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Coordinate

Geometry

Negative gradients: Positive gradients:

m<0 m>0

Chapter Contents

8:01 The distance between two points 8:07 The equation of a straight line, given

8:02 The midpoint of an interval two points

8:03 The gradient of a line 8:08 Parallel and perpendicular lines

8:04 Graphing straight lines 8:09 Graphing inequalities on the number plane

8:05 The gradient–intercept form of a straight Fun Spot: Why did the banana go out with

line: y = mx + c a fig?

Investigation: What does y = mx + c tell us? Mathemathical Terms, Diagnostic Test, Revision

8:06 The equation of a straight line, given point Assignment, Working Mathematically

and gradient

Learning Outcomes

Students will be able to:

• Find the distance between two points.

• Find the midpoint of an interval.

• Find the gradient of an interval.

• Graph straight lines on the Cartesian plane.

• Use the gradient-intercept form of a straight line.

• Find the equation of a straight line given a point and the gradient, or two points on the line.

• Identify parallel and perpendicular lines.

• Graph linear inequalities on the Cartesian plane.

Areas of Interaction

Approaches to Learning (Knowledge Acquisition, Problem Solving, Communication,

Logical Thinking, IT Skills, Reflection), Human Ingenuity

200

**The French mathematician René Descartes first introduced the number plane. He realised that
**

using two sets of lines to form a square grid allowed the position of a point in the plane to be

recorded using a pair of numbers or coordinates.

Coordinate geometry is a powerful mathematical technique that allows algebraic methods to

be used in the solution of geometrical problems.

In this chapter, we will look at the basic ideas of:

• the distance between two points on the number plane

• the midpoint of an interval

• gradient (or slope)

• the relationship between a straight line and its equation.

We shall then see how these can be used to solve problems.

**8:01 | The Distance Between Two Points
**

The number plane is the basis of coordinate geometry, an important branch of mathematics.

In this chapter, we will look at some of the basic ideas of coordinate geometry and how they

can be used to solve problems.

**1 Which of the following is the correct statement of prep qu
**

iz

**Pythagoras’ theorem for the triangle shown?
**

c

b

A a 2 = b2 + c 2 B b2 = a 2 + c 2 C c 2 = a 2 + b2

8:01

For questions 2 to 4, use Pythagoras’ theorem to find the value of d. a

2 3 12 cm 4

dm

d cm 2m

3 cm 5 cm

d cm

4 cm 4m

CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 201

**5 A B 6 y Distance AB 7 Distance AB = . . . units.
**

2 B = . . . units. y

–1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 1 4

0 3

Distance AB = . . . units. A B

–1 A 2

–2 1

–3

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5x

−1

**8 y 9 Find the distance AB. 10 Find the distance AB.
**

1 y y

4 4

–1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x

–1 A 3 A A 3

–2

–3

–4 B B B

2 4x –1 3 x

Distance AB = . . . units.

Pythagoras’ theorem can be used to find the distance between two points on the number plane.

worked examples

1 Find the distance between the points (1, 2) and (4, 6).

2 If A is (−2, 2) and B is (4, 5) find the length of AB. 45 is a

Solutions surd. We

1 y 2 y simplify surds

7 A(4, 6) 7 if they are

6 6 A(4, 5) perfect

5 5 squares.

4 4 4

3

3 B(–2, 2) 3

3

2 C 2 C

B(1, 2) 6

1 1

–1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5x

–1 –1

c2 = a 2 + b2 c2 = a 2 + b2

AB2 = AC2 + BC2 AB2 = AC2 + BC2

= 42 + 32 = 32 + 62

= 16 + 9 = 9 + 36

= 25 = 45

∴ AB = 25 ∴ AB = 45

∴ the length of AB is 5 units. ∴ the length of AB is 45 unit.

**By drawing a right-angled triangle we can use Pythagoras’ theorem to find the
**

distance between any two points on the number plane.

y y y

B B B

BC

A A C A C

x x AC x

202 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4

Distance formula

A formula for finding the distance between two points, y

y2 R B(x2, y2)

A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2), can be found using Pythagoras’

theorem. We wish to find the length of interval AB.

y2 − y1

Now LM = x2 − x1 (since LM = MO − LO)

y1 S C

∴ AC = x2 − x1 (ACML is a rectangle) A(x1, y1)

and RS = y2 − y1 (since RS = RO − SO)

O L M

∴ BC = y2 − y1 (BCSR is a rectangle) 0 x1 x2 x

x2 − x1

Now AB2 = AC2 + BC2 (Pythagoras’ theorem)

= (x2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1)2

∴ AB = ( x2 – x1 )2 + ( y2 – y1 )2

**The distance AB between A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is given by:
**

d = ( x2 – x1 ) 2 + ( y2 – y1 ) 2

worked examples

1 Find the distance between the 2 Find the distance between the

points (3, 8) and (5, 4). points (−2, 0) and (8, −5)

Solutions

1 Distance = ( x2 – x1 )2 + ( y2 – y1 )2 2 Distance = ( x2 – x1 )2 + ( y2 – y1 )2

(x1, y1) = (3, 8) and (x2, y2) = (5, 4) (x1, y1) = (−2, 0) and (x2, y2) = (8, −5)

∴d= ( 5 – 3 )2 + ( 4 – 8 )2 ∴d= ( 8 – –2 )2 + ( – 5 – 0 )2

= ( 2 )2 + ( –4 )2 = ( 10 ) 2 + ( – 5 ) 2

= 4 + 16 = 100 + 25

= 20 = 125

∴ Distance ⯐ 4·47 (using a calculator ∴ Distance ⯐ 11·18 (using a calculator

to answer to 2 decimal places). to answer to 2 decimal places).

• You should check that the formula will still give the same answer if the coordinates

are named in the reverse way. Hence, in example 1, if we call (x1, y1) = (5, 4) and

(x2, y2) = (3, 8), we would produce the same answer.

CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 203

5) C(3. 4) B(−2. Exercise 8:01 Foundation Worksheet 8:01 Distance between points 1 Use Pythagoras’ theorem to find the length 1 Use Pythagoras’ theorem to find the length of each of the of the hypotenuse in each of the following. 6) 2 x B 6 6 2 4 6 5 5 x 8 3 4 4 3 Find the length of AB in each of the following. −2) C 204 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . 1) (1. (Leave your answer as a surd. 0) C A(1. 1) 5 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6x C 1 5 −1 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 5 –1 −2 3 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3x –2 C −1 C −3 12 B(6. 2) −2 2 3 x −2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x 2 4 x B(3. B(7. 3) 5 3 A(−6. –2) −2 −4 2 Find the lengths BC and AC and use these to find the lengths of AB. a b following. −3) –3 A(1. −3) −2 C −3 B(−3. 3 3 a y b y B(5.) x 5 3 y a b y y 12 7 10 10 2 Find the distance AB in each of the following. 1) −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1x −1 −1 −1 d y e y f y 5 A(4. 3) 4 2 4 3 −4 −3 −2 −10 1 2 3x 3 2 −1 A(2. (Leave your answers in surd form. 4) b y B(4. 9) a y b y 9 9 A B 5 8 8 A 7 7 A(3. 3) A(−2.) a y B(5. 1) 1 2 A(1. 2) 3 B(−3. −1) 2 1 −2 1 −3 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4x −1 −4 −3 −2 −10 1 2 3 4x B(−4. 2) 1 1 1 C A(0. 3) 4 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 A(2. 4) y 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 C A(−1. −4) −5 C −1 −2 A(2. 4) c B(−7. where necessary. 3) 4 B(7. 2) 2 2 4 2 6 A 1 C(7. −2) c y d y e y 4 B(4.

b Which of the points (−1. 3) 5 a Find the distance from the point (4. −5). d Which of the points (7. 6) b (0. 2) and (7. b ABCD is a parallelogram where A is the point (2. −2) −2 d y e y f y 5 5 3 A(1. 1) and C is (2. −1) and (−2. 5) is closer to the point (3. B is (4. (Leave answers in surd form. 1) l (4. How far is M from B? CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 205 . 0) and (5. (The sides of a rhombus are equal. Find the length of each side. 0)? Making a sketch will help. G is (2. 3) 4 3 3 3 2 B(−2. 1).3 Use Pythagoras’ theorem to find the length of interval AB in each of the following. C is (4. −4) h (8. 2) and (1. Prove that EFGH is a rhombus. 3) A(−2. 4) and C(−4. M is halfway between A and B. −1) −2 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 x −1 −1 −3 −2 −2 B(−3. 3) and D is (1. 6) is a point on the circumference. What is the radius of the circle? f Prove that the triangle ABC is isosceles if A is (−2.) a y A(3. −4) is further from (0. 4) and (−2. 2) and (−7. 2) or (3. 1) d (−2. −2). 5). B(3. 2) −1 0 1 2 3 4 5x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5x −1 −1 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5x −1 −2 B(1. 1) 3 3 1 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8x 1 1 −1 B(3. 6) b y c y 6 5 A(4. (Isosceles triangles have two sides equal. 1) and (8. 2) and (7. (6. −1) and H is (−1. c Find the distance from the point (−2.) e (3. 4) and (3. F is (3. 4) e (−6. d EFGH is a quadrilateral. 2) to the origin. 7) and B is (11.) g A is the point (−13. −2) 4 Use the formula d = ( x 2 – x 1 ) 2 + ( y 2 – y 1 ) 2 to find the distance between the points: a (4. 5) 5 5 4 4 A(5. 4) j (−3. 9) and (−1. Show that the opposite sides of the parallelogram are equal. 4) to the point (3. 2). 0). c Find the length of the two diagonals of the parallelogram in part b. 1)2 2 1 1 1 B(1. 1) B(2. 0) i (6. 7) f (4. −5). 2) and (6. where E is the point (0. 3). −3) g (3. 2) or (−4. 1). 2) is the centre of a circle. 3) 4 4 2 A(8. 0)? 6 a The vertices of a triangle are A(0. 3) k (6. −3). −4) and (4. 7) c (−6. B is (5. −1). 5).

Note: 7 is halfway The average of 4 4 + 10 Formula: between 4 and 10. and 7 is 5. q) 4 3 A(4. 8:02 | The Midpoint of an Interval quiz ep 1 4 + 10 --------------- –2 + 4 2 --------------- pr 2 2 3 What is the average of 4 and 10? 4 What is the average of −2 and 4? 8:02 5 What number is halfway between 4 and 10? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 x 6 What number is halfway –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x between −2 and 4? 7 What number is y 9 What number is y halfway between 6 halfway between 4 1 and 5? 5 −1 and 3? 3 4 2 1+5 3 –1+3 1 8 -----------. If M is the midpoint of AB then it will be halfway If M is the midpoint between A and B. Note: 5 is halfway The average of 3 3+7 Formula: between 3 and 7. of AB then AM = MB. 7) 7 6 5 M(p.= 5 y1 + y2 2 q = ---------------- 2 206 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . --------------. y 8 B(10.= 7 x1 + x2 2 p = --------------- - 2 Consider the y-coordinates.= ? 10 ----------------.= ? 2 2 2 0 1 –1 0 –2 • The midpoint of an interval is the halfway position. 3) 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x Consider the x-coordinates. and 10 is 7. -----------.

3 --. 4) 3 Find the midpoint of the interval 4 1 that joins: 3 a (− 4. 6) and (8. ---------------- 2 Midpoint = ----------------.. M. −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 x 2 −1 1 (5. of interval AB. --------------- 2 2 2 2 = (5. 8) b. y2). 5) and B is (4. 2) −2 −3 1 2 3 4 5 x (1. y1) and B is (x2. . 2 2 worked examples 1 Find the midpoint of the interval 2 Find the midpoint of interval AB. Solutions x1 + x2 y1 + y2 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 1 Midpoint = ----------------. if A is joining (2. 1 1--2. is given by: x1 + x2 y1 + y2 M = -----------------. 10). A(x1. −2). ---------------- 2 2 2 2 2 + 8 6 + 10 –3 + 4 5 + –2 = ------------. 2 2 M(p. −3) −1 CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 207 .. q) Could you please y1 say that in English. where A is (x1. y2) x1 + x2 y1 + y2 y2 M= . ---------------- . AB from the graph 1 2 Find the midpoint of the interval a y b y that joins: 5 (−3. (1.) Exercise 8:02 Foundation Worksheet 8:02 Midpoint 1 Read the midpoint of the interval Use the graph to find the midpoint of each interval.. 4) to (10.Midpoint formula y B(x2. − 5) b . .) 2 or ( 1--2. 6) to (− 3. y1) Miss? 0 x1 x2 x The midpoint. 1) 2 a (3. the point (−3. --------------- = ---------------. 8) = ( 1--2..

−4). 4) y d y e y 4 3 (4. 42) h (68. 8). B is (−4. 10) b A is (1. −10) h A is (−2. −6). 4). 2) g A is (−8. 52) and (124. 3) B(4. −23) and (72. −7) 4 Find the midpoint of the interval joining: a (−3. 1) C(4. B is (−6. −6). B is (8.−1) −1 3 2 −2 1 1 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4x −4 −1 −2 −1 1 2 3x −1 −5 −2 −2 (3. −5) d (6. −5) (−1. −3) b (8. y ii Find the midpoint of BD. 0). −1) and (7. B is (−4. B is (6. −5) g (111. 6) c A is (4. −6) i A is (−2. B is (0. −3) and (2. 4). 4 A(1. 98) and (63. B is (5. −4) and (−4. 100) 5 a i Find the midpoint of AC. B is (4. 3) iii Are the answers for i and ii the same? 3 2 iv What property of a rectangle does this result demonstrate? 1 D(1. −6) and (5. c (−2. −1) c (5. −2) −6 2 Use the graph to find the midpoints H y C of the intervals: 8 a AB b CD c GH D 6 d EF e LM f PQ U g RS h TU i VW 4 B 2 T A −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 x −2 F G Q E −4 L R S −6 W M −8 P V 3 Find the midpoint of each interval AB if: a A is (2. −7) and (−7. 7) d A is (0. −2) (2. 1). 5) and (5. 4) f A is (−2. −29) i (400. 0). 1) 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 208 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . 6) e (0. 2) −2 −1 1 2 3x 2 (−1. 0) f (6. B is (5. 2) e A is (−1.

6) what are the coordinates of B? B 7 a If A is the point (1. (5. 7) 7 of a circle. (4. 3 iii Are the answers for i and ii the same? 2 iv What property of a parallelogram does this result 1 D(5. If A is the point (−1. e). 10). 10). E what are the coordinates of the points C. 5) 5 c i Find the midpoint of AC. 0) form a rectangle. −4) and (−4. If A is the point (4. 10) are points at opposite ends of a diameter y C(7. −3). 0). 4) and B is the point (15. C(4. c The midpoint of AB is (−6. D and E? b If A is the point (1. Roger has 4 different pizza toppings. −6) and D(−16. find the value of k. 6) and (2. 0) and B is (−1. 4). 3). D what are the coordinates of the points B. b If (4. 2). 4 ii Find the midpoint of BD. b The midpoint of AB is (7. k) and (13. what are the coordinates of B? d A circle with centre (3. 2). 6) is (8. How many different pizzas could be made using: • 1 topping? • 2 toppings? • any number of toppings? CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 209 . C and E? C a Use coordinate geometry to show that the points A 8 A(−12. 4) has a diameter of AB. 10). –1) 6 a If the midpoint of (3. b Use coordinate geometry to show that the points (−3. 4) and D is the point (15. what are the coordinates of the centre? 6 B(3. 1) demonstrate? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x –1 A(1. 4) form a parallelogram. −2). Find the value of d and e if A is the point (d. B(8.

6) pr 6 5 D 4 8:03 3 B (10. 2) (7. at the points 8 A 9 G 10 F The gradient or slope of a line is a measure of how steep it is. between which 3 pairs of letters am I travelling upwards? 5 6 and 7 Between which 3 pairs of letters am I travelling downwards? Say whether the hill is sloping up.= ----------------------------- run change in x • So a gradient of 1--2. AB or EF? 2 3 and 4 If I travel from left to right.means that for every run of 2 there is a rise of 1 y (or for every 2 that you go across you go up 1). • We find the gradient of a line by comparing its rise (change in y) with its run (change in x). or not at all. 2 1 1 2 2 1 –2 1 1 2 3 4 x –1 2 210 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . 1) (17. Negative gradient Positive gradient A higher positive gradient • If we move from left to right the line going down is said to have a negative gradient (or slope). rise change in y Gradient = --------. 1) G 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 x 1 Which is steepest. 1) (4. • If the line is horizontal (not going up or down) its gradient is zero. 1) (13. 4) 2 A C E 1 (1. 8:03 | The Gradient of a Line quiz ep y F (15. The line going up is said to have a positive gradient (or slope). down.

2 2 • Architectural design often requires an understanding of gradients (slopes). –1) Solutions change in y change in y ■ m is used 1 Gradient 2 m = ---------------------------. 1) 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 –1 –1 3 A(2. rise 3 Find the change in the y-coordinates (rise) and the change A in the x-coordinates (run).instead of 1 --.Finding the gradient of a line 1 Select any two points on the line. improper fraction 5 3 3 instead of a mixed = --- 2 = −2 numeral. B 2 Join the points and form a right-angled triangle by drawing a vertical line from the higher point and a horizontal side from the lower point. worked examples Use the points A and B to find the gradient of the line AB in each case. = − --. 3) 4 B(4. 3 m = ---------------------------- change in x change in x for ‘gradient’ change in y = ---------------------------. run 4 Use the formula above to find the gradient. CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 211 .. 4) 3 3 3 3 6 2 2 2 2 2 A(–1. 2 6 across 2 = --. 1) 1 1 1 A(2. 5) 5 5 5 4 4 B(4. = -------------------- across 5 across 3 ■ Gradient is up 3 generally left as an = -------------------. up 2 down 6 change in x = -------------------. So we write 3 1 --. 1 y 2 y 3 y 6 6 6 B(–1.

−2) called (x1. = ----------------------- 4–1 2–6 4 1 = --. 7). a y b y 1 For each of the following. y1) BC = -------- AC 0 x1 x2 x x2 – x1 y 2 – y 1 (opposite sides of a ∴ m = ---------------- x 2 – x 1 rectangle are equal) The gradient of the line that passes through the points A(x1. –3) (1. y1) be (6. y2) is given by the formula: y –y 2 1 m = ---------------- - x2 – x1 worked examples Find the gradient of the straight line passing through the following points. Gradient formula We wish to find a formula for the gradient of a line AB where A is (x1. 7) 2 (6. 0) 212 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 .. ∴ The gradient is − 1--4. –1) x (2. m = ---------------- x2 – x1 x2 – x1 7–3 –1 – ( – 2 ) = -----------. Exercise 8:03 Foundation Worksheet 8:03 Gradients 1 Find the gradient of the line from the graph. 3) x x (–4. y2 – y1 y2 – y1 Gradient = ---------------. and (x2. −2) and (2. x a y b y (3. and (x2. y1) and B is (x2. −1). −1) It doesn't matter Solutions which point is 1 Let (x1.. y1) and B(x2. y1). state if the line has a positive or negative gradient. rise Gradient of AB = -------- y run y2 ■ m is used B(x2. y2) be (4. y1) C(x2. 3) and (4. 3) 2 Let (x1. y2) be (2. y2) change in y y2 – y1 = ---------------------------. 1 (1. y2). y1) be (1.for ‘gradient’ change in x y1 A(x1. = ------ 3 –4 ∴ The gradient is 1 1--3. 2 2 a b 4 x 1 x y y 2 Find the lengths of the missing sides on each triangle and then find the gradient.

7) and (5. 2) and (2. 2) and (5. 0) and (5. they are parallel. 1) h (7. 6) f (3. 4) k (−3. −1) and (−6. y B E D b Which lines have the same gradients? 5 c Which lines are parallel? 4 G 3 F 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x A H C 4 On the same number plane. 12) and (3. –1) d A(2. 1) which is parallel to the line in a. −6) p (−3. c Do the lines in a and b have the same gradient? y2 – y1 5 Use the formula m = --------------- . B(1. −2) and (0. c y d y e y x x x 2 Using Gradient = ---------. B(−1. 0) with a gradient of −2 the same gradient b a line through (1. 7) b (4. −2) and (−4. 0) and (5. 2) 6 2 2 2 A(1. 3) and (1. −7) q (4. 5) 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 B(3. 5). −1) and (3. 0) f A(−3. 1) and (−2. 2) and (7. 3) and (−4. B(5. 6) i (9. 3) CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 213 . 3) and (1. 9). 6) A(0. g (6. 6) slope m = 0.to find the gradient of the straight line passing through x2 – x1 the points: a (2. 0) e A(0. −4) o (5. 1) and (7. 6) l (4. 6) c (3. 1) 1 1 3 1 1 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 2 A(3. 6) and (5. 7) j (−4. 9) n (−4. draw: ■ If two lines have a a line through (0. 5) and (6. −8). 3) d (0. 2) If a line has no e (0. 6) 6 6 6 B(1. 8) 3 a Calculate the gradients of the four lines. 3) m (2. −2) r (−6.find the gradient of AB in each of the following: Run a y b y c y B(2.

7 a i Find the gradient of BC and of AD. y B(3. B(2. B. 1) and B(5. 0) Find the gradient of the line using the points: –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x i A and B ii C and D iii A and D iv B and C Conclusion: Any two points on a straight line can be used to find the gradient of that line. lie on the same straight line). 3) B(9. 0) and D(−3. 0) and B(−1. (2. 1). 8) ii Find the gradient of AB and of DC. 7) C(7. 2) D(5. 2) 2 c On the graph shown. x + 2y = 6. C(4. A straight line has only one gradient. C(6. 5). iii What kind of quadrilateral is ABCD? Give a reason for your answer. b Prove that a quadrilateral that has vertices A(2. 3). −2). 6 a Find the gradient of the line that passes through y A(3. 5 b Find the slope of the line that passes through 4 A(0. 3) 3 O(0. 13) and (6. B(11. x (It will be necessary to prove that opposite sides are parallel. −11) form the vertices of a rhombus. 11). 4). C and D 1 C(4.) 8 Use the fact that a rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal to prove that the points A(−1. C(8. −2) is a parallelogram. 21) are collinear (ie. d Use the gradient of an interval to show that the points (−2. 1) lie on the same straight line. 5). −8) and D(−4. 214 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . A(1. all of the points A.

3) 3 (2. 2) and (2. 4) 4 (0. y The x and y in the (–2. 2) y = 1 3 (2. In the diagram. CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 215 . it is clear that the sum of the coordinates is not equal to 3. • the y-intercept (where the line crosses the y-axis) This is found by substituting x = 0 into the line’s equation and then solving for y. • Coordinate geometry uses an equation to describe the relationship between the x. 2) 2 + (1. it is clear that the relationship is that the sum of each point’s coordinates is 3. –1) –2 (5. 5) 5 equation are the point’s coordinates. I can do that! y x-intercept Two important points on a line are: • the x-intercept (where the line crosses the x-axis) x This is found by substituting y = 0 into the line’s y-intercept equation and then solving for x.and y-coordinates for each point on the line Is THAT all? • a table to store at least two sets of coordinates Hey. –2) –3 –4 To graph a straight line we need: • an equation to allow us to calculate the x. no problem! • a number plane on which to plot the points. the equation of the line is x + y = 3.8:04 | Graphing Straight Lines A straight line is made up of a set of points. So they do not lie on the line. For the points (−3. each with its own pair of coordinates. (–1. From the points shown. 3) x (–3. • A point can only lie on a line if its coordinates satisfy the equation of the line. 1) –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 x+y=3 (4.and y-coordinates of any point on the line. 3).

–3 –2–1 0 1 2 3 x –1 –2 –3 This line is y = –3. 3 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x y 2 2 2 2 2 2 –1 –2 • There seems to be no connection between x and y. we have put the points on the line into a table. x is always 2. 216 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . y • Below. Vertical lines have This line is y They cut the equations of the This line is 3 x = 3. y • Below. So the equation is y = 2. y is always 2. 1 where b is where the line cuts the y-axis. line cuts the x-axis. Horizontal and vertical lines The line shown on the graph on the right is vertical. –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x –1 –2 –3 The line on the right is horizontal. we have put the points on the line. –3 However. form x = a x = –1. Horizontal lines have y equations of the form 3 This line is They cut the y-axis y = 1. So the equation is x = 2. –3 However. x-axis at 2 where a is where the 1 –1 and 3. 3 x=2 2 x 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x y −2 −1 0 1 2 3 –1 –2 • There seems to be no connection between x and y. y=b 2 at –3 and 1. into a table.

2 × 1 + 3y = 6 3 2 + 3y = 6 2 3y = 4 1 y = 1 1--3. an intercept method would be better here: At the x axis. y = 3 × 2 − 5 −2 −3 y=1 −4 −5 −6 2 3x + y = 5 x 0 1 2 when x = 0. y = 3 × 0 − 5 y y = −5 2 y −5 −2 1 1 when x = 1. 2 × 0 + 3y = 6 y x 0 1 2 6 0 + 3y = 6 y 2 1 1--3. worked examples Draw the graph of each straight line. 2 --- 3 y=2 5 4 when x = 1. y = 0 ∴ 2x + 3 × 0 = 6 2x = 6 x=3 At the y axis. 1 y = 3x − 5 2 3x + y = 5 3 2x + 3y = 6 4 3x − 4y + 12 = 0 Solutions 1 y = 3x − 5 x 0 1 2 when x = 0. 3×0+y=5 y 0+y=5 6 y 5 2 −1 5 y=5 4 when x = 1. −2 −10 1 2 3 4 x −1 when x = 2. 2 × 2 + 3y = 6 −2 4 + 3y = 6 3y = 2 ■ Since it is difficult to plot y = 2--3. y = 3 × 1 − 5 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x y = −2 −1 when x = 2. 3×1+y=5 3 3+y=5 2 y=2 1 when x = 2. 3×2+y=5 −2 −10 1 2 3 4 x −1 6+y=5 −2 y = −1 3 2x + 3y = 6 when x = 0. fractions. x = 0 ∴ 2 × 0 + 3y = 6 3y = 6 y=2 continued ➜➜➜ CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 217 .

The intercept method is better again. 0) 5 For each number plane. 4) c (−2. a A B C b A B C y y 4 4 D 3 D 3 2 2 E 1 E 1 –5 –4 –3–2 –1 0 1 2 3 4x –5 –4 –3–2 –1 0 1 2 3 4x –1 –1 –2 –2 F –3 –3 –4 F –4 –5 –5 218 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . 3) lie? a y = 2x + 1 b 2x + y + 1 = 0 c x = 2y − 8 d y − 2x = −1 e 3x − 2y = 0 f 2y − 3x = 0 4 The line 2x − 5y + 6 = 0 passes through which of the following points? a (2. y = 0 −4 −3 −2 −1−1 0 1 x ∴ 2x − 4 × 0 = −12 −1 −2 2x = −12 −3 x = −6 −4 −5 At the y axis. 4 3x − 4y + 12 = 0 It can be seen that if a table of values is used here y 3 fractions will result. 2) f (3. 2 Rewrite the equation as 3x − 4y = −12 1 At the x axis. write down the equations of the lines A to F .and B 2 a y = 2x − 3 b y = 4 − 3x y-intercept 1 A of line: c 2x + y = 5 d y + 3x = 3 aA bB −2 −1 0 1 2 x −1 2 Graph the lines represented by these equations using an appropriate method. the x. 0) e (8. 2) b (7. x = 0 ∴ 2 × 0 + 4y = −12 4y = −12 y = −3 Exercise 8:04 Foundation Worksheet 8:04 Graphing lines 1 Complete the tables for the equations: 1 Using separate axes labelled from −4 to 6. 2) d (−3. a x + 2y = 4 b y=5−x c y = 3x + 2 d 2y − 5x = 10 e x + 3y + 9 = 0 f 3 − 2x = y g 3y = 2x + 6 h y − 2 = 4x 3 On which of the following lines does the point (−2. draw the graph ay=x by=x+2 cx+y=2 2 Read off y of the following lines using any of the above methods.

b y = -----------. C or D could be described A y by the following equation. B. y = 2 e y = −2. x = 3 Which of these encloses a square region? 7 Match each of the graphs A to F with one of the following equations: y = 2x y=x−2 2x + y = 0 y=x x+y=3 2x + y = 2 y y y 4 4 4 3 A 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3x −3 −2 −1 1 2 3x −3 −2 −1 1 2 3x −1 −1 −1 −2 −2 −2 C −3 B −3 −3 y y y 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 D −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 x −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 x −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 x −1 −1 −1 −2 −2 −2 −3 −3 −3 F E 8 Which of the lines A. x = 0. x = 0 b x = 1.6 Using values from −5 to 5 on each axis. 3x x+1 x–1 a y = -----. draw the graphs of the following straight lines. y = 0. x = 5. y = −2. y = −5. y = −1. a y = 4. x = 2. a 2x + y = 2 b 3x + y = 6 c 2x + y = 4 d 2x − y = 4 e 3x − y = 3 f 4x − y = 2 10 Draw the graph of each equation. c y = ----------- 2 2 2 d 3x + 2y = 7 e 5x − 2y − 6 = 0 f 2x − 3y − 5 = 0 CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 219 . Use a new diagram for each part. x = 2. x = 2. 4 a x−y=2 b x+y=4 3 c 2x + y + 2 = 0 d x − 2y + 2 = 0 2 1 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x –1 D B –2 –3 –4 C 9 Use the intercept method to graph the following lines. x = −4 d x = 5. y = 0. y = 3 c y = 4.

2 y = 5 − 2x 3 y = 1--2. Line Equation Gradient y-intercept 3 is the 1 y = 3x − 4 coefficient of x. −3 −4 As you learnt in Book 3: • The equation of a line can be written in several ways. • The form y = x − 4 is a particularly useful way of writing the equation of a line. For each of the following equations complete the table by: 1 graphing each line on a Cartesian grid 2 calculating the gradient of each line (use any two points that the line passes through). y = x − 4 and x − y = 4 are different ways of writing the same equation. • When the equation is written in the form x − y − 4 = 0.x + 1 4 y=x y = 3x – 5 5 y = 3 − 2x 220 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . and 3 noting where the graph crosses the y axis (y-intercept). it is said to be in general form. It allows us to get information about the line directly from the equation. what is the value of: pr 1 2x 2 mx + c If x = 0. For instance. x − y − 4 = 0. stigation inve Investigation 8:05 | What does y = mx + c tell us? Please use the Assessment Grid on the page 222 to help you understand what is required for 8:05 this Investigation. what is the value of y when: 8:05 3 y = 3x + 2 4 y = 4x − 1 What is the gradient of: y 4 A 5 line A 6 line B 3 What are the coordinates of the y-intercept of: 2 B 7 line A 8 line B 1 9 Does every point on the y-axis have an x-coordinate of 0? −3 −2 −1 −1 1 2 3 x −2 10 Can the y-intercept of a line be found by putting x = 0. 8:05 | The Gradient–Intercept Form of a Straight Line: y = mx + c quiz ep If x = 0.

CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 221 . b and c are integers and a > 0. check that your equations represent the lines given.Are there any patterns you can find connecting the gradients and the y-intercepts and the numbers in the equations of the lines? Explain these patterns or connections. 6 Do you notice anything special about the lines that have the same colour? 7 Can you discuss some possible real life applications of straight lines and their equations? • When an equation of a line is written in the form y = mx + c. write down the equations of the lines shown in the Cartesian grid below. m gives the gradient of the line and c gives the y-intercept of the line. • When an equation of a line is written in the form ax + by + c = 0. where a. lines with the same gradient are parallel. it is said to be in general form. • Clearly. 4 Using your rule. y A 10 B 8 6 D 4 2 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 x F –2 –4 G –6 E –8 5 By making a table of values for your equations. Try to write a rule that will help you write down the gradient and y-intercept for a line without drawing the line.

The patterns for the lines in part 6 8 have been explained. to scale and fully labelled. You should carefully read the criteria before beginning the investigation so that you know what is required. tables and explanations are clear but not always logical or complete. D) for this investigation Achieved ✓ a None of the following descriptors has been achieved. All results are fully explained and d justified. a None of the following descriptors has been achieved. Explanations and answers are complete and concise. d Graphs are accurate. The student has graphed the required lines and used the 5 d patterns evident in the table to find a connecting rule to give the equations of the lines in question 4. C. 6 a None of the following descriptors has been achieved. Graphs. with some suggestion of emerging 4 patterns. Assessment Grid for Investigation 8:05 | What does y = mx + c tell us? The following is a sample assessment grid for this investigation. Assessment Criteria (B. and specific reference to real-life applications of 6 lines is given. 0 Some help was needed to complete the table and identify 1 b the simple patterns in questions 2 and 3. There is a critical explanation of the graphs obtained and 5 their related equations. 0 Reflection in Mathematics An attempt has been made to explain whether the results 1 b make sense. 2 Criterion D There is a correct but brief explanation of whether results 3 make sense and how they were found. A description of c the important aspects of the graphs is given and the 4 relation to their equations. 6 The patterns evident between the equations and their 7 graphs have been explained and summarised as a e mathematical rule. 0 Communication in Mathematics There is a basic use of mathematical language and 1 b representation. Lines of reasoning are insufficient. 4 5 A good use of mathematical language and representation. 2 Criterion C There is satisfactory use of mathematical language and 3 c representation. 2 Investigating Patterns Mathematical problem-solving techniques have been 3 selected and applied to accurately graph the lines required Criterion B c and complete the table. 222 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . with connection to possible real-life applications.

and is positive so for every 3 Run 1 4 2 1 unit across there is a rise of 4 units. 5 4 Rise 4 Gradient = ---------. b=4 y-intercept = −2 y-intercept = 3 Gradient = − 2--3- y-intercept = 4 2 From the graph of the line shown. so. 4 2 The gradient (m) = --. −8 CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 223 .x + 3. down to the right.= − --- −5 Run 2 −6 and is negative so for every 2 units −7 across there is a fall of 5 units. 1 −2 −1 0 1 1 2 3 4 x −1 4 −2 −3 1 b 5x + 2y = 6 y First. y This line is 5 ‘rising’. 2 2 −2 Start at the y-intercept (c) = 3 −3 −4 Rise 5 5 Gradient = ---------. worked examples 1 Write down the gradient and y-intercepts of these lines. a y = 4x − 2 b y = 3 − 5x c 2x + 3y = 12 3y = −2x + 12 y = − 2--3. rearrange the equation Remember! A negative 4 gradient always slopes 3 2 in the form y = mx + c.the From the graph: 4 gradient is The y-intercept (c) = −1 3 positive.x + 4 m=4 b = −2 b=3 m = −5 Gradient = 4 Gradient = −5 m = − 2--3. 2 5x + 2y = 6 1 5 2y = −5x + 6 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 5 −1 y = − --. write down the gradient and y-intercept of the line and hence its equation.= 2 1 2 ∴ the equation y = mx + c −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4x becomes y = 2x − 1 −1 −2 3 Use the y-intercept and the gradient to graph the following lines: a y = 4x − 3 y 6 Start at the y-intercept of (c) = −3.= 4 = --.

B a y=x−6 b y = 3 − 2x x c 2y = 3x − 6 d 3x − 4y = 8 e x + 2y − 4 = 0 f 2x + y + 4 = 0 E g y+6=0 h 3x − 2y = −12 8:05 Equation grapher ‘Slope’ is another name for ‘gradient’.x e 2y = 3x − 5 a a gradient of 2 and y-intercept of 2 2 By first rearranging the equation in the form y = mx + c write the gradient and y-intercept of the following lines: a 2y = 6x + 8 b y − 5 = 3x c 3x + 4y = 10 d 2x = 6 − 3y e 3 − 2y = x f 2y + 4x − 10 = 0 g 5x − 3y = −1 h 3y − 4 = 6x i x−y−1=0 j 6 − 5x = y 3 Use the graph to find the gradient and y A D y-intercept of each line and hence write the equation of each line in the general form. Exercise 8:05 Foundation Worksheet 8:05 Gradient–intercept form 1 For each line find from the graph its: 1 Write the gradient and y-intercept of the following lines: a y-intercept b gradient 2 What is y = mx + b when: a y = 4x − 5 b y = 3x + 2 c y=9−x a m = 4 and b = 3 b m = − 3 and b = − 1 5 3 Find the equation of a line with: d y = 3 + --7. where a. 224 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . (The general form of a line is ax + by + c = 0. b and c C are whole numbers and a is positive.) 4 Draw the graphs of the following using only the gradient and y-intercept (follow example 3).

2) ∴ y = 3x + c (m = 3 is given) m 2 = 3(1) + c [(1. 2) lies on the line] 1 = –1 2=3+c ∴ c = −1 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x ∴ The equation of the line is y = 3x − 1. y1) lies on the line] ∴ c = y1 − mx1 gradient = m ∴ The equation of the line is 0 x y = mx + (y1 − mx1) ie y − y1 = mx − mx1 ∴ y − y1 = mx(x − x1) y–y This last form of the answer is the easiest to remember as it could be written as -------------1. 5): (1) Substitute m = 2. x = 0. gradient is m) ( x 1. m= 4 1 To do this. we substitute the coordinates of (1. y = 3 10 m = 1. Given Point and Gradient A line has the equation y = 3x + 5. 2) having a gradient of 3 y can be found by beginning with the formula y = mx + b. y = 2 Through a given point. We can use the method above to discover a formula that could be used instead. The equation of a line through (1. y = −2 8 m = −2. Find: prep qu iz 1 its gradient 2 its y-intercept 3 the value of y when x = 2 4 the value of x when y = 5. Question: What is the equation of a line that has a gradient m y and passes through the point (x1. x = 2. (2) Rewrite y = mx + c replacing m and c with their numerical values. x – x1 CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 225 . but we must also find the value of b. y 1 ) ∴ y1 = mx1 + c [(x1. y = 3 7 m = 3. 5 3 We know that m = 3. x = −1. find the value of c if: 5 m = 2. x = 7 and y = 5 into the formula y = mx + c to find the value of c.8:06 | The Equation of a Straight Line. y1)? Working: y = mx + c (formula. x = 2. y = 4 6 m = −2. x = 1. 3 1 Working: y = mx + c (formula) m= 2 2 (1. 8:06 If y = mx + c. 2) into the = m equation. so the equation of a straight line can be found if we know its gradient and a point through which it passes. x = −4. as a point on the line must satisfy its equation. Each of these lines has a different gradient.= m . any number of lines can be drawn. –1 To find the equation of a straight line that has a gradient of 2 and passes through (7. y = 10 9 m = 0.

+ c ∴ y = − 1--2. y = 2x + c 1 m = 2.. ∴ The equation is y = − 1--2. The equation of a line with gradient m. 4) and has gradient 2. y1) is given by: y – y1 y − y1 = m(x − x1) or -------------. either formula. m = 2 ∴ y = 2x + c (m = 2 is given) ∴ y − 4 = 2(x − 1) 4 = 2(1) + c [(1.(1) + c [(1. y = 4x + c c (−1. 3). equation of the line. that passes through the point (x1. 4) d (5.x + 3 1--2. 5). You can use 2 A straight line has gradient − 1--2- and passes through the point (1. 2 Let the equation be: or 2 y − y1 = m(x − x1) y = mx + c (x1. ∴ The equation is y = 2x + 2. 3). y = −2x + c 2 m = −2. 0) c gradient 3 and passes through the point (2. to find the equation of 1 a line when: a (1. y1) is (1. y1) = (1. −9). (x1. find c if the given point lies on the given line.x + c (m = − 1--2. y = x + c f (−1. (x1. 3) 2 Find the equation of the straight line (giving answers in the form y = mx + c) if it has: a gradient 2 and passes through the point (1.x + 1 --- 2 3 = − 1--2.is the ∴ c = 3 1--2. 3). Exercise 8:06 Foundation Worksheet 8:06 Point–gradient form Use y − y1 = m(x − x1) For each part. ■ y − y1 = m(x − x1) or y = mx + c Solutions 1 Let the equation of the line be: or 1 y − y1 = m(x − x1) y = mx + c (x1. m = − 1--2- ∴ y = − 1--2. 4). 1). y1) = (−1.(x − 1) 3 = − 1--2. 3) b gradient 5 and passes through the point (0. 3) is on the line] y − 3 = − 1--2. y = 2x + c e (3.x + 3 1--2. 6) 226 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . Find the equation of this line. y1) is (1. y = 2x + c c (2. 2) d slope 4 and passes through the point (−1. 10). 4) lies on the line] y − 4 = 2x − 2 4=2+c ∴ y = 2x + 2 is the ∴c=2 equation of the line. x – x1 worked examples 1 Find the equation of the line that passes through (1. 3).= m .is given) ∴ y − 3 = − 1--2.

Find the equation of the line if its gradient is 1--2. 8:07 | The Equation of a Straight Line. b A straight line has a gradient of −1. Given Two Points Only one straight line can be drawn through two points. j A straight line passes through the midpoint of the interval joining (0. −2). Let the equation of the line be: y = mx + c (formula) CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 227 . −1) 3 a A straight line has a gradient of 2 and passes through the point (3. −2) has a gradient of −3. If the line passes through the point (2. What is the equation of this line? f Find the equation of the straight line that has a gradient of 4 and passes through the point (−1. 1). Consider the line passing through (1. 0) h gradient 1--2. Given two points on a straight line. Find the equation of the line. find the equation of the line. c What is the equation of a straight line that passes through the point (−2. 8) ‘Slope’ is another name f gradient −2 and passes through for ‘gradient’. What is the equation of this line? i Find the equation of the straight line that has a gradient of 2 and passes through the midpoint of the interval joining (1. g (2.) j slope − 1--2. 2). 8) is on a line that has a gradient of 4.and passes through the point (4.. e gradient −1 and passes through the point (−2. 5). 4). 3 1--2. 7) g slope −5 and passes through the point (1. h The point (−6. 0) and (−6. 1) and (2. 4) lies on a straight line that has a gradient of −2. What is the equation of this line? e A straight line that has a gradient of 3 passes through the origin. Find the equation of this line. 0) and has a gradient of 3? d A straight line that passes through the point (1.and passes through the point (−4.and passes through the point (6. 3) and (5. 4). the point (0. 5) i gradient 1--4. we can always find the equation of that line.

using the given points. y1) is (−1. (x1. 2) and (2. 8) ∴ y − 2 = -------------------. 2). Another method is to use the formula: y2 – y1 y – y 1 = ----------------. ∴ 8 = 2(2) + c ∴c=4 ∴ The equation is y = 2x + 4. 8) lies on the line. ∴ y = 2x + c (since m = 2) (2. 6): 1 Find the value of the gradient m. 3 Rewrite y = mx + c replacing m and c with their numerical values. 4) m = ---------------- x2 – x1 (x1. 228 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . y2) = (2. 6 2 – ( –1 ) y − 2 = --. 2) x2 – x1 8–2 (x 2.( x – x 1 ) x2 – x1 where (x1. 8). find the value of c by substituting the value of m and the coordinates of one of the given points. y1) and (x2. y y2 – y1 4 (2. 8) Now m = ---------------. y1) = (1.( x + 1 ) 6 3 = --.( x – x 1 ) x2 – x1 y = mx + c y2 – y1 (x1. y − 2 = 2(x + 1) 3 y − 2 = 2x + 2 ∴m=2 ∴ y = 2x + 4 is the equation of the line. y1) = (–1. Solution y2 – y1 Let the equation of the line be: or y − y1 = ---------------. y 2) = (2. 2 For y = mx + c. 4) lies on the line] 1 (1. y2) is (2. worked example Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (−1.[ x – ( – 1 ) ] 8–2 2 – ( –1 ) = -------------------. –1 0 1 2 3 x –1 To find the equation of a straight line that passes through the two points (1. y2) are points on the line. 1) ∴ c = −2 ∴ The equation of the line is y = 3x −2. 1) 3 4–1 (x 2. 2) and (3. First find the gradient using the two points. (x2. 4) = ------------ 2–1 2 =3 ∴ y = 3x + c (since m = 3) 4 = 3(2 + c) [(2.

−2) j (0. −8) are points question 5a 1. (3. 10) also lies on this line. 8) and (1. 3) and (2. 2) and (4. 4) b (−1. By substitution in this equation.. BC and AC. 0) and (1. −4) and B is (2. −11). Show that they are equation of AB collinear. d Find the equation of the line passing through –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x point A and the midpoint of interval BC. 6) and (2. 2) c (1·3. 3) h (1. 5)? 4 A is the point (−2. −2) and (1. −7·3) d (1 1--2. Exercise 8:07 1 Find the gradient of the line that passes through the points: y2 – y1 m= x –x a (2. 2) and B(5. 2) f (5. 4) C into this and (4.) and (−2 1--3. −6). 2. 1) and (2. −2). 4). B is the point (1. 1) the same straight line. −4) and (3. − 2--3. −3) 2 Use your answers for question 1 to find the equations of the lines passing through the pairs of points in question 1. 7) are collinear. 5) d (−2. −2) and (−4. –1 C e Find the gradient and y-intercept of the line passing –2 through point A and the midpoint of interval BC.) CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 229 . 2). Substitute c Show that the points (−2. −1) and (0. 1) and (4. equation. 4) i (−1. 0) lie on the line AB. b (−2. 8). 1--2. 0) and (3. −2·6) and (4. 4) and y C is the point (3. 2 c Find the y-intercept of each of the lines A 1 AB. –3 5 a Find the equation of the line joining A(1. B(1. Find the on the number plane. 3) and D is the point (4. 3) and B(5. 4 b Find the equation of each of the lines 3 AB. 0) and (1. What is the equation of AB? c What is the equation of the line AB if A is the point (−2. 1) and (1. −4) and C(3. −2) also lies on this line. e What is the equation of the line CD if C is the point (2. b The points A(4. 12)? d Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (1.. show that (3. 6 Find the equation of the lines in general form ■ Collinear that pass through the points: points lie on a (3. 3) g (0. 3 a Find the equation of the line that passes through the points (−2. 9) e (−2. 5 B a Find the gradient of each side of ∆ABC. 1). BC and AC. Hence show that C(3. 6) 2 1 c (3. Recipe for b A(−2.

r s • By measurement. We do not intend to prove this here. find the product of the gradients. and DE is perpendicular to EF. then the product of their gradients is −1. Call this m1.. Call this m4. 7 Using your answers to 5 and 6. • m1m2 = −1 (where neither gradient is zero). ∴ m1 = 1--2. ∴ m1 = −1 6 Line s has gradient 1. ∴ m2 = 1 5 Note that m1m2 = −1. 3 If EF was drawn parallel to AB. 1 What is the gradient of each line? 5 Find the gradient of AB. 8:08 | Parallel and Perpendicular Lines quiz ep y y pr 5 B A 4 5 8:08 3 4 B D 2 3 D F A 1 2 E 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x C –1 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x C –2 –1 –3 In the diagram. 230 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . m3m4. m1m2. ∴ m2 = 5--2. ∴ m1 = − --5- Line w has gradient 5--2. find what would its gradient be? the product of the gradients. parallel? 10 Using your answers to 8 and 9.. 2 Are the lines parallel? 6 Find the gradient of BC. –3 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x –1 Note that m1m2 = −1. or use of Pythagoras’ theorem. Questions 5 to 10 of the Prep Quiz suggest that a condition for two lines to be perpendicular might be that the product of their gradients is equal to −1. with different gradients to be 9 Find the gradient of EF. 4 Is it possible for two lines with 8 Find the gradient of DE. y A Line r has gradient −1. Questions 1 to 4 in the Prep Quiz remind us that: • two straight lines are parallel if their gradients are equal • the gradients of two lines are equal if the lines are parallel. but let us look at several pairs of lines where the product of the gradient is −1 to see if the angle between the lines is 90°. v 3 u Line u has gradient −2. AB is perpendicular to BC. ∴ m2 = −2 t 2 Note that m1m2 = −1. Call this m3. • If two lines are perpendicular. Call this m2. 4 B Line t has gradient 1--2. we can –2 show that the angle between each pair of lines is 90°.. w 2 2 1 C Line v has gradient − --5.

–1 Step 3: Find which gradient in step 2 will then m1 = m2 multiply − 1--4. The gradient of y = x is 1..) ∴ y = − 1--3. 4) lies on the line] 4 = − 1--3.x + 4 2--3. [(1. CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 231 . 3 Let the equation of the line be y = mx + c. The gradient of y = 3x + 2 is 3. then the lines are perpendicular.× 4 = −1 ∴ x + 4y + 2 = 0 is perpendicular to y = 4x. 3 Find the equation of the line that passes through the point (1.x − 2 ∴ The gradient of this line is − 1--4. 4) and is parallel to y = 3x − 2.+ c ∴ c = 4 2--3- ∴ The equation of the line is y = − 1--3. Now the gradient of y = 3x − 2 is 3. Solutions 1 Step 1: Find the gradient of x + 4y + 2 = 0. If m1m2 = –1. 4 = − 2--3. m2 worked examples 1 Which of the lines y = 4x. Two lines with gradients of m1 and m2 are: • parallel if m1 = m2 • perpendicular if m1m2 = −1 –1 (or m 1 = ------.) where neither m1 nor m2 can equal zero.x + c ∴ y = 3x + c 4 = 3(1) + c. y = 3x + 2 and y = x is perpendicular to x + 4y + 2 = 0? 2 Find the equation of the line that passes through the point (2. The gradient of y = 4x is 4.× 3 = −1) gradients.• If the product of the gradients of two lines is −1. Conclusion: − 1--4.to give −1. 2 Let the equation of the line be y = mx + b.. Step 2: Find the gradients of the other lines. y = 3x − 2 has gradient 3 ∴ m = 3 (Parallel lines have equal ∴ m = − 1--3. 4) lies on line] ∴c=1 ∴ The equation of the line is y = 3x + 1.(2) + c [since (2. 4) and is perpendicular to y = 3x − 2. Writing this in gradient form gives: y = − 1--4.(since − 1--3.

Which of the lines AB. x + 3y + 4 = 0 h x + y = 6.x + 1. 5 a Find the equation of the line that has y-intercept 3 and is parallel to y = 5x − 1. Find the equation of AB if its y-intercept is −1. 232 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 .x 4 −3 f y= --. d A line has a y-intercept of 1·5 and is perpendicular to the line y = −2x + 1. BC. What is the equation of this line? 6 a Find the equation of the line that has y-intercept 5 and is perpendicular to y = − 1--3. Its y-intercept is 3. 4).x − 1 y = 2--3. −2) and C is (4. 7) and D is (8. Find the equation of the line.x + 7 c y = 2x − 1. Which are they? y=x−3 x+y=3 y = 3x 3y = x y = −x + 8 c A is the point (1. Exercise 8:08 Foundation Worksheet 8:08 Parallel and perpendicular lines 1 Are the following pairs of lines parallel or not? 1 Use y = mx + c to find the slope of the lines in columns a y = 3x + 2 and y = 3x − 1 A and B. b Line AB is parallel to y = 3x − 4.x c A is the point (2. Its y-intercept is 3. y = − 1--2. y = −5x + 1 b y = 3x − 2.x + 2 y = 1--2.x + 3. C is (6. B is the point (3.x − 5 1 3 e y = 4x.x 4 − 1. Which are they? y = −1 1--2.x g y = 3x − 1.x 3 + 4. b y = 5x − 2 and y = 2x − 5 2 Which lines in columns A and B are: c y = x + 7 and y = x + 1 a parallel? b perpendicular? d y = x − 3 and y = 1x + 2 e y = 3x + 2 and 2y = 6x − 3 f y = 2x + 1 and 2x − y + 3 = 0 g 3x + y − 5 = 0 and 3x + y + 1 = 0 h x + y = 6 and x + y = 8 2 Are the following pairs of lines perpendicular or not? a y = 1--5. y = − 1--3. Prove that AB ⊥ BC.x + 3 d y= 2 --. c Line EF is parallel to y = x + 5. 3). CD and DA are parallel? 4 a Which of the following lines are perpendicular to y = 2x? y = 3x y = 2x − 3 x + 2y = 4 y = −0·5x + 5 b Two of the following lines are perpendicular. y = − 4--3.x and has a y-intercept of 0. −1). y = − 3--2. What is the equation of AB? c Find the equation of CD if CD is perpendicular to the line y = − 1--2. B is (3. −1). x − y − 3 = 0 3 a Which of the following lines are parallel to y = 2x + 3? y = 3x + 2 2x − y + 6 = 0 2y = x + 3 y = 2x − 3 b Two of the following lines are parallel. y = --. b The line AB is perpendicular to y = −x + 4. 8). What is the equation of EF? d A line has a y-intercept of 10 and is parallel to the line x + y = 4.

3). b A line is drawn through (−1. 0) and is parallel to y = −3x − 1. Find the equation of the line that has y-intercept 5 and is parallel to AB. Find the coordinates of the points A. perpendicular to the line 4x + 3y − 6 = 0. d Find the equation of the line that has y-intercept −3 and is parallel to the x-axis. through the points (1. e What is the equation of a line that is perpendicular to the x-axis and passes through (3. Where will it cross the x-axis? d A line is drawn parallel to 4x − 3y + 1 = 0. −3)? 8 a If AB passes through the point (2. BD is the line x = 2. 3) and is perpendicular to y = 2x − 7. b Find the equation of the line that passes through (1. 3). 2). find the equation of AB in general form. c A is the point (0. c A line is drawn through the point (−1. parallel to the line 2x − 3y + 9 = 0.7 a AB is a line which passes through the point (2. 0) and is perpendicular to y = −3x − 1. 0) and B is the point (1. Find the equation of the line that has y-intercept 5 and is perpendicular to AB. Write your answer in general form. AB is parallel to the x-axis A B and BE and CD are perpendicular to AC. What is the value of a? 10 In the diagram. d Find the equation of the line that has y-intercept −3 and is perpendicular to the y-axis. −1). C. Give the answer in general form. a). Give the answer in general form. D and E. B. Find its equation in general form. −2)? 9 a Find the equation of the line that is parallel to the line 2x − 3y + 6 = 0 and passes through the point (3. −4). 3). 3) and (6. c A is the point (0. e What is the equation of the line that is parallel to the x-axis and passes through the point (−2. 0) and B is the point (1. E 1 2 x D C CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 233 . the line 5x + 2y + 5 = 0 cuts y the x-axis and y-axis at E and C respectively. What is the equation of AB if it is parallel to y = 5x + 2? b Find the equation of the line that passes through (1.

the line acts as a 1 1 boundary only. 8:09 | Graphing Inequalities on the Number Plane quiz For each number line graph. In Prep Quiz 8:09 questions 1. once x = 3 is graphed on the number line. and so is shown as –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x a broken line. A y = 2x + 1 B y < 2x + 1 Note: • Inequations B. In B and C. continued ➜➜➜ 234 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . 2 Graph a the union and b the intersection of the half planes representing the solutions of x + 2y ⭓ 2 and y < 3x − 1. ep pr 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x 8:09 4 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x 5 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x 6 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x 7 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 x 8 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 x 9 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 x 10 On a number line. all points satisfying the equation y = 2x + 1 lie on one straight line. 2 and 3. On the number plane. the line is part of the solution 2 2 set. All points satisfying the inequation y > 2x + 1 will lie on the other side of the line. all points satisfying the inequation x > 3 lie on one side of the point and all points satisfying the inequation x < 3 lie on the other side. draw the graph of x < −2 where x is a real number. write down the appropriate equation or inequation. 3 3 • In D. C and D are often y y called ‘half planes’. –1 –1 • Choose points at random in each –2 –2 –3 –3 of the half planes in B. All points satisfying the inequation y < 2x + 1 will lie on one side of the line. 1 Graph the region 3x + 2y > 6 on the number plane. y y 3 3 2 2 1 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x –1 –1 –2 –2 –3 –3 Points that lie on broken lines are not part of the worked examples solution. we see that. C and D to confirm that all points in each half plane satisfy the appropriate C y > 2x + 1 D y ⭐ 2x + 1 inequation.

∴ substitute (0. 0) is obviously to the left of 3x + 2y = 6. 3x + 2y = 6 y x 0 1 2 5 y 3 1·5 0 4 (3. 3) into 3x + 2y > 6. 0) does not lie in the half plane. 1 Shade in the half plane on the (3.Solutions 1 Graph the boundary line 3x + 2y = 6 ■ Points that lie on as a broken line since it is not part of broken lines are not 3x + 2y > 6. 3) 3 3x Discover which half plane satisfies the +2 2 inequation 3x + 2y > 6 by substituting y= 1 a point from each side of the boundary 6 into 3x + 2y > 6. 3x + 2y > 6 2 3(3) + 2(3) > 6. y < 3x − 1. ∴ (0. 3 ∴ substitute (3. which is true. part of the solution. y y 5 5 4 4 3 3 x + 2y ⭓ 2 y ⬍ 3x – 1 2 2 1 1 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 –1 continued ➜➜➜ CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 235 . ∴ (3. 3) lies in the half plane 3x + 2y > 6. –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 2 Graph the two half planes using the method above. –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 (0. x + 2y = 6 y = 3x − 1 x 0 1 2 x 0 1 2 y 1 0·5 0 y −1 2 5 Points above the boundary line satisfy Points to the right of the boundary satisfy x + 2y ⭓ 2. which is false. 3) side. 0) (0. y 3(0) + 2(0) > 6. 0) into 3x + 2y > 6. 5 4 (3. 3) is obviously to the right of 3x + 2y = 6.

y y 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 –1 The union is written: The intersection is written: {(x. a The union of the two half planes b The intersection is the region that is the region that is part of one or belongs to both half planes. y): x + 2y ⭓ 2 ∩ y < 3x − 1} Note: • Initially draw the boundary lines as broken lines. • Part of each region has a part of the boundary broken and a part unbroken. a y b y 1 x x y=3 y 3 3 = x = –1 –x 2 2 2 Graph the inequalities: ay<2 by⭓x−2 1 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x –1 –1 –2 –2 –3 –3 c y d y e y 5 5 5 4 4 4 y= 2x 3 3 3 y= –2 x 2 2 2 x+ + y 6 = 1 1 1 3 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –1 –1 –1 236 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . part that the graphs have in common. 1 a y b y the inequation for each solution set graphed below. y): x + 2y ⭓ 2 ∪ y < 3x − 1} {(x. Exercise 8:09 Foundation Worksheet 8:09 Graphing inequalities 1 Write down the inequality that By testing a point from each side of the line. write down describes each region. It is the the other or both graphs.

c x ⭐ 0 and/or y ⭓ 0. ie {(x... ie {(x. x + y ⭐ 6 CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 237 . the regions drawn below. y): x ⭓ 0 ∩ y ⭓ 0} b x ⭓ 0 and y ⭐ 0. y): x ⭓ 0 ∩ y ⭐ 0} ‘∩’ means intersection. in terms of the union or intersection of inequations. a y b y c y 3 5 3 2 4 2 x y = = y x=2 –x y=1 1 3 1 x 3 x 2 3 x + –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 y = –1 1 –1 3 x = –1 –2 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x –3 –1 –3 7 Sketch the regions described below.’ 5 Use question 1 of this exercise to sketch the region described by the union of: a x < −1 and y ⭐ 3 b x + y ⭐ 3 and y < 2x c x + y ⭐ 3 and y ⭐ 3 d y ⭐ −2x + 6 and y < 2x 6 Describe. y ⭓ 0. y):. ■ Fill in only that part a the intersection of y ⭓ 2x and x + y ⭐ 3 of the boundary which is b the union of y < 1 and y < x − 2 part of the answer. d x ⭐ 0 and/or y ⭐ 0.2 On separate number plane diagrams.} means: ‘the set of points such that.. ie {(x. draw the graph of: a x⭓1 b y>x c y<2 d x+y⭐4 e y < −x + 5 f y ⭓ 2x − 2 g 2x + 3y − 6 ⭐ 0 h y>0 3 Draw a separate diagram to show the part of the number plane where: a x ⭓ 0 and y ⭓ 0. y ⭐ 2x. ie {(x. y): x ⭐ 0 ∪ y ⭓ 0} ‘∪’ means union.. c the intersection of y < 2x + 1 and 5x + 4y < 20 d the union of y ⭓ 2 and y < x 8 Graph the regions which satisfy all of the following inequalities: a x ⭓ 1. y ⭐ 4 b y ⭓ 0. y): x ⭐ 0 ∪ y ⭐ 0} 4 Use question 1 of this exercise to sketch the region described by the intersection of: a x < −1 and y ⭐ 3 b y ⭐ 3 and y < 2x c y ⭐ −2x + 6 and y ⭐ 3 d x + y ⭐ 3 and y < 2x e y ⭐ −2x + 6 and x + y ⭐ 3 f y ⭐ −2x + 6 and y < 2x {(x. x ⭐ 4.

.) −2 y = 4 − 2x 13 10 32 − 1--2- 1 --- 2 − 1--5- −2 1--2- 2 --- 3 4 --- 3 238 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . 5). 2). B(−1. 3) 1 −1 (3. 9 Write down the inequalities that describe each region. D(0. 5) B 2x − y − 5 = 0 E 2x − y + 5 = 0 A x= --. 8:09 For the points A(2. find: E distance AC E distance CD E distance BD A slope of AB A slope of AD T slope of BC T midpoint of DC N midpoint of AC I midpoint of AB What is the gradient of the following lines: C y = 2x − 1 U 2y = x − 5 G 2x + y + 1 = 0 What is the y-intercept of the following lines.y 2 −2 C In the diagram find: D slope of AB U coordinates of C A(1. 4) y = 2x − 1 y = 2x + 4 ( 1--2. 1) x y = 2x − 5 y = 2x + 5 2 y = 4x − 2 (2. D y = 2x − 1 T 2y = x − 5 L 2x + y − 1 = 0 Find the equation of the line with: C gradient of 2 and a y-intercept of −1 O slope of 3 and a y-intercept of 5 T y-intercept of 4 and a slope of −2 S y-intercept of −2 and a slope of 4 Write in the form y = mx + b: y 1 B(4. 3). 6). C(4. a y b y c y 1 x 2 –2 2 x = y x –2 2 x x=2 –2 –4 y = –2 spo un t f Fun Spot 8:09 | Why did the banana go out with a fig? Answer each question and put the letter for that question in the box above the correct answer. 4) y = 3x + 5 (2 1--2. 3 1--2..

–1) • The slope of a line or interval. See 2 under number plane. Mathematical terms 8 CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 239 . plot gradient formula • To mark the position of a point on the • Gives the gradient of the interval joining number plane. It tells how far the midpoint formula point is above (or below) the origin. 2 2 number plane d = ( x2 – x1 ) 2 + ( y2 – y1 ) 2 • A rectangular y general form 4 grid that • A way of writing the equation of a line. the origin. • The horizontal number line in a number x2 – x1 plane. allows the 3 C(–3. c are integers and a > 0. points in a where a. (0. • Gives the midpoint of the interval joining (x1. (x1. y1) to (x2. Gradient = -------. It can be an ordered –2 B(3. b. distance formula x1 + x2 y1 + y2 • Gives the distance between the points Midpoint = ----------------. –2) measured using the formula: pair of –3 y D(–2. interval • The first of the coordinates is the • The part of a line between two points. 2) 2 A(3. • The point where a line crosses the x-axis. It tells how far right midpoint (or left) the point is from the origin. l terms he ca Mathematical Terms 8 mati mat coordinates graph (a line) 8 • A pair of numbers that gives the position • All the points on a line. y1) to (x2. of a point in a number plane relative to • To plot the points that lie on a line. eg y = 2x − 5. See 3 under number plane. • The second of the coordinates is called the y-coordinate. gradient–intercept form x-intercept • A way of writing the equation of a line. • Point marking the middle of an interval. y1) and (x2. 2) • The equation is written in the form position of 2 3 1 1 ax + by + c = 0. y2). plane to be –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x gradient identified by –1 E(0. origin run Rise • The point where the x-axis and y-axis Run x intersect. See 1 under number plane. x-coordinate. 0). the gradient and c is the y-intercept. y-intercept • The point where a line crosses the y-axis. y2). x-axis y2 – y1 m = --------------- . –3) rise numbers.x + 2 y-axis When an equation is rearranged and • The vertical number line in a number written in the form y = mx + c then m is plane. y = 1--2. y2). ---------------- (x1.

0) and (5. 3). 3). 2) lie on the line x + y = 5? 8:04 b Does the point (−1. −2) and (1. 3) c (−3. −3) 3 Find the midpoint of the interval joining: 8:02 a (1. 2) and (7. 7) b (−2. 3) c (−3. 0) and (5. (3. 5) 6 a Does the point (3. 10) b (3. tes stic t diagno Diagnostic Test 8: | Coordinate Geometry • These questions reflect the important skills introduced in this chapter. • Each weakness should be treated by going back to the section listed.and y-intercepts of the lines: 8:04 a 2x − y = 3 b x + 3y = 6 c x + 2y = 4 240 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . Section 1 Find the length of the interval AB in each of the following. 10) b (3. 3) lie on the line y = x + 2? c Does the point (2. (2. 8). −3) 4 What is the gradient of each line? 8:03 a y b y c y 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 −2 −1 1 2 3 x −2 −1 1 2 3 x −2 −1 1 2 3 x −1 −1 −1 −2 −2 −2 5 Find the gradient of the line that passes through: 8:03 a (1. (4. −2) and (1. −2) lie on the line y = x − 4? 7 Graph the lines: 8:04 a y = 2x + 1 b 2x − y = 3 c 3x + 2y = 6 8 State the x.) a y B b y c y A 4 4 2 B 3 1 2 2 −2 −1 1 2 3 x 1 −1 −2 −2 −1 1 2 3 x −4 −2 0 2x A −3 −1 A −2 −2 B −4 2 Use the distance formula to find the distance between the points: 8:01 a (1. 2) and (7. 8:01 (Leave answers in surd form. 5) c (0. 8 • Errors made will indicate areas of weakness.

4) and has a gradient of 2 b has a gradient of −3 and passes through (1. 4) 17 Write down the inequation for each region. 7) and is parallel to y = −3x + 4 c is perpendicular to y = 2--3. 8:05 a 4x − y + 6 = 0 b 2x + 3y − 3 = 0 c 5x + 2y + 1 = 0 14 Find the equation of the line that: 8:06 a passes through (1. 8:05 12 What is the gradient and y-intercept of the lines: 8:05 a y = 2x + 3? b y = 3 − 2x? c y = −x + 4? 13 Rearrange these equations into gradient–intercept form.and a y-intercept of −3 c a y-intercept of 3 and a gradient of −1 11 Write each of the answers to question 10 in general form. 4) 16 Find the equation of the line that: 8:08 a has a y-intercept of 2 and is parallel to y = 4x − 1 b passes through (1. −4) c passes through the origin and (3.9 Graph the lines: 8:04 a x=2 b y = −1 c x = −2 10 Write down the equation of the line which has: 8:05 a a gradient of 3 and a y-intercept of 2 b a gradient of 1--2. 2) and (1.x + 1 and passes through (−1. 4) d is perpendicular to y = 1 − 2x and passes through (−1. 8:09 a b c y y y 3 3 3 x = –1 2 2 2 1 1 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x y= –1 –1 –1 =0 –2x +2 –2 –2 –2 –y –3 –3 –3 2x 18 Graph a the union and b the intersection of the half planes representing 8:09 the solutions of x + 2y ⭓ 2 and y < 3x − 1. 3) b passes through the points (−1. 3) c has a gradient of 1--2.and passes through (−2. CHAPTER 8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 241 . 1) and (2. 0) 15 Find the equation of the line that: 8:07 a passes through the points (1.

through A of the triangle formed by the a What is the equation of the line AB? points A(3. 8). 1) 4 a A line has an x-intercept of 3 and a 1 2 x gradient of 1. What is the value of b? describe the region c AC is perpendicular to AB. −2). 17). 2). −2) 6 A line is drawn perpendicular to the line 2 A is the point (2. men gn t Chapter 8 | Revision Assignment assi 1 Find: y b A line has a slope of − 1--2. Y(−2. What is its equation? c the midpoint 1 of AB. 0) −1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x form a triangle. 1 x and y intercept and graphs 2 Using y = mx + c to find the gradient 3 General form of a line 4 Parallel and perpendicular lines 5 Inequalities and regions Linear graphs and equations The coordinate system for locating points on the earth is based on circles. b What is the slope of AB? 7 A median of a triangle is a line drawn from c What is the midpoint of AB? a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite 3 A is the point (6. 4) and Z(−4. 5) and B is the point side. −4) and C(−6. 5) and B is the point 2x − 3y + 4 = 0 through its y-intercept. 1 (1. 5) y-intercept of 6. 4). B(−2. Show that the triangle is −1 −2 both isosceles and right-angled. b The line AB passes through the point 8 What inequalities y (100. What is its equation? 8A 5 AB as a surd What is its x-intercept? 4 b the slope c A line has an x-intercept of 3 and a 3 of AB 2 y-intercept of 6. 5 The points X(2. (7. Find where the line crosses the y-axis and hence write down its equation.and a a the length 6 A(6. B(2. Find its 2 shown? equation in general form. Find the equation of the median (2. 242 INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS 4 . What is the equation of the line? Give the a What is the length AB (as a surd)? answer in general form. b).

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