20

Ottoman Archival Materials on Millets

Hnrrl lNnrcx

Kadi Court Records
The kadt court records, sicilldt, constitute an extensive collection,r scattered
across the former area of the empire, and perhaps the rnost important source for
the social life and actual legal conditions of the non-Muslims under Ottoman
rule. This happened not only because the non-Muslims, as the ahl al-dhimrna,
were under the jurisdiction of (adisis so many areas of the law, but also because
thedhimmrs often preferred to seek akadi' s decision or certificate. The use of
Muslim courts provided greater assurance, or the means to escape the more rigid
stipulations of their own religious law in such matters as marriage, divorce, and
parenthood rights, which were supposed to be under the exclusive jurisdiction of
the Christian or Jewish authorities. In the eighteenth century the Greek Patri-
archate had to take serious measures to prevent the latter practice, as a result of
which the infiltration of Islamic and customary law was being seen in such areas
as marriage and dowry practices.2 At any rate the kadi sicillar abound with court
decisions, as well as contracts, transactions, certificates and other kinds of
documents, drawn up not only between Muslims and non-Muslims but also
between non-Muslim parties.
Since the sicillat were deposited in the ludi courts of the cities and towns
throughout the empire, their rediscovery has given existence from the 1930s on
to many local archives in the lands once under Ottoman rule-Yugoslavia,
Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, and Egypt. One of the
most extensive, and for obvious reasons the most important collections, is that in
Istanbul, under the office of the Muftt. About ten thousand well-preserved
volumes of the kndi records of Istanbul, Galata, Eyiip, and adjacent districts,
collected under Abdtilhamid II, have been barely touched for study. The Bursa
collection, comprising the oldest kadi rcgisters dating back to the 1460s, is the
best known to the students of Ottoman history, and has been exploited since the
1930s.3 Also, a number of publications have been made from the collections in
such centers as Monastir, Sarajevo, Vidin, Sofia, Salonica, Cyprus, Damascus,

437

especially with public finances. dated 952 cumadel0lA I/1545 July. Among the collections of documents on this subject selected from this Greeks from Anatolian towns into Istanbul before 1545. the cemn''at-i gayr-i Muslims registers. economic conditions. Frequently the (Jerusalem). possessing slaves.a Documents from the sicillat of Vidin and Sofia concern- life in the Ottoman Empire. for example. altogether eighteen registers containing worship. and contain permissions for construcrion Christian powers and in times of public distress. are important. even The tahrtr. Uriel Heyd selected those on the Jews in Palestine. Karpat. starting from l83l several detailed population surveys have been the worthy of mention. especially in relation to taxation. These records attest to a large immigration of Armenians and Empire. and European (Efrenciyan) com- copies of the decrees decided upon in the Imperial Council. or of diplomas granting exemptions or appoint- should be added that the Ottoman survey registers of the fifteenth and sixteenth ments.tt these publications will suffice to show that the Milhimme collection documents deal with all aspects of the relations of non-Muslims individually or collectively As for the principal registers concerning only the non-Muslim communities in with the Ottoman government. since that these documents show that the Ottoman government dealt with non- Muslims directly as rts dhimmi subjects. 2. security l. DZansazov and J. From this register we learn. A need to fiom the year 1837 on. or tapu. Klaus Schwarz (Sinai) and Zdenka Vesel6-Prenosilov6 (Sinai)'6 It contents of important fermans. of the Shart'a. some monasteries preserved documents from the earliest Ottoman times. and J. in his selection.2l0). as well as cemeteries. the kilise deJterleri. Istanbul) best example is the sultanic evkaf of the Fatih mosque (Tapu registers n.lo statutes. K.s It is important to emphasize only for the history of particular monasteries and the administration of monastic properties under Ottoman rule. not only the period from 1553 to 1905.T Ahmed Refik. upon any construction of churches or synagogues beyond the mainte. reinforce restrictions of this sort was apparently felt in times of war against 4. As for the nineteenth source. irades. upon dressing as Muslims. Jastrebov (Yugoslavia).rs for example: the bans upon selling wine in public. but also individual and group affairs concerning the non-Muslims and their organizations in the Ottoman places of origin. Karal. and covering the munities of Istanbul.240. and taxation. A brief examination of thy. and the registers of petitions Joseph Kabrda. They also show the government's concern for the Ottoman Empire. as well as laws and regulations. those published by Ahmed Refik Altrnay and Uriel Heyd are particularly century. Z. the'avariz-i dtvaniyye registers. having houses too close to Muslim places of 3. theciTye registers. These are the best centuries preserved in the central archives in Istanbul contain complete lists of known registers in the Ottoman archives and a number of publications have the monasteries in Ottoman territories and often copies of theit fermans and already been made based on them wittr full reproductions or summaries. The important cizye register of the year 1489 has been studied and enforcement of the restrictions that Islamic law imposed upon non-Muslims as. containing information on the Greek. Mention should be made here of the surveys of impeial evkaf. but also for Ottoman history in general. the population and tax survey books of the the fourteenth century. copies of papers on all matters of affairs concerning the non-Muslim communities nance of those Mehmet the Conqueror had permitted to remain in use. when the sultan made a show to and repair of churches. D. Todorov and O. which go back to the fifteenth and peace among them. The Collections in the Central Archives (BagvekAlet Argivi. schools and other buildings. and no. the papers and registers dealing with public affairs.rt which is a mine of The collection of Miihimme registers in the Ottoman archives. Barkan. Of special interest is a register calledAvrupa Monastery Archives [tiiccan] containing decrees and diplomas issued to non-Muslim merchants of the empire who were engaged in trade with European countries and who were given special privileges and tax exemptions to enable them to compete on an even Ottoman documents preserved in monastery archives bear a special interest not footing with those enjoying capitulary privileges. McCar- ments concerning the non-Muslim communities in Istanbul and their organiza- tion. they are: matters affecting its dhimmt subjects. and Cairo. etre entered in these registers along with the persons or groups to whom they apply. is definitely one of the most important sources for population of each district and the taxes paid. since the dhimmrs were involved in every aspect of public From l9l6 on imperial orders.e are of basic importance for statistical data on the non-Muslims in and Paul Lemerle. on which we will focus our attention below. Elizabeth Zachariadou-Oikonomides (Greece). such as the maliye aftkim. included principally docu- subject of research and publication by E. which start in 1837. A great number of the decrees are concerned with the century. Jewish. the peskopos mu(. the ing the Church and ecclesiastical matters have been collected and studied by mul<ata'o registers. Monastic documents have been published by Paul Wittek Ottoman state. Ihdiev (Bulgaria). comprising valuable statistical data on the non-Muslims who paid their taxes to evkdf. run by the Muslim public of the fact that he was scrupulously applying the prescriptions the non-Muslim communities or foreigners.dtacasr registers. Armenian. On the other hand. Eutimo Castellani the areas of demography.s and complaints. riding horses. Sikayat andahknm. published by N.438 Sottr<'es Archival Materials 439 Jerusalem. defterleri. kanunnames. were classified in dossiers according to . registers of the Islamic poll tax. L. P.

thus under the direct Christians of Krzrl-Kaya control of the grand vezir's office. First of Muharrem I 167/Oct. 15 Metropolitanate of the Christians in the nahiyes (counties) of 4 gold pieces Terkoz and Hislar (area between Bosphorus. BagvekAlet Archives. 2539 covering treated the non-Muslims simply as its dhimmi subjects. over the Christians in Istanbul and its 20. The and its dependencies .2540-2 reads: "This is a register Metropolitanate of the Christians of Bigados and its 1440 akga of the diplomas and decrees (berevat ve ahknm) concerning the Office of the dependencies Public Revenues from the Appointments of Bishops (Kulem-i Mukataca-r Pes. and its dependencies in the 30 gold pieces repolid) and bishops (peskopos) in the empire. this series. and other registers on of the grand vezir or prime minister.ra Patriarchate of the Orthodox Greeks (Rumiyan) with the amount of Briefly speaking. Metropolitanate of Arhi. but it also has notes on circumstances dating back to the sixteenth from the Greek Patriarchate for the appointment of a new patriarch.ul Materittls 441 individual subject. There are four registers in resignation of the Haham-bagr. the century as well as marginal records of the years 106l-108211651-1671. The records concern the Kethudal* of the Christians of the kaza of Sidre-Kapsi l0 gold pieces Orthodox Greek Patriarchate of Istanbul and the Patriarchates of Jerusalem. In other words the registers kept at kaza of Sidre-Kapsi this office are essential for the study of church organization throughout the Metropolitanate of Kara-Ferye (Pherrai) and its 25 gold pieces dependencies empire and its relations with the Ottoman government. It also includes decrees concerning monasteries. secrecary to the grand vezir's kethuda and chief Metropolitanate of the nahiye (county) of Istanimaka and its 20 gold pieces secretary of the said office. 62 is devoted to first register in this series contains documents from the period 1051-1061/ the non-Muslim communities and includes such important documents as petitions 1641*1651. the The following list of the Metropolitan and Episcopal sees under the disorders in Lebanon.i (Heraclea) and its dependencies $ik. Kethuduhk of the salt-works in the area of Salonica 730 akga Alexandria. and'Ah Efendi. and the office was then under theDefterdar of the fillk-i sani. all of these documents show that the Ottoman government ptS-keS is based upon the Peskopos Mukata'asl register no.440 Sourc'es Ar<'hit. There is a special office at the department of imperial finances responsible for the Metropolitanate of the district of Zihne and its dependencies 9 gold pieces collection of the revenues connected with appointment of the religious heads of Bishopric of the Christians of the village of Potemkali(?) and 2000 akga the Christian communites in the empire. head-secretary. Hayim Nahum.000 kuruS troublemakers in their community without having to bring the case to the dependencies. diplomas and munities prompted special investigations by the government and resulted in such decrees concerning the non-Muslim communities were copied in the registers of special defters as that on the Rumfesadr. Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district (vilayet) of 20 gold pieces kopos). but at Gumenot-i Manastrr-i Prokri or Panaya along with the 5 gold pieces the same time he is a secretary to the grand vezir's deputy. leaders were given full independence of action only in matters concerning the church hierarchy and property. Ohrid (Ohri) and ped (ipek) as well as the Armenian Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Varna l0 gold pieces Patriarchate of Istanbul. 105 okka meat per day for the Imperial attention of the Porte. during the time of his Excellency'Abdullah Na'ili Efendi. 29. The reaffirmation of the regulations governing the Armenian Patriarchate. 1753). after that. under the finance minister. the Greek insurrection. KAmil Kepeci Tasnifi nos. Bishopric of the town of Qatalca with the villages of 800 akga Istanbul.rG the Bulgarian uprising in Vidin. one on Serbian affairs. The head of this office is ahoca. The office of In the nineteenth century important events involving the non-Muslim com. the question of the Bulgarian Exarchate. its dependencies in the (aza of Argirikasn 2. Defterdar-i Eregli. Marmara Sea and Black Sea) and the city of Galata A Study of the Peskopos Mufata'asr Registers. a survey of all the Cema'at-i Gayr-i Muslima in the Divan-i Hilmayun under the direct control Greek merchants in Istanbul hdns. " dependencies The introduction makes clear the following points: Metropolitanate of the district (vilayet)of Siroz (Serrds) and 65 gold pieces its dependencies l. and that their religious the period 1641-1651 .-i Evvel. Peskopos Hallfulifri Mukata'asr was abolished in 1837. and Antioch. Among the irade dosyalan. It was only in 1764 that for the first time the PtS-keS sultan gave the Greek and Armenian patriarchs direct authorization to punish Patriarchate of lstanbul. Metropolitanate of the Christians of Salonica with the 150 gold pieces Bishopric of Liti and Andelissa(?) in Sidre-Kapsi The register contains diplomas and decrees on appointments. covering the period between l05l-l253l154l-1837. and the question of Crete. at the same time ka& courts were ordered to refuse cases gardeners (bostanct) involving dubious marriages. changes and (Siderokavsja) other matters concerning the title and jurisdiction of the metropolitans (med. dossier no.2539-2542 Hamillu(?) and Haridin(?) and Biiyiik-Qekmece and its dependencies In this series the introduction to register no.

000 akga Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Filibe 50 gold pieces as ordered in the Year 10631 1652 (Philippopoli) with the kazas of Hask<iy and Tatar-Pazarr Metropolitanate containing the bishopric of the district of 8 gold pieces and their dependencies Moton (Modon) Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Sofya I l2 gold pieces Bishopric of the Christians of Yeni-Kale in the provinces of 7 gold pieces (Sofia). Samsun.600 akga Metropolitanate of the Christians in the villages of Ganos and 8 gold pieces Bishopric of the Christians of the lgza of Baf and its 5. Teme5var.000 akga Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Ankara l0 gold pieces (Athos) monasteries and its dependencies For zarar-t kas.qaban and kirbas-baha for the bostancts 200. Bafra. Sigi (Sige)' 25 gold pieces dependencies Pulad.400 akga Metropolitanate in the district of Bursa and its l5 gold pieces dependencies dependencies Bishopric of the Christians of the lsaza of Gilani and its 2. Koron and Arkadya.'c.000 gold pieces Metropolitanate of the Christians of Trabzon.600 akga Kethudal* of Mir-Ali and its dependencies 30 gold pieces dependencies Metropolitanate of the Christians in the district (vilayet) of 40 gold pieces Bishopric of the Christians of the taza of Hirishora and its 2.imtig (Argyropolis). Aydinat dependencies and their dePendencies Metropolitanate of the province (liva-sancak) of Canik l0 gold pieces Under the Patriarch of Ohri (Ohrid) with the church of PanaYa Patriarchate of the Christians of the province of Ohri and its 1. 1615. Besides the (near Cyzicus) piS-keS he agreed to pay each year to the imperial treasury . and its dependencies Morea with the districts of Moton. Gusi and Subashi in the kaza of Kite Bishopric of the Christians of the kaza of Limasson and its 2.500 akga Bishopric of the Latin Christians (efrenciyye) in the kaza l80O akga its dependencies of Bar and its dePendencies Dragoman at the Court of Cyprus 1. Torul (Ardasa) 50 gold pieces dependencies and the fixed lump sum to be delivered to with the districts (nahiye) of Gi.400 akga Khora and its dependencies in the l<nzas of Gallipoli and dependencies Magalkara Bishopric of the Christians of the taza of Kirine and its 1.000 akga Bayburt (Paipert) and their dependencies Bishopric of the Latin Christians (Efrenciyan) on the island 8 gold pieces Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Rize 20 gold pieces of Andrea and its dependencies (Rizaion) Metropolitanate of Konya and its dependencies 9 gold pieces Under the Patriarch of ipek (PeE) Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Nigde 12 gold pieces Patriarch of the Serbian Christians of the province of ipek 100. Mir-Ali and Yeni-Ktiy Bishopric of the Christians of the *aza of Lefkoga and its 3. Kanija.400 akga Metropolitanate of the Christians in Mudanya. Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Antalya 20 gold pieces Gyula.s Archivul Materials 443 Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Kortos 130 gold pieces Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Kefe 50 gold pieces (Corinth) and its dePendencies (100 for metropolitan (Caffa) and its dependencies and 30 for bishop) Metropolitanate of the Christiirns of the district of Mangup 20 gold pieces Metropolitanate of the Christians of the church of Koron with l5 gold pieces Metropolitanate of the Christians of Tat-lli (in the Crimea) l5 gold pieces Kalamata and its dependencies Metropolitanate of the Christians of Narda with the church 30 gold pieces Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Kayseriye l2 gold pieces of Inebahtt and its dePendencies and its dependencies Fixed sum paid annually by the monks in the Aynaroz 200. Prizrin and their Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Aydrncrk 20 gold pieces dependencies as found on July l.000 akga and its dependencies with the provinces of Budin (Buda).442 Sotrrr.800 akga Amasya with the kazas of Sinop. Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Ayaslug 20 gold pieces comprising fiftY villages (Ephesus) and its dependencies Metropolitanate of the Christians of the Island of Sakrz 35 gold pieces Metropolitanate of the Christians of the district of Izmir l0 gold pieces (Chios) and its dePendencies (Smyrna) Tercumanltt (office of dragoman) at Sakrz 500 akga Metropolitanate of the Christians of the islands of Rhodes 24 gold pieces Under the Patriarch of the and Limnos and their dePendencies Christians of the island of Cyprus PiS-keS Bishopric of the Christians of the islands in the Marmara Sea 20 gold pieces Patriarchate of the Christians of the province of Cyprus and 73.400 akga Bishopric of the Christians in the villages of Kurgunlu 6 gold pieces dependencies (Megas Agros). BosniarT. iskenderiyye. the imperial treasury annually 60. Egre.

Bishopric (B) we followed the list in T. Bishop is nominatei 3l . Mi. Malegeva. Its holder is nominated by the 34. Istanbul and is dependencies (M) 50. the Patriarch 26. Serfice (Serfion) (B) Metropolitanate of the Christians of the districts of Igtip 45 gold pieces 2l. p. Bursa (M) and its dependencies. Kadrkiiyti (Chalcedon) (M) 64. Lititisa (AB) 52. 45. patriarch of the 43. Lofca (Lovec) (B) Bishopric of the Christians of the church belonging tothe 40 gold pieces 29. Brussels. Nakga (Naxos) I l. later on with an addition of 6200 akga 23. Alagehir (Philadelphia) (M) 5. Its holder is nominated by the Patriarch of 37. 46. Papadopoullos.000 akga. Ibrail (Braila) (M) 19. iznik (Nicaea) (M) 63. Vize (Byzon) (M) 16. Kapaniya (Kampania) (B) 67. Rodos (Rhodes) (M) Studies and Documents Relating to the History of the Greek Church and People 47 . lnoz (Enez. 38.irefte) (B) 57. Ainos) (M) 9. Badracrk (Neo-Patras) (M) 7. Yanya (loannina) (M) 3. Konya (lconion) (M) Metropolitanate of the Christians of the districts of Sigetvar l0 gold pieces 36. 82-122. Radoscuk (Rodosto) (B) 55. Varna (M) 18. Qirmen (Tsernevon) (B) independently. Kaprdagr (Cyzicus) (M) 61. $umnu (formerly Preslav) (B) Latin clergy (ruhbanan-i Latin)in the province of Bosnia. Petros (Petras) (B) dependencies. Erelli (Hrakleia) (M) 54. Naupakhton) (M) in 1753 (Register no. Zlhne(Zichna) l. Balatomina (Platamuno) (B) 68. Antalya (formerly Pisidia) (M) ipek. Misivri (Mesambria) (M) 12. 20. Sofya (M) 15. on the occasion of Osman III's accession to the throne 44. Senai) (M) under Turkish Domination. Ankara (Ancyra) (M) 60. 48. and paying theprg-/<ep he possesses it 27. this was decided on March 27. 1952. Menlik (Melenikon) (M) 6. Trabzon (Trebizond) (M) 41. Talantova (Talantion) (formerly Athens) (M) 39. Narda (B) Greek Orthodox Church. Ahyolu (Anchialus) (M) 17. Niksar (Neokaisaria) (M) Patriarch of ipek 35. Girit (Crete) (M) 40. Qitroz (Kitros) (B) 66. Silstre (Dristra) (B) Since the aforesaid metropolitanate lies at ipek. Amasya (Amasea) (M) Metropolitanate of the Christians of the city of Budin (Buda) l0 gold pieces 33. Melo (Melos island) (AB) 10. Kara-Ferye (Phenai) (M) with Peguy. Hersek and their dependencies. 39). Edirne (M) Kilis. Vidin (M) 13. Aynaroz (Mount Athos) later on with addition that was fixed down as 3000 akga 25. 254012. 30. Toyran (Tolvan) (B) (Stip). For the titles Metropolitanate (M). Trrhala (Trikkala) (B) hierarchical order as found in the berat renewed for Kyrillos. Midillii (Mytilene) (M) 2. Trrnovi (M) himself holds it. Yenigehir (Larissa) (M) The following is a list of all the Metropolitan and Episcopal sees in their 42. Selanik (Salonica) (M) 65. Mirtofona (Miriofiton. Siroz (Serez. 28. Afriboz (Euboea) (M) 14. Giimiilcine (Komotene) (M) . Islavigte and their 22. Ardamiri (Ardamerion) (B) Metropolitanate of the Christians of the province ofipek 22 gold pieces 24. Qorlu (Tsuralon) (AB) 59.444 Sortrce s Ar<'hivul Materiul. istifa (Tsivon) (M) 8. Gelibolu (Kallioupoli. Filibe (Philippopoli) (M) Archbishopric (AB). p.s 145 a lump sum in the amount of 100. Kayseriye (Kayseri) (M) 5l . inebahtr (Lepanto. Dimetoka (Didymoteichon) (M) 4. Qatalca (Metrai) (AB) 58. Ahtabolu (Agathopoli) (B) by the Pariarch of ipek 32. as fixed down. Drrama (Philippi) (M) 49. Kug-Adasr (Ephesus) (M) 53. 1584. Kratova. iznikmid (Izmit) (Nicomedia) (M) 62. Gallipoli) (B) 56.

Ravendos (Reontos) (B) is placed a bishop. Bogdan (Moldavia) (M) Ottomans (as an early example see Sultan Orhan's temllkname inArSiv Klavuzu. iskete (Xanthi) (M) can be an indication of the importance of the see and the size of the Orthodox 72. Papadopoullos 88. Al-tct'rtf. Those metropolitans under the direct jurisdiction of 82. Imroz (lmbros) (M) T. Anabolu (NauPlion) (M) makes clear. Ihca stressed the fact that a metropolitan diocese or an episcopal see owes its 89. Thus the actual geographic 92. Moston (Mothonis'l) (B) considered higher in rank than a bishop but lower than an independent met- 84. Golos (Volo) (M) population in the area under its jurisdiction. In the Ottoman Empire. KefalYa (KePhallenia) (AB) gave to the mtr-'alem at the Porte. are 83. Egin (Aigina) (AB) "an offering made by an inferior as a mark of respect and dependence" 102. peskopos. Mezid Adasr these lists can be used as reliable sources for actual population estimates. Marmara (Marmora island) sees are determined by Ottoman administrative divisions. Ala-Kilisa (Phersalon?) (AB) fixed by regulation in the sixteenth century. BogonYani (Pogonianis) (AB) (Redhouse). the governor of Rumeli 106. 94. or a sword. Hislar (Villages between Istanbul and Bosphorus formerly Derkos or Terkos) Byzantine times. Fenar (Phanarion) (AB) The Ottoman cizye registers on the other hand furnish us with complete lists of 95. themselves with the approval of the patriarch'rE such as a caftan. Balya-Badra (Palaia Patra) (M) the Ecumenical Patriarchate who have no bishops under their own dominion. Sakrz (Chios) (AB) registers contain lists of the same character for the whole period after l64l. used to establish a bond of dependency between 108. in 1782 the patriarchate notified the Ottoman Porte that since 1557 Istanbul. which constitute the essential 80. Silivri (Silivria) (M) Acta can be checked against the above lists drawn up on the basis of Ottoman 70. JevPatorYa) document. Papadopoullos said. Mistra) (M) ropcllitan. distin- 85. Arkadya(Christianoupolis) (M) guished only according to an established order of precedence. T. Officials of lesser grades paid a fixed amount of the Orthodox Greeks resident in Venice had been electing a metropolitan for money called resm-i berat accompanied by some costly presents from the sultan. ten thousand akga. Eflak (Wallachia) (M) from the beginning of Ottoman history. Kirine governor's acceptance of his diploma of appointment. AlosonYa (Elassonia) (AB) population increases. 96. papadopoullos on the basis of seven Notitiae Epist'opatum and the Synodal . The 76. Ayamavra (Levkas) (AB) 105. Otherwise. the metropolitans are all of equal importance. l). The exchange of presents was. 1938. These presents The list of the metropolitan sees under Ottoman rule as established by symbolizing the authority delegated by the ruler in Islamic states were generally called al-''alamat-i mulukiyya. Under the immediate jurisdiction of a metropolitan 81. The rate for each rank was 104. Kiirdos (Kortos. decline and disappear as the Orthodox 9l. Santorin (Santorin island) (AB) historical continuity to the continuing existence of the Orthodox population in 90. For example. document no. As our document 86. Sisam (Samos) (AB) 93. Istendin (Tinos) (AB) of presents was a symbolic act. Sifnos (Sifnos) (AB) 100. Among the Notitiae the one drawn 73. while the Peskopos Mukdta. decreases and disappears. IstankiiY (KarPathos) (AB) distribution of the Orthodox population is reflected in the Notitiae Episcopatum. They flourish. Limni (Lemnos) (M) hierarchical structure of the Greek church during the Ottoman period. Corinthos) (M) we find metropolitans at the head of dioceses. Kesendire (Kassandra) (AB) 98. Originally. pp. the exchange 107. exhibited essentially the same structure as it had in 7g. T. The amount of the ptS-keS to be paid by each metropolitan or bishop 7 | . Kiirdos (Corinthos) (B) lord and retainer in the Turco-Mongol world. was actually l0l . a persistent custom practiced by the I10.446 5ottrt'r'. Giizleve (Kozlov.s Archivul Muteriols 417 69. the respective boundaries of metropolitan dioceses and espiscopal 87 . present in general usage. Venice (M). Cairo 131211894. Mesta that particular area. piS-keS was given at the moment of a 103. Under the immediate jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch (M) 't9. a 75. Giimiighane(ArgYroPolis) the Orthodox population subject to the poll tax in Istanbul and the provinces. Mezistre (Misithra. The next Notitiae known is dated 1855. 77. Kefe (Caffa) (M) up by the Patriarch Serapheim in 1759 is chronologically the closest to our 74. a horse with gilded saddle. Defirmen Adasr Pegkeg or Pig-keg 99. Andre (Andros) (AB) PeSkeS or originally pIS-keS meaning gift.te 97. 109. (see al-'Umarl. IIl. Siizebolu (SozoPoli) (M) documents. Benefge (Monemvasia) (M) subdivisions of the hierarchy.

lj'u Fukiilttsi Mecmtttt. at the time of his appointment as the first patriarch under the Ottomans. 2). pp. in the Greek church2s and the growing tendency of the Ottomans to farm out 16. perhaps. Notes urul Dot'untents Jrom the 'lurkish Art'hives. revised ed. p. 24445. Osnrunische Staatsurkuntlen des Sinai-Klosters in tiirkist'her Sprache. "La situation d6mographique de la p6ninsule balkanique au cours des XVe et XVI'sidcfes. Juhrhundert. History oJ'the Greek Church and People under Turkish Domination. 100." EIz . According to a tradition perpetuated in the circles of the patriarchate. Halasi-Kun' 1'he Hague and Paris | 968. 163' 6.000 gold pieces. See M. The Bosnian Church. and then to 2. John Fine.299. See note 13. Karpat. (1944). 12. striking for the contemporaries was the extravagant increase of the amount of 14. For a bibliography see Reychman and Zajaczkowski (cited n.rvekilet ArSivi. for a bibliography of these see H. pp. receiving their berat from the Porte was also called berat ptSkeSi. 1584 cited by S. Muhtevu buktmtntlott Ba. 1954. piS-keS paid for 10.210. See Kabrda (cited n. 176) creased and considered a source of revenue for the state' the metropolitan of Bosnia (Medrepolid-i vilayet-i Bosna) was to pay fifty gold pieces each year. J. History ol'Mehmed the Conqueror.I 66' 25.rr Palestine.s Archival Materials 449 ZOg-Zll). "894 (1488/1489) yrh cizye muhasebesine iit muhasebe bilangolan. nos. cited in the book's bibliography' p.stttire. pp. pp. See M. 5). as well as Gen. l969. xxviii. 1970. T. Sicillat were extensively exploited for local history in the publications made by Hulkevleri in TurkeY.53 (1959): O. rnust have given customary pIS-keS to the sultan. The high rate of prS-keS can be interpreted as an indication of the importance of the Greek Orthodox church in Bosnia at that time.448 Sottl'<'t'. K. pp. ll See 82-83. pp. Kersten. 221-29. Wien. mention should also be made of the important data in theSalnames or historian Kritovoulos confirms that "the sultan loaded him with noble and costly Yearbools of the Ottoman Provinces. Runciman. 9 (1978). 193 I. ptS-keS. pp. Basel. Ehrenkreutz and T. Das Patriarchat von Konstantinopel im ausgehenden 16. also see Bernard Lewis. For the publications ntade in these places see J. N. Canrbridge.tropolitans and bishops were assigned regular income from the Ottoman 13. Freiburg im Breisgau. pp. Barkan.23 Hence.2l 24." Attkuru 0nit. Jerusalem. p. no.tystinrefscaldet'Egliseorthotloxedunsl'EmpireOttoman. 4. 20. O. Sertoglu (cited n. For all these tleJiers see Midhat Sertollu. Ertug. Oxfor<J. si tcsi Eelebiyar Fakiil tesi. Barkan. l-l 17. 94. for urarriages see orders obtain the patriarchate.200. 1960. Reychman and A. 1961 . Papadopoullos. these metropolitans. See H. 4). 21-29. -j5-65 and Mtcetbl iigiirel. "$er'iyye Sicillerinin'foplu Kataloguna Dtrgru. Klaus Schwarz. 19.2r The contemporary JMES." / was granted one thousand gold pieces for his maintenance.2o . Ankara. 23. (1963)."22 lt is known from documentary evidence that before the Conqueror's ii*" *. Inalcik. ed. Inalcik. p. pIS-keS was over time substantially in. I nadios. A. In a register of mukata. an<I B. Lewis (cited n. first to 2." Belgeler. See ior the situation in later times T. 25. For a bibliography of the sicillat in Turkey. 59. Istanbul. index. 1 952. pantazapoulos. "Bursa 9er'iye sicillerinde Fatih Sultan Mehmed'in fermanlarr. Tarih Dergi si. "Tiirkiye'de imparatorluk devirlerinin biiyiik niifus ve arazi tahrirleri ve See the Ottoman viewpoint.pp.ersitcsi.76.4-5. 1955. Brno. Riggs.24. H. Ankeua. Pantazapoulos (cited n. 1000-1 100.st.21447." Belleten.500 by the rival metropolitans to 15. Review. A New I nterpretation. 3. 3. Z(1941). pp. O. Studies and Documents Relating to the 2. l. 693. "$er'iyye Sicillerinin Toplu 162. (1964). 132-35. 98-103. Zajaczkowski. Inhisbook. See the document published by A. 18. Gen.The Great pp. R. 206. U' Heyd' Ottoman D'cumerils . 24--103. 1954. H. gifts. berat. Fut'ult( de Phiktsophie et d'hi. See M. L. p. Todorov. Istanbul." Istanbul IJniversitesi Iktisut Fuki)ltesi Mecmuust. nilkent Unlvcslll . treasury in the form of timar. N. 148. p. 8. PP. "Impact of theAnnales School on Ottornan Studies and New Findings.2(1941 ). Crusius. Refik (cited n. hakana mahsus istatistikdefterleri 20-59.. 1930-1935.186. It should be noted thatpirs-&ers cannot be interpreted as bribery from 9. New York and London 1975. xxxiv and Pantazapoulos (cited n. "Osmanlr devrinde salnameler. C.and his articles. Notes 21. 7)' p.2). 1968.a dated 1479 (BagvekAlet Archives. Inalcik. Turcograecia libri octo.7) pp. Maliyeden Miidevver no." nadios. 2). trans. p. pp. Inalcik.237-74. Sertollu (cited n. 8). What was. p. l5). xxvi. 3). vol. 1970' pp' 197-2O5' j.2a As a result of the competition for the patriarchal throne in Kabrda (cited n. Le. 375-78. Brussels. 193-91. Salonica. 122. SeeA. Pantazapoulos (cited n. 28-29 ( 1975)' pp' I 23. public offices to the highest bidders. 1952. 5). B. The money paid by high clergy at the moment of . Il See H. Ahmed Refik (Altrnay). L. Lewis (cited n.lstanbul Huyutr. Dil ve'l'urih-Co14ru. " Hayat Tarih Mecmuasr. Refik. "lstanbul. See for a bibliography. pp. 17. Princeton. 9 (19 73). see Osman Ersoy. p. "Ottoman Population Records and Census of I88l-1893. Handbook of Ott1nttrrr-Turkish Diplomulics. 5." Annuuire tle l'universite de Sofio.9I-llZ.25." Istunhul IJnit'er' Church in Cuptivity. /stanbul Hayan. I (1978). Kataloguna Dolru. S. cf . 22. See Sriret-l defter-i sancak-i Arvcmid.3 vols. Clrurch untl Law in the Bulkun Peninsula During Ottomon Rule.

NEw YORK LoNDoN // : .zpl EAIII.UnlvcrsllT Iiryf Lroraqf HOI-MES a MEIER PUBLISHERS.ILCIK Tarcfi.CHRISTIANS AND JEWS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE The Functioning of a Plural Society EDITED BY BENJAMIN BRAUDE AND BERNARD LEWIS VOLUME I THE CENTRAL LANDS ar'g.dc.INC. iN.r Boi'' lanmlgltr' Sllkcnt. .