AASTU

EPI

Acknowledgment

First, to the department of manufacturing engineering, I would like to acknowledge
my gratitude for all the Industrial workers and administrators.. It was very
educational. And to the workers of Ethiopia Plastic Industry

And finally I am grateful to all the teachers who helped me in every aspect. Especially
to Instructor Mahri E. for helping me to organize the paper

INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT
1

AASTU

EPI

Preface
This internship paper is divided in to five chapters. The first chapter contains the
general introduction of the paper which includes background of the internship,
objectives of the internship, significance of the internship,. The second chapter deals
with the literature review. The third chapter company structure. The fourth chapter
deals with the process description. The fifth chapter tries to forward relevant
conclusion and recommendation of the internship.

INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT
2

AASTU

EPI

Table of Contents
iChapter One................................................................................................... 1
1. Introduction.............................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background of the internship..........................................................1
1.2 Company Profile.............................................................................. 1
1.3 Objective of the Internship..............................................................2
1.4 Basic Internship Questions..............................................................2
Chapter Two.................................................................................................... 4
2. Literature Review....................................................................................... 4
2.1 Types of Plastic............................................................................... 4
2.2 Types of Production System............................................................5
2.3 Available Raw Material for Ethiopia Plastic Industry...........................5
Chapter Three.................................................................................................. 6
3 Ethiopian Plastic Industry Plants.....................................................................6
3.1 Poly and Printing Plant........................................................................6
3.2 Injection and Blow Molding Plant........................................................6
3.3 Profiling and Ceiling plant...................................................................6
4. Process Description and Unit Operation...............................................................7
4.1 Unit Operation.................................................................................... 7
4.1.1Mixing of Raw Materials........................................................................7
4.2 Process Description.........................................................................8
4.2.1 Poly and Printing Factory.................................................................8
Chapter Five.................................................................................................. 22
5. Conclusions and Recommendations..................................................................22
5.1 poly and printing
plant-------------------------------------------------------------------------------23

INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT
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.........................................................................................................................................................................................2 profile and celing plant-------------------------------------------------------------------------------25 5.......... 13 Figure 4: Internal view of extruder (screw).................................................................. 13 Figure 5: Block Flow Diagram of Profile and Celling ..... 17 Figure 6: Block flow diagram of injection and blow molding...........3 Injection and blow molding--------------------------------------------------------------------------26 Reference……………………………………………………………………………27 List of Figures Figure....................................................1: Unit Operation (Basic Operations).... AASTU EPI 5................................................ 11 Figure 3: Film blowing machine.......... 8 Figure 2: Block Flow Diagram of Poly and Printing Plant..... 21 INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 4 ........................................

..................................... 16 INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 5 ........................................... 16 Table 3: Raw Materials for Ceiling........................................................... AASTU EPI List of Tables Table1....................................... Co-monomer Content and Density Ranges for Commercial LLDPE Resins.......................... 9 Table 2: Raw materials for profile....

Low Density Poly Etylene UHDPE.Poly Ethylene HDPE.High Density Polyethylene UPVC.Ethiopia Plastic Industry PE. AASTU EPI Acronyms EPI .Un Plasticized Poly Vinyl PVC.Polyvinyl Chloride LDPE.Ultra High Density Poly Ethylene INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 6 .

AASTU EPI INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 7 .

In addition to find new ways to produce the raw materials in Ethiopia that is imported from other countries. including highly professional plastic technologist.C.000 birr.670. The industry strives to satisfy the needs and wants of the customer requirement for plastic related materials. management and marketing professionals. In 1978E. practically.679. It has helped me see.000 birr.5 million birr.C Ethiopia plastic industry (EPI) was totally owned by the government and continuous the production and sales of products under the supervision of chemical corporation. Introduction 1. processors. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 1 . The industry was transferred and operates under metal and engineering cooperation in 2003E. It has about 700 workers. Currently Ethiopia plastic industry has a capital of 29. its total asset reaches about 97. leaving the remaining 45% to the original owners. AASTU EPI Chapter One 1. what I have learned theoretically. 1. the military government took ownership of 55% of company. Its capital was 2.200.C Ethiopia plastic industry was established as fully state owned public enterprise with a capital of 29. In 2000E.000 birr.1 Background of the internship The industrial internship to Ethiopia Plastic Industry (EPI) is to take it as an input or reference material for any students who have interest in plastic Industry. This is beneficiary to Ethiopia Plastic Industry since the students could improve the production process and could find new ways to better the products.2 Company Profile Ethiopia plastic was established in 1960 by a group of five Italian entrepreneurs in 1973. engineers.

If there is disadvantage what are the possible solutions and recommendation available to overcome the problems? INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 2 . What are the available plastic production technologies in the world? 2.1 General objective The general objective of the paper is to improve and built up my understanding on the practical industrial practice.3. raw material utilization.4 Basic Internship Questions In this study it will be attempted to investigate and seek answer to the following four basic questions 1.3. Beside this it helps me to increase my altitude towards the basic principle behind production process.3Objective of the Internship 1. 1. AASTU EPI 1. What are the advantage and disadvantage of the plastic processing technologies applied by Ethiopian Plastic Industry (EPI)? 4. What kind of plastic process technologies are available in Ethiopian Plastic Industry (EPI)? 3.2 Specific Objective The specific of the internship include  to understand the fundamental processes involved in plastic industry  the identify the different product types produced in plastic industries and their process  to evaluate our country plastic production technology with the world available processes technologies and  to identify the advantage and disadvantage off our country plastic process technologies 1.

The result of the finding may serve as a base for taking action and to examine their process technologies. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 3 .5 Significance of the Internship The primary significance of the internship is to build the capacity of student’s practical skills and experience sharing from industrial professionals and technical experts. The result of that could be obtained from these internship may be an interest of Ethiopian Plastic Industry (EPI) in particular. The result of the internship may also be an interest of Manufacturing Engineering Department of Addis Ababa Sciences and Technology University to take it as an input for any students who have interest in plastic Industry. AASTU EPI 1.

Its resins provide easy process ability and better fiber impregnation because the liquid resin is used at room temperature for various processes. AASTU EPI Chapter Two 2. and higher electrical. stiffness. They can be either amorphous or semi crystalline. silica flour. Thermosets may soften to some extent at elevated temperatures. Their lower stiffness and strength values require the use of fillers and reinforcements for structural applications. Thermoplastics generally exhibit poor creep resistance. calcium carbide are added to reduce the cost and to increase harness. When cooled significantly below their softening point they again become rigid and usable as a formed article. and will definitely not flow. They are brittle in nature and are generally used with some form of filler and reinforcement. This type of polymer can be readily recycled because each time it is reheated it can again be reshaped or formed into a new article. 2. color. in general. thermosetting polymers will become soft. Thermoplastic materials are. Thermosets offer greater dimensional stability. resistance to weather and flammability. Additives are added to polymers in order to obtain or improve certain properties such as strength. Upon heating.1Types of Plastic Thermoplastic polymers. They become soft and formable when heated. chemical. strength.are normally produced in one step and then made into products in a subsequent process. Thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are the two types of plastic. Thermosetting polymers. toughness and dimensional stability. Literature Review Plastic is any synthetic or semi-synthetic organic polymer. The polymer melt can be formed or shaped when in this softened state. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 4 . and solvent resistance. better rigidity.are normally produced and formed in the same step as thermoplastic. Fillers such as fine saw dust. ductile and tougher than thermoset materials. especially at elevated temperatures as compared to thermosets. but cannot be shaped or formed to any great extent. most industrial plastic is made from petrochemicals. While plastics may be made from just about any organic polymer. Plasticizers are added to obtain flexibility and softness. most common use of plasticizers is in PVC.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). 2. The most commercially used is polyethylene. It exists in four form. deck railing. 3. poly ethylene (PE). and wire insulation. Next air is blown into the tubes which dries it and molds it. AASTU EPI 2.The raw material is placed on the needed place and the mold is pressed on the plastic which gives it the desired shape and it is next cooled with cold air. master batch (as a coloring pigment) etc. Extrusion produces items such as pipe/tubing. Blow molding system. fence. and a recent technology produces Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). thermoplastic coatings. weather stripping. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). window frames. Extrusion system.the mold of the desired shape is fitted around the outside of the plastic. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 5 .2 Types of Production System Generally there are three types of production system 1.3 Available Raw Material for Ethiopia Plastic Industry The raw materials used are PVC. Injection system. 2.Plastics extrusion is a high volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile. plastic films and sheet. PPR.

recovery. 3.1 Poly and Printing Plant This plant is used to produce poly sheet.3 Profiling and Ceiling plant Extrusion system is used in this plant. Wire and cable plant. 3. poly tabular and poly roll. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 6 . Profile and ceiling of different size and shape are produced in this plant with PVC resin and other chemicals. It uses extrusion system. injection plant and profile and ceiling plant.2 Injection and Blow Molding Plant Here the products that are produced can be used in house holding. military product and construction. AASTU EPI Chapter Three 3. Injection and blow molding plant. poly bag. But these paper focus on poly and printing plant. It uses blow molding and injection systems.  There is also boots machine which produces boots with PVC compound. Ethiopian Plastic Industry Plants Ethiopia plastic industry has five plants these are Poly and printing plant. The raw materials used are PVC compounds. recovery and master batch. HDPE and master batch. 3. Profile and selling plant. Pipe plant. The raw material it uses is LDPE or LLDPE and master batch for colored pigment.

1. dying . AASTU EPI Chapter Four 4. mashing and cutting.1.1 Mixing of Raw Materials This is the first process or unit operations in the production of plastic. It is one of the unit operations that help us get the desired product.1.6 Cutting INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 7 .2 Heating of the Mixed Raw Materials The mixed raw materials will be transferred to the hopper where it will be heated to be shaped into the desired shape. 4.1.3 Dying This process is simply shaping the melted raw materials in to the desired shape. 4.4 Cooling This unit operation is done by using water. 4. The raw materials that are needed will be proportionated and mixed together with the master batch to give it the desired color. 4. Process Description and Unit Operation 4.1. heating.1 Unit Operation The major unit operations (basic process) involved are mixing.1. It is a size reduction process (crushing).5 Mashing It is one of the unit operation involved in the production of plastic. 4. If not cooled and dried the product could easily deform. cooling. 4.

Mixing Heating Dying Cooling Mashing Cutting Figure 1: Basic unit operations 4. A lot of poly and printings are processed in word but in Ethiopia plastics some products of poly and printing are processed. AASTU EPI After the product is cooled and dried. it is then cut in to the size that the customer wants.2 Process Description 4. In poly and printing plant there are two basic works to be done processing and finishing.2.1 Poly and Printing Factory Poly and printings plant are processed in Ethiopia plastic industry and it is one of the five plants in Ethiopia plastic industry. Poly factory currently uses the following three raw materials LLDPE(linear low density polyethylene) LDPE (low density polyethylene ) Master batch (colorant) INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 8 .

there are common product family subsets. Within that density range. and 1-octene. The Table below shows co monomer content and subsequent density ranges for commercial LLDPE.940. and also lower density ranges. EPI poly and printing factory use two types of master batches which are called general purpose master batch and polyethylene master batch General purpose master batch can be used as a colorant for every type of raw material Polyethylene master batch used as colorant for raw materials of polyethylene polymer INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 9 . the four most commonly used are 1-butene. Co-monomer Content and Density Ranges for Commercial LLDPE Resins Chain Structure LLDPE comprises linear molecules of ethylene and α-olefins and can be generally represented by the formula where n is the number of carbon atoms in the α-olefin LDPE (low density polyethylene) Have a wider molecular weight distribution and contain long-chain branching LDPE can be categorized in two 3 based on density difference as follow  Light duty  Medium duty. density is strongly controlled by co monomer content. 1-hexene. and  Heavy duty Master batch (colorant): Color pigments are mixed prior to extrusion process with the raw materials in order to give the desired color for the film to be produced.915–0. For LLDPE. Table1. Conventional LLDPE basically covers the density range of 0. AASTU EPI LLDPE is made by the copolymerization of ethylene and α-olefins although practically any α-olefin from C3 to C20 can be used as co monomer for LLDPE. 4-methyl-1-pentene.

Load) = (Tref × M)/T where: MFI=Melt Flow Index : Tref= reference time (10 min= 600second) : T= cutoff time interval in second : M= average mass in gm of the cutoff : Temp=test temperature in ℃ : Load=normal weight in Kg Density Test Another method of identifying raw material is to check its density by measuring fixed mass of raw material and the volume of alcohol or water it displaces ƍ= M/V where ƍ: density M: mass of raw material taken V: volume displaced by the raw material INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 10 . AASTU EPI Raw material identification: Before buying raw materials EPI take 25kg samples of raw material suppliers and melt flow index analysis will be done in the lab to identify whether the sample is really the desired raw material or not and to ensure optimum processing temperature of thermoplastic raw material. Melt flow Index: Melt flow index test is simple method of identifying the raw material which is a function of temperature and load applied on piston. For different conditions the applied load and temperature is different in EPI for polyethylene polymers you will take 20 samples in each 30 seconds interval you will calculate the average mass flow rate (mass/time) and finally check with the EPI and ISO standards to pass the raw material for the desired production order. MFI (Temp.

AASTU EPI Finally compare your result with the EPI reference Receiving poly production order Application of raw materials For film applications LDPE raw material and master batch requested and as per ordered quality For conduit production Mixing LDPE with master batch Machine setup Film blowing production Quality inspection Cutting and sealing Rolling film Printing Packing Cutting and sealing Stacking and packing INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT Recording of voucher data Sales/customer 11 .

If kept as lay-flat. Air is introduced via a hole in the center of the die to blow up the tube like a balloon. As the flattened plastic tube emerges from the die opening. This is done either in line with the blown film process or at a later stage. air is blown inside the hollow tube to stretch and thin the tube to the desired size and wall thickness. usually vertically. Typically. a high- speed air ring blows onto the bubble to stabilize the bubble and cool it. the tube of film is made into bags by sealing across the width of film and cutting or perforating to make each bag. The drawdown between the melt wall thickness and the cooled film thickness occurs in both radial and longitudinal directions and is easily controlled by changing the INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 12 . Heating elements and the turning of the extruder screw melts the resin into molten form and forces it through the extruder. and is pre-flattened using a collapsing frame (also known as v-boards or A-frame) until it passes through nip rolls. the expansion ratio between die and blown tube of film would be 1. This allows manufacturers to run at higher rates without losing bubble stability. the air inside the bubble is also exchanged. The molten poly flows evenly up and over the circular die. This is known as IBC (Internal Bubble Cooling). On higher output lines.5 to 4 times the die diameter. This lay-flat or collapsed tube is then taken back down the extrusion ' tower' via idler rollers. Blown film extrusion is the process by which most commodity and specialized plastic films are made. The lay-flat film is then either kept as such or the edges of the lay-flat are slit off to produce two flat film sheets and wound up onto reels. The flattened bubble is now known as a lay flat tube. to form a thin walled tube. The tube of film then continues upwards. AASTU EPI Figure 2: Block Flow Diagram of Poly and Printing Plant The raw materials are first feed in the hopper. In Blown Film Extrusion (Film Blowing) Plastic melt is extruded through an annular slit die. Mounted on top of the die. The plastic is then air cooled and pulled away on take-up roller. The hopper feeds the resin into the extruder by the help of gravity.

AASTU EPI volume of air inside the bubble and by altering the haul off speed. This gives blown film a better balance of properties than traditional cast or extruded film which is drawn down along the extrusion direction only. Figure 3: Film blowing machine Figure 4: Internal view of extruder (screw) INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 13 .

The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. the film may pass through a treatment center. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. This molten plastic is then forced. 3. or extruded through an annular die. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers. the film may be slit to form one or two films. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble. and poly tubular. such as soldering and printing. while maintaining the bubble diameter. poly sheet. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. AASTU EPI Here we need to know that  Solid conveying is feeding zone  Melting is the melt starting and compression zone  Melt pumping is metering zone Operating procedure for film blowing machine: 1. The polymer material starts in a pellet form. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. Product In poly and printing factory there are three types of products such as poly bag. or surface treated. so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. After solidification at the frost line. Machine capacity INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 14 . Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. 2. which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous. In addition to this in poly factory finishing works also done side by side with production process. During this stage. depending on the application. viscous liquid. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it. 4.

shrink film. food wrap. stretch film  Consumer packaging. Product application  Agricultural film  Bags  Industry packaging. AASTU EPI In order to know the machine capacity of one extrusion machine we need to give consideration for the following conditions: Speed of the extruder : Speed of the nip roller : Velocity of air conditioner : Raw material type : Presence of scrap or continuousness of the process Product distribution Poly and printing factory machines have the ability to produce the following product ranges Length 5cm -3m Thickness 50µm-450µm These different products distribution can be achieved by using the appropriate machine for the desired thickness and length.2 Profiles and Ceiling Plant INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 15 . transport packaging  Laminating film  Barrier film  Multilayer film 4.2.

3kg HST (lubricant) 0. Their color. Those products are produces (processed) from different raw material composition with different amount (ratio). hardness and softens are different with the amount of the compounds that we mix. So we have to care at the compounding area. AASTU EPI Profile and ceiling plant are processed in Ethiopia plastic industry and it is one of the five plants in Ethiopia plastic industry.125kg Table 4: Raw Materials for Ceiling INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 16 . PVC profiles are widely used in the world for different purposes. Table 3: Raw materials for profile Raw material for PVC Ratio Cleaner profile PVC resin 100kg PVC resin-----ratio (20) CaCO3 (filler) 8kg Caco3 (filler)---ratio(8) TiO2 4kg Tio2 ratio 20 CPE (chlorinated poly 6kg ethylene) SMS (stabilizer) 3.

HST.6kg The main raw materials used in the production of profile and celling are PVC. After passing through the mold and achieve the desire shape it isPlastic allowed to cool by water and dried by air. The scrap will be collected and recycle Extrusion process Scrap collecting storage Profile or ceiling cutting (sizing) Work in process Printing Finished (semi-finished) goods storage INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT Finished 17 (semi-finished) goods shipping .5kg DOP (plasticizer) 0. SMS .6kg TiO2 ratio 20 CPE (chlorinated poly 4kg ethylene) SMS (stabilizer) 2. Once it has melted. it is forced through the mold to form continues profile. CPE. other Recovered material storage chemicals such as CaCO3 . DOX as . R/m from factory short term storage The raw material is first fed into the loader to be mixed and heated at 150 0C up to2200C.90liter Wax –paraffin wax 0.TiO2 .WAX . AASTU EPI Raw materials for ceiling Ratio Clinker PVC resin 75kg PVC resin 25 CaCO3 (filler) 22kg CaCO3 (fille) ratio 8 TiO2 2. recovery center Then cut to desired size and assemble as a door and /or window based on the desire customer R/m loader design.

curved corner INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 18 . These are 1. Consumed main frame 15.Then by extrusion process the row materials will be melt by different heating zones and the melted plastic pass through the mold to have the desired shape that we need to manufacture. Then it pass through water to be cool and harden finally the desired product is manufactured and catted by the cutter with length that we need and transferred to store. AASTU EPI Figure 5: Block Flow Diagram of Profile and Celling Process for both profile and celling Type-extrusion process First the raw materials were mixed in the mixed zone (compounding zone). In PVC profile and celling factory there are 26 processes which are processed through the extrusion processes.

celling t connector 25. flat hallow pipe 13. door sash inside 18.On process . window sash inside 21. AASTU EPI 2.Temperature . casement double glazing 23. sliding main frame 6. square pipe 3. corner check list 12.Centrist INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 19 . sliding sash 5.cover board 4.Thickness .Product Raw material test -density On process. partition Quality Laboratory testes – raw material . door sash out side 14.tappet 9. sliding double glazing 8.sliding single glazing 7. profile t connector 24. H. window sash outside 20. casement single glazing 22. celling 11. inserting panel 16.Length . sliding T -frame 10. sliding sash 17. T casement frame 19.

blow molding grade. There are two types of machines in injection and blow molding factories.They are the same as on process with surface roughness test 4. liter Jeri can 4. Their process is the same but they have the only difference on their molding. one liter bottle 3. Some of them are 1. 5 liter Jeri can 5. These are used the same kinds of raw materials with the some process with that of different master batches. Those are  blow molding machines  injection machines Blow molding machines –it use air to blow and mold the desire product.Color Products . It Raw material –HDPE ( high density poly ethylene) .3 Injection and Blow Molding Plant Introduction –it is one of the five plants in Ethiopia plastic industries. Here after the die there is mandrill and it must have to adjust for both the upper is and lower mandrill to protect our resource from wastage.2. Products of blow injection (molding) In Ethiopia plastics a lot of products are processed through a blow molding machines. 10 liter Jeri can INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 20 . It have a lot of processing steps to give the product that we need from the row material that we feed for. There are two kinds of blow molding machines in Ethiopia plastic. AASTU EPI . master batch The raw materials are processed through a lot of steps the desired product. military coda 2. recovery .

fittings 12. hand grip 4. Raw materials used are PVC. lower hand guard 6. Steps of processing of injection molding Nozzle it is the feeder part of the machine to the molding part of the machine. upper hand grip 10.some of them are 1. main control unit back and front base Receiving production14. butt stock type 3. jog 16. AASTU EPI Injection machine This machine uses an injection machine system or injections the material through its nozzle in to the molding area of the machine. Products of injection molding A lot of plastic material are processed using an injection machine . PKM butt stock 5. honey jar 11. plastic mug Fill hopper with granular plastic Turn on heater Turn on motor granular plastics change to liquid Quality of shape Mold opened finished product taken Final product Liquid plastic forced into mold INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 21 Adjust machine control Recycle bin . helmets 13. recovery (PVC injection grade). It is a new matic pressurized system machine. butt stock short and long 2. Raw material order boots Properly mount the mold Machine set up 15. but stock cafe 9. main control unit front cover 8. magazine body 7.

1 Poly and Printing Conclusion From the careful observation and calculation I can conclude that  Most machines work for over 50 years so they pay all expenses spend on them  The machines are prone to aging problem such as sudden pressure drop  The instrument installed in the machines are unreliable  The machines work through trial and error  Some machines are not functional so the factory may losing its valuable machines due to rusting  Due to lack of raw material the machines are currently idle  We can also say that the poly and printing factory is not working with its full capacity  The machines at poly and printing factory are working at the industry efficiency expectation. or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Conclusions and Recommendations 5. AASTU EPI Yes Figure 6: Block flow diagram of injection and blow molding Chapter Five 5. Common Problems •Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling. •Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 22 .

adjusting the air speed of the cooling system. or by using heated die lips  Die lines can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition  Variation in thickness can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run. reduces optical properties.  Clean or replace nip rollers to balance load distribution  Follow safety precaution for raw material handling INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 23 .  Melt fracture can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. •Thickness variations in the film. •Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film.  Output fluctuation can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. AASTU EPI •Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface. and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength •Scratches on nip and winding rollers –this may cause unfair load distribution over film width •Improper raw material and product handling Recommendation  Possible solutions to the air entrapment between film layer and roller is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film.

For window -For roof covers .For door INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 24 . AASTU EPI  Perform tests other than melt flow index such as infrared spectroscopy. some of their purpose is- For partition purposes . solvent test .and flame test in order to assure the raw material is right for the desired order  Perform tensile strength for poly bags in order to know maximum load it can handled  Perform tests other than dart test on the products such as thermal resistance to know maximum working temperature of the product  Write product precaution in order to help the customer to handle and use the product properly.2 Profiles and Ceiling Plant Conclusion In PVC profile and ceiling factory a lot of products are manufactured for a different purpose. 5.

5. •In this factory there is not process for recovery and a lot of PVC raw material is draw out of this factory when it is not manufactured the quality product and it may make if economically un efficient. For example – military purposes -construction -house hold -shoes INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 25 . They are widely used by the customers for their home and window to seams decorated or attractive especially the printed ones.3 Blow Molding and Injection Molding Conclusion A lot of products are produced through blow molding and injection molding for different purposes. If must have to solve within a short time to make this company economically efficient. •This machine is not working because of the shortage of color(ink). Problems •The printing machine is not on the way of manufacturing the printing product which is mostly attracted most of the customer because it is a colored product and more useful for roof working. AASTU EPI These products are designed of assembled at the workshop room to show as a sample or choice for the client (market sample).

Centering and timing of the machines there is the key for the decrease and increase of our wastage (scrap) and we should have to take care of centering and timing of up and down moving machines.PVC for boots (injection grade) -recovery. These are used for water. Boots machine It is an injection machine type. So those are not mostly processed from recovery or it is not tolerable to process those house hold products from recycling. oil and generally for liquid holding uses. Row material. Problems To be economically efficient wastages like scrap must be decreased the amount of scrap is our wastage is increased and our companies profit is related with that and campaniles benefit is decreased. The injection machines can use recovery raw material and virginal. milk. It differs from the other injection machine type on its four time part cycles. Most of the products in injection and blow molding are from recovery and they are economically beneficial. The product wastage can be recycled to process for other product or for itself. -master batch The final product is collected manually after the dead time. These products are processed for different purpose and they are distributed to their consumers to fit with their purpose. INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 26 . AASTU EPI The above are produced through blow molding and injection efficient. These the products are used for different purpose on their consumer. These products are processed through an injection machine with changing the molding part of the machine.

Internet [3] Encarta INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 27 . manufacture process PDF. AASTU EPI Especially in boots machines there is a centering problem and a lot of melted row material (plastic) is blowing out of the nozel outside of the machines and it is not only wasting of our resources but it is a rescue and danger for the employee who are work Reference [1] EPI Docx by HabtewoldTeshome [2] Thermoplastic.

AASTU EPI INTRNSHIP FINAL RPORT 28 .