Firstly let's learn about the Ottoman Empire's economic situation before

the
war.
Capitulations: Economic concession. It first started in 1536 between the
Ottoman Empire and France. Later, most of the European countries had
this
economic concession. It was not useful for the Ottoman Empire but the
empire
could not cancel it because of its weakness.
Before the war, because of the capitulations foreign merchants cleared
through the customs without paying any tax. This weakened the Turkish
merchants. When the World War I started, the Ottoman Empire stopped
capitulations.
Also huge depts weakened the economy of the empire. Most of the
depts paid
by Turkey later. There were very rare railways and automobiles in the
country so transportation was a great problem.
Most of the other powerful countries had colonies. Because of that their
economies grew rapidly. Also they used the advantage of the industrial
revolution. So the Ottoman Empire could not resist them.
European sailors discovered new trade routes. Because of that the
Ottoman
Empire's economy damaged.
What caused World War I?
The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand triggered World War I.
But
the war had its origins in developments of the 1800's. The main causes
of
World War I were:
The Rise of Nationalism: Nationalism was one of the reasons of the
World
War I which is the belief that loyalty to a person's nation and its
political and economic goals comes before any other public loyalty.
Nationalism created two new powers - Italy and Germany - through the
uniting
of many small states. On the other hand, nationalism weakened the
eastern
European empires of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottoman. Those
empires
ruled many national groups that clamored for independence. The Balkan

Peninsula or the "Powder Keg of Europe" because tensions there
threatened to
ignite a major war. Rivalry for control of the Balkans added to the
tensions
that erupted into World War I.
Military Forces: Nationalism encouraged public support for military

Germany. On June 28. Italy. technology enabled countries to fight longer and bear greater losses that ever before. 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist named Gavrilo Princip. not only the two involved in a dispute. Bismarck also brought Austria-Hungary and Germany into alliance with Russia. In 1890 when Bismarck left office it gave a chance for Russia and France to form an alliance. By the end of the 1800's. France and Russia agreed to call up troops if any naiton in the Triple Alliance mobilized. the first modern battleship. Germany rushed to construct on just like it. the system also created certain dangers. Germany had the best trained army in the world.build-ups and for a country's use of force to achieve its goals. The Archduke's assassination triggered . Advances in technology helped aid in making military forces stronger. The Triple Alliance was made up of three countries. Machine guns and other new arms fired more accurately and more rapidly that earlier weapons. and Austria-Hungary. the alliance system meant that a number of nations would fight. The agreement was known as the Three Emperor's League and was formed in 1881. In 1906. They all agreed to go to war if attacked by Russia. In 1894. They all agreed to remain neutral if any of them went to war with another country. Alliances could force a country to go to war against a nation without a reason. The Dreadnought had greater firepower that any other ship of its time. If war came. Russia and France also agreed to help each other if either were attacked by Germany. Alliances: A system of military alliances gave European powers a sense of security before World War 1. In 1898 Germany began developing a naval force that was big enough to challenge the British navy. They formed these alliances with each other for protection and guarente that other members of the alliance would come to the country's aid if attacked. Although alliances provided protection. the British navy launched the Dreadnought. By the late 1800's.

and them move east. 1914. But instead of swinging west around Paris. By August 16. The First Battle of the Marne was a key victory for the Allies because it ended Germany's hopes to defeat France quickly.the outbreak of World War I. This plan called for two wings of the German army to crush the French army in a pincers movement. The invasion of Belgium caused Britian to declare war on Germany on August 4. Because of Austria-Hungary's alliance with Germany.1914. This maneuver left the Germans exposed to attacks form the rear. but first Russia gained support from France. It drove back French and British forces in southern Belguim and swept info France. The German army halted its retreat near the Aisne River. This battle was later known as the First Battle of the Marne. one part of the right wing pursued retreating French toops toward the Marne River. Germany's plan for a quick defeat of France while Russia slowly mobilized was called the Schlieffen Plan. Germany . Serbia seeked help from Russia. the right wing of Germany could begin its motion. In 1914 Russia vowed to stand behind Serbia. Belgiums army held up the Germans for only a short time. Germany declared war on Russia on August 1. stationed his forces near the Marne River east of Paris and prepared for battle. On July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. beginning on September 6 and ending September 9 when German forces started to withdraw. encircle and capture Paris. General Joseph Joffre. A much larger right wing would invade France through Belgium. The German Army swept into Belgium on its way to France. A small left wing would defend Germany alongs its frontier with France. From there. in response to Russia's mobilization. commander of all French armies. Two days later Germany declared war on France. the Germans and the Allies fought a series of battles that became known as the "Race to the Sea". Meanwhile.

Both the Allies and the Central Powers developed new weapons. The British gave the message to Wilson. Most Americans opposed US involvement in the European war. After the introduction of the poison. Arthur Zimmermann. At the start of the war. Austria-Hungary drove the Italians out of its territory in the Battle of Caporetto in the fall and revolution in Russia made the Allied situation seem even more hopeless. But the Allies stopped the Germans in the First Battle of Ypres in Belgium. Tension between the US and Germany increased after the British intercepted and decoded a message from Germany's foreign minister. The battle lasted from mid-October until mid-November.tried to reach the English Channel and sabotage supply lines between France and Britian. the war reached a deadlock along the Western Front as neither side gained much ground. The deadlock lasted nearly 3 1/2 years. They expected their U-boats to starve Britain into surrendering within a few months. The message known as the "Zimmermann note". Because they changed the winner of the war. German military leaders believed that they could still win the war by cutting off British supplies. In 1917. gas masks were used. . President Wilson had declared the neutrality of the United States. revealed a German plot to persuade Mexico to go to war against the United States. The most important country in the World War I was USA. The fumes caused vomiting and suffocation. the German ambassador to Mexico. which they hoped would break the deadlock. longer before the US had fully prepared for war. In April 1915. Another new weapon was the flame thrower. the Germans first released poison gas over Allied lines in the Second Battle of Ypres. But the sinking of the Lusitania and other German actions against civilians drew America sympathies to the Allies. first France and then Britain saw their hopes of victory shattered. which shot out a stream of burning fuel. By late November 1914. and it was published in the US early in March.

President Wison put financier Bernard M. Britian began to use a convoy system. In Spring. Government propaganda pictured the war as a battle for liberty and democracy. Before US help could reach the Western Front. By early 1918 German forces outnumbered the Allies on the Western Front.1918. the Allies had to overcome the U-boat threat in the Atlantic. by which cargo ships went to the sea in large groups escorted be warships. on March 21. British troops had retreated about 30 miles. after the disaster .000 men.Mobilization The US entered the war unprepared for battle. By March 26. Baruch in charge of the War Industries Board. In April. The U-boats proved no match for the warships and Allied shipping losses dropped sharply. and women signed up as nurses and office workers. The enormous guns hurle shells up to 75 miles. Manpower was a chief contribution to the United States to World War I. Many men enlisted voluntarily. Strong antiwar feelings had harmpered efforts to prepare for war. Germany staged three offensives. which turned factories into producers of war materials. US Government agencies directed the nations economy toward the war effort. In late March. a city in the Somme River Valley. The age range was broadened to 18 through 45 in 1918.-Quentin. Ludendorff counted on delivering a crushing blow to the Allies before larger numbers of Americans reached the front. The country entered the war with about 126. Few soldiers received much training before going overseas because the Allies urgently needed them. the Germans began to bombard Paris with "Big Berthas". The US armed forces had almost 5 million men and women by the end of the war. The end of the war on the Eastern Front increased German hopes for victory. During World War I. Germany first struck near St. It soon orginized a draft requiring all from 21 through 30 years old to register for military service. In May 1917.

A second German offensive began on April 9 along the Lys River in Belgium. the Ottoman Empire signed an armistice. German troops had reached the Marne River. Britian and France attacked the Germans near Amiens. less than 50 miles northeast of Paris. Italy defeated Austria-Hungary near the town of Vittorio Veneto with the help of France and Great Britian. Ludendorff realized that Germany could no longer overcome the superior strength of the Allies.at St-Quentin. In mid-September. Almost 900000 US troops participated in heavy fighting between the Argonne Forrest and the Meuse River. Bulgaria forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby triumphed over the Ottoman army in Palestine and Syria. a forested area near the Marne. the Allies advanced steadily. Germany teetered on the edge of collapse as the war continued through October. The Allies won victories on all fronts in the fall of 1918. During June. Austria- Hungary signed an amistice on November 3. Pershing led US forces to an easy victory at St. Germany attacked a third time on May 27 near the Aisne River. 1918. Allied leaders appointed General Ferdinand Foch for France to the supreme commander of the Allied forces on the Western Front. The last offensive of World War I began on September 26. On October 30. On July 18 Foch ordered a counter-attack near the town of Soissons. This battle was fought from July 15 through August 6. On July 15 German troops crossed the Marne. By early September. On August 8. The last major battle between Italy and Austria-Hungary began in late October in Italy. US troops drove the Germans out of Belleau Wood. 1918. After winning the battle. Germany had lost all the territory it had gained since spring.-Mihiel. The critical point in World War I was the Second Battle of Marne. Britian's naval blockade had nearly . British troops called off the attack on April 30. American soldiers helped France stop the German advance at the town of Chateau-Thierry. By May 30.

the Germans accepted the armistice terms demanded by the Allies.000 Australia 1.000 soldiers. in the Gallipoli Campaign.154.000 Belgium 1.000 Russia 22.200.000. So.000. and other war materials.000 Bulgaria 815.000. Foch ordered the fighting to stop on the Western Front at 11 am.265.477.000 South Africa 300.960.000.084 soldiers in the land attacks and 179. .1918.000 Central Powers $(1914-18) Germany 37.400.253.000 Serbia 399.000.000 Greece 270. In these wars.000 soldiers in the naval attack and totally 211. World War I was over! War Costs Triple Alliance $(1914-18) USA 22.950.000 England 35.000 Italy 12.000 Total 125.775. Germany agreed to evacuate the terrorities it had taken during the war.000.279.000 New Zelland 378. In the early morning on November 11.293.576.000. and to allow Allied powers to occupy German territory along the Rhine River.000 Canada 1.334.000 Total 60. The Turkish causality is 57.643. to surrender larger numbers of arms. enemies of the Ottoman Empire could supply their soldiers and resources from their colonies. military losses seriously affected the Ottoman Empire.000.665.600.750.413. For example.160. according to the Turkish sources.423.998.000 France 24.468.000 During the war.000 Others 500.000 Japan 40. the Allies' total casualties are 187.000 Austria-Hungary 20.000 soldiers.starved German people and widespread discontent led to roits and rising demands for peace.000 Romania 1.430.625.000 India 601.690.583.000 Ottoman Empire 1.622.012.208.000 Colonies of England 125.

many educated. Their loss had negatively effected Turkey in coming years. . intellectual Turkish people had died.