ? In 8085. When the 8085 processor checks for an interrupt? In the second T -state of the last machine cycle of every instruction. to form a microprocessor system. Baud rate is defined as l /(The time for a bit cell). 81. 78. The knowledge of timing diagram is essential for system designer to select matched peripheral devices like memories. Operand is a part of an instruction / directive that represents a value on which the instruction acts. Once the device is ready. In some systems one bit cell has one data bit. 80. The execute cycle is executed to decode the instruction and to perform the work instructed by the instruction. Where is the READY signal used? READY is an input signal to the processor. Now the processor can load another data to port and the above process is repeated. the processor execute a data transfer instruction to complete the process. 76. The fetch cycle is executed to fetch the opcode from memory. Also. the instruction cycle of an instruction can be divided into fetch and execute cycles. It can handle the interrupt request from various devices and allow one by one to the processor.What is Block and Demand transfer mode DMA? In Block transfer mode. 45. The interrupt can be masked or unmasked individually. 51. 87. it can be used for memory expansion (by providing separate memory banks for program & data and selecting the bank using status signals). 46. How many machine cycles constitute one instruction cycle in 8085? Each instruction of the 8085 processor consists of one to five machine cycles. the DMA controller will transfer a block of data and relieve the bus for processor. What is synchronous data transfer scheme? For synchronous data transfer scheme. El instruction has to be executed after a reset. 52. the 8085 processor checks whether an interrupt request is made or not. etc. when a machine cycle is executed. 75. fu order to enable the interrupts. 85. Usually the programmable devices will have control registers. What are the operating modes of 8212? The 8212 can be hardwired to work either as a latch or tri-state buffer. What is the need for timing diagram? The timing diagram provides information regarding the status of various signals. first the processor sends a request to the device for read/write operation. 84.ite to the device immediately after the request. 41. Polling is employed when multiple devices interrupt the processor through one interrupt pin of the processor. used by the memory or I/O devices to get extra time for data transfer or to introduce wait states in the bus cycles. Explain the working of a handshake output port In handshake output operation. The ports can be programmed for either input or output function in different operating modes. What is HOLD and HLDA and how it is used? Hold and hold acknowledge signals are used for the Direct Memory Access (DMA) type of data transfer. The 8085 processor asserts 10 I M low for memory read/write operation and 10 I M is asserted high for 1/0 read/write operation. What is asynchronous data transfer scheme? In asynchronous data transfer scheme. What is interrupt acknowledge cycle? The interrupt acknowledge cycle is a machine cycle executed by 8085 processor to get the address of the interrupt service routine in-order to service the interrupt device. 83. if software interrupt instruction is encountered then the processor executes an interrupt service routine. fu this scheme the processor will request the device to get ready and then read/W1. the port will inform the processor that it is empty. The DMA controller place a high on HOLD pin in order to take control of the system bus. 74. 53. Opcode (Operation code) is the part of an instruction / directive that identifies a specific operation. the processor does not check the readiness of the device after a command have been issued for read/write operation. What is Software interrupts? The Software interrupts are program instructions.state buffer and so it can be used as input port. the processor will load a data to port. 42. While running a program. 82. If mode (MD) pin is tied LOW then it work as tri.What is the need for interrupt controller? The interrupt controller is employed to expand the interrupt inputs. What is a programmable peripheral device ? If the functions performed by a peripheral device can be altered or changed by a program instruction then the peripheral device is called programmable device. Define opcode and operand.1n hardware polling. The HOLD request is acknowledged by the 8085 by driving all its tristated pins to high impedance state and asserting HLDA signal high. If mode (MD) pin is tied HIGH then it will work as a latch and so it can be used as output port.

to-frequency converters. It implements a symbolic representation of the binary machine codes and other constants needed to program a particular CPUarchitecture. 7)What are Mnemonics ans:-mnemonics are instructions or commands to perform a perticular opration given by user to microprocessor e. 5}Define Assembler ans:-An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations. character length. The various error conditions that can be checked from the status word are parity error. integrator converters and voltage. overrun error and framing error. The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program. DIP switches. 93. What are the functions performed by INTEL 8251A? The INTEL 825lA is used for converting parallel data to serial or vice versa. What is an Interrupt? Interrupt is a signal send by an external device to the processor so as to request the processor to perform a particular task or work. Debouncing the key and Generating key codes (Decoding the key). What is scanning in display and what is the scan time? In display devices. This representation is usually defined by the hardware manufacturer. What is program counter? How is it useful in program execution? The program counter keeps track of program execution. It also provides information regarding various errors in the data received. the output lines of external decoder are used as rows of keyboard matrix. 4}Define Intrepreter ans:. What are the different types of ADC? The different types of ADC are successive approximation ADC. The input devices used in the microprocessor-based system are Keyboards. How the microprocessor is synchronized with peripherals? The timing and control unit synchronizes all the microprocessor operations with clock and generates control signals necessary for communication between the microprocessor and peripherals. The data transmission or reception can be either asynchronously or synchronously.decode and executes instructions. These task are performed software if the keyboard is interfaced through ports and they are performed by hardware if the keyboard is interfaced through 8279. ADC. 2} Explain the function of CPU in Microprocessor ans:-A microprocessor controls all functions of the CPU. The command word can be send to enable the data transmission and reception. How a keyboard matrix is formed in keyboard interface using 8279? The return lines. the process of sending display codes to 7 -segment LEDs to display the LEDs one by one is called scanning ( or multiplexed display). 98. 88. and is based on mnemonics that symbolize processing steps (instructions). 92. 99. The 8251A can be used to interface MODEM and establish serial communication through MODEM over telephone lines. What are the control words of 8251A and what are its functions ? The control words of 8251A are Mode word and Command word. What are the information that can be obtained from the status word of 8251 ? The status word can be read by the CPU to check the readiness of the transmitter or receiver and to check the character synchronization in synchronous reception. explicitly executes stored precompiled code[1] made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system.g MOV MIV ADD SUB IMUL . 90. Define stack Stack is a sequence of RAM memory locations defined by the programmer. 94. To execute a program the starting address of the program is loaded in program counter. The scan time is the time taken to display all the 7-segment LEDs one by one. starting from first LED and coming back to the first LED again. 91. 101. The microprocessor is programmed to give and receive instructions from other components of the device. What is scanning in keyboard and what is scan time? The process of sending a zero to each row of a keyboard matrix and reading the columns for key actuation is called scanning. 95. Answers for viva questions 1}What is Microprocessor ans:-It is a program controlled semiconductor device (IC}. often having a binary form known as object code). 97.An interpreter may be a program that either :-executes the source code directly. What is settling or conversion time in DAC? The time taken by the DAC to convert a given digital data to corresponding analog signal is called conversion time. translates source code into some efficient intermediate representation (code) and immediately executes this. or central processing unit. Floppy disc. 6}What is Assembly level language ans:-An assembly language is a low-level programming language for microprocessors. The mode word informs 8251 about the baud rate. In decoded scan the scan lines SLo to SL3 of 8279 are used to form the rows of keyboard matrix. 96. parity and stop bits. 100. and other language features. etc. processor registers. 102. RLo to RL7 of 8279 are used to form the columns of keyboard matrix.which fetches. What are the internal devices of a typical DAC? The internal devices of a DAC are R/2R resistive network. The scan time is the time taken by the processor to scan all the rows one by one starting from first row and coming back to the first row again. The PC sends out an address to fetch a byte of instruction from memory and increments its content automatically.The device which can be programmed to perform Synchronous or Asynchronous serial communication is called USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter). In encoded scan mode. Give some examples of input devices to microprocessor-based system. memory locations. an internal latch and current to voltage converting amplifier. What are the tasks involved in keyboard interface? The task involved in keyboard interfacing are sensing a key actuation. to large automobiles. The INTEL 8251A is an example of USART. The system can control everything from small devices such as calculators and mobile phones. of a computer or other digital device. counter type ADC flash type ADC. 3} Define Compiler ans:-A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transformssource code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language. 89.

9)Distinguish between Microprocessor & Microcontroller. 8)What is a bus ans:-Information is transferred between units of the microcomputer by collections of conductors called buses. byte and word ans:-NIBBLE:-In computing. this specialized storage is not considered part of the normal memory range for the machine. 12)What is a register ans:-In computer architecture. memory.The most common microprocessors used in personal computers (for instance. There will be address. It is a bidirectional bus. The width and clock rate of the data bus determine its data rate (the number of bytes per second it can carry). as it also transmits response signals from the hardware. Processor registers are at the top of the memory hierarchy. But micro controller is a computer on a chip which has memory. and peripherals) used to carry data. As a nibble contains 4 bits..» 256 I/O ports. 10)Define address bus. control. BYTE:- The byte (pronounced /ˈbaɪt/) is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications.40-pin DIP.» Single voltage. and data buses. When a processor or DMA-enabled device needs to read or write to a memory location. 16 lines for a 16 bit address bus.» Up to 8 MHz. a processor register (or general purpose register) is a small amount of storage available on the CPU whose contents can be accessed more quickly than storage available elsewhere. 13) Why is the data bus bidirectional ans:-Data bus is bi-directional bcoz same bus is used for data transmission from microprocessor to memory location or input/output device and vice versa.» On-chip peripherals. So. data bus and control bus ans:. their IA-32 architecture is an extension of the original Intel 8086 design which had a word size of 16 bits. thats y data bus is bi-directional 14.44-pin PLCC  .micro processor can perform only few functions but micro controller can perform so many functions. a nibble is a four-bit aggregation or half an octet.  » 8080 object-code compatible. and provide the fastest way for a CPU to access data. There will be one conductor for each bit of information to be passed.ouput on the chip itself.g. but the modern de facto standard is 8 bits. DATA BUS:-The bus (connections between and with in the CPU.» 64 KB RAM. e. as this is a convenient power of 2. 11)What is nibble. The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory a system can address. ans:-The microprocessor is a digital integrated circuit device that can be programmed with a series of instructions to perform specified functions on data.ADDRESS BUS:-An address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address. WORD:. Give the features of 8085 microprocessor ans:-  » 8-bit microprocessor. it specifies that memory location on the address bus (the value to be read or written is sent on the data bus). The size of a byte is typically hardware dependent. which is one of the main factors determining the processing power of a computer CONTROL BUS:-The control bus (or command bus) transports orders and synchonisation signals coming from thecontrol unit and travelling to all other hardware components. Other connections are the address bus and control signals.input. Typically. the Intel Pentiums and AMD Athlons) are an example of this.

The result of operation is stored in accumulator. but excluding the instruction pointer. 44-pin PLCC 17)What is the function of the accumulator ans:-An accumulator is an 8-bit register that is a part of ALU (Arithmatic-Logic Unit) of a processor.» 1 MB RAM. Give its structure and explain ans:-The current state of the processor is stored in a register called ProcessorStatus Word(PSW). Most loops. division or logical operations like AND.The PSW contains bits which indicate such things as whether the previous arithmetic operations produced a positive. pushing the return address on a jump. 18) What is stack pointer ans:-The CPU has an automatic program stack. SP. Two types of flags: Conditional or status flags: Six flags are conditional flags. and retrieving it after the operation is complete to come back to its original location. DI. Four of them.» 64K I/O ports. CX. could also be accessed as twice as many 8-bit registers (see figure) while the other four. This difference allows the 8086 system to have a much larger set of operational instructions and can make calculations to more significant places.FOR. At any given time. multiplication. but not necessarily the address of the operand in the physical address space of the computer. BP. OR. SI. 21)How many segment registers are there in 8086 ans:-4 different types of segments in 8086 CS(Code Segment)to hold code area SS(Stack Segment)to run program DS(Data Segment)to hold data ES(Extra Segment)to hold large data 22)What are the registers present in internal architecture 8086 ans:-The 8086 had eight (more or less general) 16-bit registers including the stack pointer. Give the features of 8086 microprocessor ans:-8086 16)What is a flag ans:-Flag Registers:- * The flag indicates the condition of the microprocessor as well as controls its operations. XOR etc.etc involve incrementing or decrementing a counter and . subtraction. AX. 23)What are the advantages of overlapping segments ans:- 24)What is PSW. These instructions are often used to preserve program context. were 16-bit only.negative or zero result. DX. 15. 19) What are the advantages of 8086 microprocessor over 8085 ans:-The Intel 8085 and 8086 microprocessors is that the 8085 is an 8-bit system and the 8086 is a 16-bit system. If a subtract instruction is followed by a "branch on zero" instruction .» Up to 10 MHz. BX.56-pin QFP. The stack acts like any other stack when there is a subroutine call or on an interrupt. * A flag register is a flip-flop which indicates some conditions produced by the execution of an instruction or controls certain operations of the EU.then the branch will be taken if the PSW indicates that the subtraction resulted in a zero. A 16-bit flag register in the EU contains nine active flags. There are instructions that push and pull the A and B accumulators and the X and Y index registers.40-pin DIP.such as DO-WHILE. It is the address of the operand in the virtual address space of the process. flag register and segment registers. They are set or reset by the EU on the basis of the results of some arithmetic operation.  » 16-bit microprocessor. ie. It is used for temporary storage of 8-bit data and to perform arithmatic operations like addition. 20)Define effective address ans:-Effective address is the final address generated by offsetting and indexing which is sent to the virtual translation logic.» 16-bit data bus. the SP holds the 16-bit address of the next free location in the stack.

repeating the loop until the counter reaches the limit. Direct addressing. Intrasegment Indirect3.Not.Divs*} (4)Comparison:-ex:-{Cmp} 5)Flow Control:-ex:-{Bra. It supports a wide variety of macro facilities and structured programming idioms.Shl. The CWD instruction uses the DX:AX register pair as a destination operand. Give the different type of data related addressing modes and explain with examples. IDIV instructions ans:-MUL (multiply) instruction is used for unsigned multiplication. .the result is compared with the limit. Rs 3)Direct addressing Accepts data from external devices to be stored in the accumulator or sends the data from the accumulator to the external device. This instruction multiplies bytes or words. What are addressing modes ans:-1. Immediate addressing. Branch Addressing Modes 1.Rts.Divu*. Distinguish between packed BCD and unpacked BCD ans:-Packed BCD numbers are stored two digits to a byte in 4 bit groups referred as nibbles Ex:86 in unpacked BCD there is only one digit per byte Ex: 08. What is an instruction ans:. the CWDE instruction uses the EAX register as a destination. An instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a computer program. The Microsoft Macro Assembler (MASM) is an x86 assembler for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows.Shr} 3)Arithmetic Operations:-ex:-{Add.Bsr. Example: IN 00H or OUT 01H 29. Indirect addressing. Describe CBW and CWD instructions ans:-The CBW and CWDE mnemonics reference the same opcode. DIV. Register addressing. We can divide a byte by byte. IMUL (Integer multiply) instruction is used for signed multiplication.Push. 32)Describe about MUL. the specification of special storage areas called registers that may contain data to be used in carrying out the instruction. whereas.Muls*. 25.Sub. Give examples ans:-There are different instruction types:- 1)Data Movement:-examples:-{Load. Intersegment Direct4. What are the different types of branch related addressing modes ans:-II. each instruction is a sequence of 0s and 1s that describes a physical operation the computer is to perform (such as "Add") and. 28. At the lowest level.2. R. a word by byte. This instruction multiply bytes or words. The CBW instruction is intended for use when the operand-size attribute is 16 and the CWDE instruction for when the operand-size attribute is 32. Example: MOV Rd. depending on the particular instruction type.the PSW is set accordingly. ans:-1}Immediate addressing Load the immediate data into the register. 26. or the location in computer memory of data.data 2)Register addressing Data from source register is moved into destination register.Pop} (2)Logical Operations:-ex:-{And. The 8086 microprocessor has a 16-bit PSW. What are different types of instructions. The DIV instruction is to divide unsigned data. including high-level functions for looping and procedures.Rti} (6)Others:-ex:-{Nop} 27.3.Or.Mulu*. Example: MVI R. Intrasegment Direct2. IMUL. 06 31. double word by word.Each time the counter is changed. Intersegment Direct 30.and branch is taken or not depending on the contents of the PSW.4.Move.Xor. The CWDE instruction is different from the CWD (convert word to double) instruction.

In the first pass all it does is looks for label definitions and introduces them in the symbol table. 36)What are flag manipulation instructions ? Give examples ans:-Flag manipulation instructions. 43. 35)Give examples of unconditional branch instructions ans:-In a loop if there are different jump instructions with no condition it is called unconditional loop and instructions in that loop are called unconditional branch instructions. it does the actual assembly by translating the operations and so on. CMC. Define two pass assembler ans:-A two pass assembler does two passes over the source file ( the second pass can be over a file generated in the first pass ). Set. 42. STD.The IDIV instruction is to divide signed data.SHR(SHIFT RIGHT):-shifting bit code by no. Set. The CPU uses the following logic: CF_old = CF IF (al AND 0Fh > 9) or (the Auxilliary Flag is set) al = al+6 CF = CF or CF_old AF set ENDIF IF (al > 99h) or (Carry Flag is set) al = al + 60h CF set ENDIF 38)Explain shift and rotate instructions ans:-SHL(SHIFT LEFT):-shifting bit code by no. a word by byte. it jumps to the address indicated by the label. clear. after the symbol table is complete.RCR{ROTATE CARRY TO RIGHT} 39. What are the advantages of modular programming . What are directives. 41. We can divide a byte by byte. ans:-Assembler directives are instructions to the assembler concerning the program being assembled. Define assembly process ans:-A microprocessor executes a collection of machine instructions that tell the processor what to do is known as assembly process. clear direction flag 37)Explain about DAA instruction ans:-decimal adjust addition result daa The daa instruction is used to adjust the content of the AL register after that register is used to perform the addition of two packed BCDs. In the second pass.of bits to left{ex:-00001011 when shifted left by one bit it becomes 00010110}. double word by word and the operations are just like DIV instructions 33)Describe about LOOP instructions ans:-The LOOP instruction is a combination of a decrement of CX and a conditional jump. the next sequential instruction executes. If CX becomes a 0. CLD. In the 8086. CLC. complement carry flag. STC. 34)Give examples of conditional branch instructions ans:-In a loop if there are different jump instructions with a condition or counter called conditional loop and instructions in that loop are called unconditional branch instructions.of bits to right{ex:-00001011 when shifted left by one bit it becomes 00000101} ROR(ROTATE RIGHT):-rotate bit code from right to left{ex:-00001011 when rotated right by one bit it becomes as 00010110}ROL{ROTATE LEFT}:-rotate bit code from left to right{ex:-00001011 when rotated left by one bit it becomes as 10000101}RCL{ROTATE CARRY TO LEFT}. LOOP decrements CX and if CX is not equal to zero.

parameters to called function. Reduce problem to smaller. simpler. which calls itself. Internal interrupts. Recursive procedures are used to work with complex data structures called trees. It is used with Borland's high-level language compilers. What is a stack ans:-A stack is a last in. on the stack." are triggered by a software instruction and operate similarly to a jump or branch instructionTurbo Assembler (TASM) is an x86 assembler package developed by Borland. first out (LIFO) abstract data type and data structure. 45. Turbo Basic and Turbo C. local variables in the called function. If the function returns a value. so the programs are relocatable & can be put anywhere in memory to be run. Decrements the stack pointer register by 2. 50. Interrupts can be internal or external. then the N is decremented by 1 after each procedure CALL and the procedure is called until N=0. The linker produces a link file which contains the binary codes for all the combined modules. What is linking and relocation ans:.A linker is a program used to join together several object files into one large object file. the address of the next instruction . The linker does not assign absolute addresses but only relative address starting from zero. Return address return value . A stack can have any abstract data type as an element. including loops or nested blocks. but is characterized by only two fundamental operations: push and pop. 46. If it is in the same code segment as that of the main program then it is a near procedure otherwise it is a far procedure. Jumps unconditionally to the memory location specified by the 2nd and 3rd bytes. What is recursive procedure ans:-A recursive procedure is a procedure. Explain ans:-An interrupt is a condition that causes the microprocessor to temporarily work on a different task. The type of procedure depends on where the procedures are stored in memory. Explain about CALL and RETURN instructions ans:-CALL 16-bit memory address of a subroutine It is a 3-byte instruction that transfers the program sequence to a subroutine Saves the content of the PC (Program Counter-16-bit register) . humanly comprehensible problems 44. What are stack operated instructions. This instruction is accompanied by a RETURN instruction in the subroutine. processor registers that will be reused in the called function. and then later return to its previous task. or to create code that can be easily re-used. What is an interrupt. such as Turbo Pascal. The exit may be from anywhere within the function body. . the return instruction is required 49. Explain ans:-The generic use of stack is for. If the procedure is called with N=3. 47.ans:-Modular programming can be used to break up a large program into manageable units.The return instruction is used either to return a function value or to terminate the execution of a function. It also produces a link map which contains the address information about the link files. 48. or "software interrupts. Define Procedure ans:-Procedures are a group of instructions stored as a separate program in memory and it is called from the main program whenever required.