# INEQUALITIES

Ozgur Kircak

September 27, 2009

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Contents

1 MEANS INEQUALITIES 5
1.1 EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2 CAUCHY-SCHWARZ INEQUALITY 11
2.1 EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3 REARRANGEMENT INEQUALITY 17
3.1 EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4 CHEBYSHEV’S INEQUALITY 21
4.1 EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5 MIXED PROBLEMS 25

6 PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 29
6.1 Years 1996 ∼ 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.2 Years 1990 ∼ 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.3 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

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4 CONTENTS

Chapter 1

MEANS INEQUALITIES

a1 +a2 +...+an
Definition 1 Arithmetic mean of a1 , a2 , ..., an is AM = n

Definition 2 Geometric mean of a1 , a2 , ..., an is GM = n
a1 · a2 · ... · an

n
Definition 3 Harmonic mean of a1 , a2 , ..., an is HM = 1
+ a1 +...+ a1n
a1 2

q
a21 +a22 +...+a2n
Definition 4 Quadratic mean of a1 , a2 , ..., an is QM = n

q
r ar1 +ar2 +...+arn
Definition 5 The rth power mean of a1 , a2 , ..., an is Pr = n

Theorem 1 Let ai ∈ R+

QM (a1 , a2 , ..., an ) ≥ AM (a1 , a2 , ..., an ) ≥ GM (a1 , a2 , ..., an ) ≥ HM (a1 , a2 , ..., an )

and equality holds if and only if a1 = a2 = ... = an .

Theorem 2 Let ai ∈ R+ then Pr1 ≥ Pr2 whenever r1 ≥ r2 .

Example 1 Let a, b, c > 0, prove that a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ ab + bc + ca.

Solution: By AM-GM inequality we have a2 + b2 ≥ 2ab. Similarly, b2 + c2 ≥ 2bc
and a2 + c2 ≥ 2ac. Adding these three inequalities we get

2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) ≥ 2(ab + bc + ca) =⇒ a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ ab + bc + ca.

Let’s link this result since we will use it in many problems.

a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ ab + bc + ca (1.1)

5

a b c q b+c+a a·b·c a b c Solution: By AM-GM we have 3 ≥ 3 b·c·a = 1. then b + c + a ≥ 3. Example 3 Prove that for any positive real numbers a. b + c + a ≥ 3. b. 2 2 Since the terms are not equal we have strict inequality. 3 + 3 3 + 3 − 3 3 < 2 3 3. b. Solution: By AM − P3 we have. a+b b+c c+a 2(a + b + c) Solution: By AM-HM inequality. b+c b+c b+c 2 This inequality is called Nesbitt’s inequality. p 3 √ 3 p 3 √ 3 √ Example 5 Prove that 3+ 3+ 3− 3 < 2 3 3. c > 0. 1 1 1 9 + + ≥ .6 CHAPTER 1. . (1. √ √ √ √ p p s p p 3 3 3+ 33+ 3− 33 3 ( 3 3 3 + 3 3)3 + ( 3 − 3 3)3 √ 3 ≤ = 3. p 3 √ p 3 √ √ So. So. we have 1 1 1 a+b + b+c + c+a 3 3 ≥ 1 1 1 = . 3 1 + 1 + 1 2(a + b + c) a+b b+c c+a Therefore. c > 0 then a b c 3 + + ≥ . b. MEANS INEQUALITIES a b c Example 2 Prove that if a. 1 1 1 9 (a + b + c)[ + + ]≥ a+b b+c c+a 2 a+b+c a+b+c a+b+c 9 ⇐⇒ + + ≥ a+b b+c c+a 2 a a a 9 ⇐⇒ +1+ +1+ +1≥ b+c b+c b+c 2 a a a 3 ⇐⇒ + + ≥ . a+b b+c c+a 2(a + b + c) Example 4 Prove that if a.2) b+c c+a a+b 2 Solution: By the previous example we have. c we have 1 1 1 9 + + ≥ .

c > 0. then (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ≥ 8abc. xy yz zx x y x2 y2 z2 (b) y2 + z2 + + yz + xy . then 1 1 1 3 + + ≥ . c > 0. . then ab bc ca + 2 + 2 ≥ 3. b. Prove that if a. y. c. 2. then ab bc ca + + ≥ a + b + c. Prove that if a. Prove that if x. z are real numbers with z > 0. b.1. then x2 + y 2 + 12z 2 + 1 ≥ x + y + 1. x4 + y 2 x + y4 xy 6. b. Prove that for any positive real numbers a. x2 ≥ x z 2 2 2 q (c) xy + yz + zx ≥ x yz + y xz + z xy . b. c > 0 and a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. 7. c a b 5. b.1. c > 0.1 EXERCISES 1. z > 0. Prove that (a + b − c)(b + c − a)(c + a − b) ≤ abc if (a) a. Prove that if x. c we have √ (a + 2)(b + 3)(c + 6) ≥ 48 abc. then (a) √1 + √1 + √1 ≤ 1 + 1 + z1 . c are positive real numbers. Prove that the inequality (3a + b + c)2 ≥ 12a(b + c) holds for any real numbers a. b. b. Prove that if a. c are sides of a triangle (b) a. EXERCISES 7 1. 1 + ab 1 + bc 1 + ca 2 8. x y 1 + 2 ≤ . Prove that if x. Prove that if a. 4z 9. p p √ √ √ (d) x4 + y 4 + z 4 ≥ xyz( xy + yz + zx). b. 10. c2 a b 4. y > 0 then. 3. y.

y. √ √ 20. Prove that if a and b are positive real numbers... x+y 4x 4y 12... 2 x 1 19... 2 (x + y)2 (y + z)2 (z + x)2 17.. Let x > y > 0 and xy = 1. b. S − a1 S − a2 S − an n−1 18. + a2009 1 + a1 + a3 . Prove that x y − 1 + y x − 1 ≤ xy. 14. y ≥ 1. Let x. Prove the inequality x4 + y 4 + 8 ≥ 8xy for positive real numbers x... + a2009 1 + a1 + a2 + .. MEANS INEQUALITIES 11. b a 15.. Prove that if a1 . 1+a 1+b 1+c 2 1+a 1+b 1+c 13.8 CHAPTER 1. Prove that if x > y ≥ 0. then 1 1 1 ≤ + . Prove that x−y > 2 2. + a2009 = 1. a2 . an are distinct positive real numbers and a1 + a2 + .   1 1 1 1 8( − xy − yz − zx) + + ≥ 9. then a b (1 + )n + (1 + )n ≥ 2n+1 ... x2 +1 x2 +y 2 √ 22. + a2008 where a1 . + > . then 1 1 25 (p + )2 + (q + )2 ≥ . Prove that if x + y + z = 1 then. Let a.. y > 0. .+ 1 + a2 + a3 + . Prove that for any x ∈ R we have 1+x 4 ≤ 2. + an = S. then S S S n2 + + . Prove that if p. Find the minimum value of a1 a2 a2009 + +.. q > 0 and p + q = 1. Prove the inequality √x +2 ≥ 2 for any x ∈ R. c ≥ 0 and a + b + c ≤ 3.. 4 23. Prove that a b c 3 1 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 ≤ ≤ + + .. a2 . . .. a2009 > 0 and a1 + a2 + . Prove that if x.. then x + (x−y)(y+1)2 ≥ 3.. 2 21. p q 2 16.

c be positive real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. x + 2y + 2z y + 2z + 2x z + 2x + 2y 5 36. z > 0. 33. y. c > 0.1. 29. b. z we have x y z 3 + + ≥ . c > 0. Prove that if a. Prove that for positive real numbers x. c > 0.1. b2 c 2 c2 a2 a2 b2 bc ca ab √ √ √ √ 37. Prove that if x3 + y 3 = 2. Prove that if a + b + c = 3. 26. Prove that if a + b ≥ 1. a b c d 32. then a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 31 . c be positive real numbers with a3 + b3 + c3 = 24. 27. then a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 3 ≥ ab + bc + ca. c > 0 then 1 1 1 27 + + ≥ . y. Prove that if a. Prove that the inequality (a + b + c)2 a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ ≥ ab + bc + ca 3 holds for any real numbers a. 38. b. Prove that if a. Prove that if x. then x2 y2 z2 x y z 2 + 2 + 2 ≥ + + . b. 31. Prove that a + b + c ≤ 6. b. Prove the inequality 2 x + 1 − 2 x < √1x < 2 x − 2 x − 1 for x ≥ 1. Prove that if a. b(a + b) c(b + c) a(c + a) 2(a + b + c)2 . c > 0 then bc + ca + ab ≥ a + b + c. Prove that 1 1 1 + + ≥ 1. b. b. then a4 + b4 ≥ 81 . then x + y ≤ 2. 25. then b+c+d + a+c+d + a+b+d + a+b+c ≥ 34 . y z x y z x 30. Let a. c. Prove that if a + b + c = 1. then a4 b4 c4 a2 b2 c2 + + ≥ + + . Let a. Prove that a3 − a + 2 b3 − b + 2 c3 − c + 2 + + ≥ 3. b+c c+a a+b 35. 34. b. EXERCISES 9 a3 b3 c3 24. Let a. b. a+b+1 b+c+1 c+a+1 28.

3b + 3c 3c + 3a 3a + 3b 2 41. Find the positive real numbers x. Prove that if a. z ∈ R 2 x+ = 2y.10 CHAPTER 1. Prove that for x. z. b. . Solve the system in R+ a + b + c + d = 12 abcd = 27 + ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd. 43. 4x2 + 1 4y 2 = z. MEANS INEQUALITIES 39. Prove that if a. 4y 2 + 1 4z 2 = x. y. y. y 2 z + = 2x. z 45. (1 + x)2 (1 + y)2 x+y+2 40. y > 0. 8 = 2xy + 2zt + xz + xt + yz + yt. x 2 y + = 2z. Solve the system where x. then 3 6 1+ ≥ . t satisfying the system 16xyzt = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 )(xyz + xyt + xzt + yzt). Solve the system in the set of real numbers 4x2 = y. c > 0 then a3 + 2 b3 + 2 c3 + 2 3 + + ≥ . c > 0. b. 4z 2 + 1 44. 1 1 2 √ + √ ≥ . ab + bc + ca a+b+c 42.

then (x21 + x22 + . + x2n )(y12 + y22 + . + yn2 ) ≥ (x1 y1 + x2 y2 + . (a+b+c)2 Example 6 Prove that a2 +b2 +c2 ≥ 3 for any real numbers a. 11 . = yn .. x2 y2 z2 x+y+z Therefore. x+y y+z z+x 2 Solution: By Cauchy-Schwarz inequality we have √ √ √   2 2 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 [( x + y) + ( y + z) + ( z + x) ] ( √ ) + (√ ) + (√ ) ≥ x+y y+z z+x 2 √ √ √  x y z x+y· √ + y+z· √ + z+x· √ = (x + y + z)2 x+y y+z z+x  2  x y2 z2 So. (a+b+c)2 Therefore. x+y + y+z + z+x ≥ 2 . Prove that x2 y2 z2 x+y+z + + ≥ .. Solution: By Cauchy-Schwarz we have that (12 + 12 + 12 )(a2 + b2 + c2 ) ≥ (1 · a + 1 · b + 1 · c)2 = (a + b + c)2 . what we got is (2x + 2y + 2z) x+y + y+z + z+x ≥ (x + y + z)2 . b. z be positive real numbers. a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 3 ... + xn yn )2 x1 x2 xn and equality holds if and only if y1 = y2 = ... Example 7 Let x.Chapter 2 CAUCHY-SCHWARZ INEQUALITY Theorem 3 (Cauchy-Schwarz)If xi .. yi are real numbers.. c. y.

We can generalize this result as: x21 x2 x2 (x1 + x2 + .... c > 0.1) as desired.. So by (2. + xn )2 + 2 + .1) y1 y2 yn y1 + y2 + . + n ≥ (2. .1) we have a4 b4 c4 (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 a2 + b2 + c2 LHS = + + ≥ ≥ ab + ac bc + ba ca + cb 2(ab + bc + ca) 2 by (1. Prove that b+c + c+a + a+b ≥ 2 . + yn a3 b3 c3 a2 +b2 +c2 Example 8 Let a... CAUCHY-SCHWARZ INEQUALITY This is a very useful trick that can be applied to many problems. a3 a4 b3 b4 Solution: We can write b+c = ab+ac and similarly c+a = bc+ba and c3 c4 a+b = ca+cb . b.12 CHAPTER 2.

y. Prove that if x. then   1 1 1 1 8( − xy − yz − zx) + + ≥ 9. Prove that if a. + xk = 9 1 1 1 + + . b. Prove that c(a − c) + c(b − c) ≤ ab. then a2 b2 c2 3 + + ≥ . Prove that if a. .1. c. a b c 1 48. 47. y. c > 0. 51. Prove that if a. d be positive real numbers... b > 0. Let a. z are real numbers and a2 + b2 + c2 = 16. Prove that if a. p p √ 57. EXERCISES 13 2. √ √ q 2 q 2 50. z ∈ R. Prove that if a. a b c d a+b+c+d 56.. Let a > c > 0 and b > c > 0. b. y. Prove that if x. b. a.. Solve the system x1 + x2 + .2. c are positive real numbers with abc = 1. b. x. c. Prove that p √ √ (a + c)(b + d) ≥ ab + cd. b. then 1 1 4 16 64 + + + ≥ . x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 25 a+b+c and ax + by + cz = 20. y > 0 and x + 3y = 1 then x2 + y 2 ≥ 10 . c > 0 then a b c 9 + + ≥ .1 EXERCISES (x+2y+3z)2 46. (b + c)2 (c + a)2 (a + b)2 4(a + b + c) 55. d are positive real numbers. Prove that the inequality x2 +y 2 +z 2 ≥ 14 holds for any x. b. a+b b+c c+a 2 53. then a + b ≤ ab + ba . Compute x+y+z . then 1 1 1 (a + b + c)( + + ) ≥ 9. + =1 x1 x2 xk where xi ∈ R+ . 49. 52. z > 0 and x + y + z = 1. c. 2 (x + y)2 (y + z)2 (z + x)2 54.

c are positive real numbers. Prove that a2 b2 c2 + + ≥ 1. Prove that p ax + by + cz + 2 (xy + yz + zx)(ab + bc + ca) ≤ a + b + c. c. b. b. Let a. c > 0. 2a + b 2b + c 2c + a 67. Prove that a2 b2 c2 + + ≥ 1. Prove that if a. Let a. c. Prove that if a. Prove that if a. b. a+b+1 b+c+1 c+a+1 59. b. b c a b c a 63. z be positive real numbers such that x + y + z = 1. Prove that if a. b. b. z > 0. then a b c + + ≤ 1. Prove that a3 b3 c3 a2 b2 c2 2 + 2+ 2 ≥ + + . Prove that a3 b3 c3 + + ≥ 1. 62. Let a. c be positive real numbers. b. Let a. b + 2c c + 2a a + 2b 66. Let a. c be positive real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3.14 CHAPTER 2. c. c are positive real numbers. c > 0 with abc = 1. a+b+1 b+c+1 c+a+1 60. c d . b. then x4 y4 z4 (x + y + z)4 + + ≥ . d be positive real numbers such that (a2 + b2 )3 = c2 + d2 . CAUCHY-SCHWARZ INEQUALITY 58. Let a. y. b. y. x. then a b c + + ≥ 1. c > 0 with a + b + c = 3. then a b c + + ≥ 1. a3 b3 c3 (a + b + c)3 64. b. x. a + 2b b + 2c c + 2a 65. Prove that a3 b3 + ≥ 1. a + 2b b + 2c c + 2a 61.

. y.. Prove that a b c 9 2 + 2 + 2 ≥ . x y z 71.. b. z > 0 and (a2 + b2 + c2 )3 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 .. c. c are positive real numbers.. a2 . then 27a2 (b + c)2 + ≥ 12b. Prove that if a. c > 0 with abc = 1. c > 0 with a + b + c = 3. b(b + c) c(c + a) a(a + b) 4(a + b2 + c2 ) 2 75. b1 . b. Let a1 . EXERCISES 15 68. Let a. Show that a21 a22 a2n a1 + a2 + . b. d ≥ 0 with ab + bc + cd + da = 1. + ≥ . Let a.. Let a..1. b.. b2 . Prove that a2 (b + 1) b2 (c + 1) c2 (a + 1) + + ≥ 2. then a3 b3 c3 + + ≥ 1. bn be positive real numbers such that a1 + a2 + ... c > 0. Prove that a4 + b4 a2 + b2 ≥ . x.2. b be positive real numbers. . Let a. + bn . c a 72. a1 + b1 a2 + b2 an + bn 2 74. + an + + . . Prove that a2 + b2 + 1 b2 + c2 + 1 c2 + a2 + 1 + + ≥ 3. + an = b1 + b2 + . a+b+1 b+c+1 c+a+1 70. an . c... Let a. b+c+d a+c+d a+b+d a+b+c 3 73. Prove that a3 b3 c3 d3 1 + + + ≥ .. b. b.. Prove that if a. a + b + ab b + c + bc c + a + ca . a3 + b3 a+b 69.

16 CHAPTER 2. CAUCHY-SCHWARZ INEQUALITY .

.. + an bn is called ordered sum and the number B = a1 bn + a2 bn−1 + . The number A = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + . Theorem 4 Let a1 ≤ a2 ≤ . ≤ an and b1 ≤ b2 ≤ . c a b Solution: WLOG. WLOG we can assume that a ≥ b ≥ c.. By Rearrangement inequality we have...Chapter 3 REARRANGEMENT INEQUALITY Definition 6 Let a1 ≤ a2 ≤ . + an xn is called a mixed sum.. then ab bc ca + + ≥ a + b + c. ≤ bn . c the inequality a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ ab + bc + ca holds.. ≤ bn be given. c are positive real numbers.. Then ab ≥ ac ≥ bc and 1 1 1 c ≥ b ≥ a . bn then X = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + . x2 . ≤ an and b1 ≤ b2 ≤ .. 1 1 1 1 1 1 LHS = ab · + ac · + bc · ≥ ab · + ac · + bc · = a + b + c. Solution: Since the inequality is symmetric... + an b1 is called reversed sum.. Example 9 Prove that for positive real numbers a. xn is a permutation of b1 . So by Rearrangement inequality. For any mixed sum X we have B ≤ X ≤ A. b.... we can assume that a ≥ b ≥ c... being the ordered sum a2 + b2 + c2 = a · a + b · b + c · c ≥ a · b + b · c + c · a... Example 10 Prove that if a. c b a a c b 17 . . . b. b2 .. And if x1 .

REARRANGEMENT INEQUALITY Example 11 Prove that if a. Let xi ∈ R+ and y1 .. b+c c+a a+b 2 78. 77. . Prove that if a. . + n ≥ x1 + x2 + . b. b. bc ca ab 3.1 EXERCISES 76... x2 x3 x1 . c are positive real numbers. b. xn be positive real numbers... y2 .. + xn . being the reversed sum 1 1 1 1 1 1 a + b + c = a2 · + b2 · + c2 · ≤ a2 · + b2 · + c2 · a b c c a b Combining these two inequalities we get that a3 b3 c3 + + ≥ a + b + c.. + n ≥ x1 + x2 + .. Prove that x21 x2 x2 + 2 + . + xn . Let x1 . x2 . bc ca ab Solution: By symmetry assume that a ≥ b ≥ c then a3 ≥ b3 ≥ c3 and 1 1 1 bc ≥ ca ≥ ab . Let a.. Prove that x21 x2 x2 + 2 + .. c be positive real numbers... By Rearrangement inequality we have that 1 1 1 1 1 1 a2 b2 c2 LHS = a3 · + b3 · + c 3 · ≥ a3 · + b3 · + c3 · = + + bc ca ab ca ab bc c a b And again by Rearrangement inequality. . c are positive real numbers.. xn .. yn be a permutation of x1 . then a b c 3 + + ≥ . Prove that (a) a3 + b3 ≥ ab(a + b) (b) a5 + b5 ≥ ab(a3 + b3 ) (c) a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a √ √ √ (d) ab + bc + ca ≥ a bc + b ca + c ab a2 b2 c2 (e) b + c + a ≥a+b+c a2 b2 c2 b c a (f) b2 + c2 + a2 ≥ a + b + c (g) abc(ab + bc + ca) ≤ a b + b3 c2 + c3 a23 2 a b c a b c (h) b+c + c+a + a+b ≥ a+b + b+c + c+a .. y1 y2 yn 79. x2 . then a3 b3 c3 + + ≥ a + b + c...18 CHAPTER 3.

an be distinct positive integers.. Prove that if for any a.3. c we have a2 b2 c2 a2 b2 c2 a2 b2 c2 + + ≥ + + ≥ + + a+b b+c c+a b+c c+a a+b c+a a+b b+c then a = b = c.. .. Prove that a1 a2 an 1 1 1 + 2 + . b....1.. + . EXERCISES 19 80. + 2 ≥ + + . a2 . Prove that 1 a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 ≥ (a1 + a2 + a3 )(b1 + b2 + b3 ) 3 . Let a1 . 82. Let a1 ≥ a2 ≥ a3 and b1 ≥ b2 ≥ b3 . 12 2 n 1 2 n 81.

REARRANGEMENT INEQUALITY .20 CHAPTER 3.

we can assume that a ≥ b ≥ c then 1 1 1 b+c ≥ c+a ≥ a+b ... ≥ bn . b+c c+a a+b 2 21 . Solution: By Chebyshev’s inequality. n Example 12 Prove that a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 31 (a + b + c)2 .. Then 1 a1 b1 +a2 b2 +. 3 3 Example 13 Let a.+an b1 .1) and (4.+an bn ≥ (a1 +a2 +..+an )(b1 +b2 +.. 1 1 a2 + b2 + c2 = a · a + b · b + c · c ≥ (a + b + c)(a + b + c) = (a + b + c)2 .1) b+c c+a a+b 3 b+c c+a a+b And by AM-HM we have 1 1 1 1 3 3 ( + + )≥ = (4... b+c c+a a+b 2 Solution: Due to symmetry.. Prove that a b c 3 + + ≥ .+bn ) ≥ a1 bn +a2 bn−1 +.2) 3 b+c c+a a+b b+c+c+a+a+b 2(a + b + c) Combining (4. c > 0. ≥ an and b1 ≥ b2 ≥ .Chapter 4 CHEBYSHEV’S INEQUALITY Theorem 5 Let a1 ≥ a2 ≥ . So by Chebyshev’s inequality we have a b c 1 1 1 1 + + ≥ (a + b + c)( + + ) (4. a b c 3 + + ≥ ..... b.2) we get.

then a2 b2 c2 3 + + ≥ . Prove that if a. Prove that if a. Prove that if a. then a b c 3 + + ≥ . b. then a3 b3 c3 ab + bc + ca + + ≥ .1 EXERCISES 83. suppose that a ≥ b ≥ c. So by Chebyshev’s inequality we have. b. c > 0. a + 2b + 2c b + 2c + 2a c + 2a + 2b 5 85. c > 0. then (a+b)(a2 +b2 ) (a) a3 + b3 ≥ 2 an+1 +bn+1 (b) an +bn ≥ a+b 2 4 4 4 (c) a + b + c ≥ abc(a + b + c) (a+b+c)3 (d) a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ 9 84. a2 b2 c2 1 1 1 1 + + ≥ (a2 + b2 + c2 )( + + ) b+c c+a a+b 3 b+c c+a a+b By Example 11 and (4. b. Prove that if a.2) we have that 1 2 1 1 1 (a + b + c)2 3 (a + b2 + c2 )( + + )≥ · = 3 b+c c+a a+b 3 2(a + b + c) √ 3 a+b+c abc = ≥ 2 2 4. b+c c+a a+b 2 Solution: WLOG. c > 0 and abc = 1. Then a2 ≥ b2 ≥ c2 and 1 1 1 b+c ≥ c+a ≥ a+b . CHEBYSHEV’S INEQUALITY Example 14 Prove that if a.22 CHAPTER 4. b+c c+a a+b 2 . c > 0. b. a + 3b + 3c b + 3c + 3a c + 3a + 3b 7 86. c > 0 and abc = 1. a + 2b + 2c b + 2c + 2a c + 2a + 2b 5 87. Prove that if a. b. then a2 b2 c2 3 + + ≥ . b. c > 0. then a b c 3 + + ≥ .

Prove that if a. c > 0 with a + b + c = 1.1. a +b b +c c + a2 . Prove that if a. Prove that if a. c > 0. Prove that if a. Prove that a3 + b3 b3 + c3 c3 + a3 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 ≥ a + b + c. then b+c c+a a+b 6 + + ≤ . d ≥ 0 with ab + bc + cd + da = 1. z be positive real numbers with xyz = 1 and a ≥ 1. c. b+c+1 c+a+1 a+b+1 93. y. Let a. b3 +c 3 c +a 3 a +b 3 6 96. Prove that if a. a + 2b + 2c b + 2c + 2a c + 2a + 2b 5 92. Prove that xa ya za 3 + + ≥ . then a3 b3 c3 + + ≥ 1. c > 0 and abc = 1 then a b c + + ≥ 1. c > 0 with abc = 1. c > 0. EXERCISES 23 88. a + 3b + 3c b + 3c + 3a c + 3a + 3b 7 91.4. b. b+c+d a+c+d a+b+d a+b+c 3 90. b. b. b+c+1 c+a+1 a+b+1 89. c > 0. Let a. Let x. b. then b+c c+a a+b 6 + + ≤ . c > 0 then a5 b5 c5 (a + b + c)2 + 3 + 3 ≥ . b. b. b. y+z z+x x+y 2 94. Prove that a3 b3 c3 d3 1 + + + ≥ . then a3 b3 c3 1 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 ≥ . b. Prove that if a. b +c c +a a +b 2 95.

24 CHAPTER 4. CHEBYSHEV’S INEQUALITY .

b. c > 0 and abc = 1. a+b+1 b+c+1 c+a+1 99. y. b. y. (IMO95/2) Let a. Prove that if x. z > 0 then xy yz zx + 2 + ≤ 1. Let a. and c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. b. Chapter 5 MIXED PROBLEMS 97. 1 + 2bc 1 + 2ca 1 + 2ab 5 103. Prove that if x. then 1 1 1 + + ≤ 1. x2 + xy + yz y + yz + zx z 2 + zx + xy 100. b. Prove that a2 b2 c2 3 + + ≥ . c be real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. Prove that if a. Prove that if a. then 1 1 1 + 3 + 3 ≤ 1. c > 0 and abc = 1. a5 + b + ab b + c + bc c + a5 + ca 5 5 102. 3x2 + 2y 2 + z 2 3y + 2z 2 + x2 3z + 2x2 + y 2 2 101. b. c > 0 and abc = 1. Prove that 1 1 1 3 3 + 3 + 3 ≥ . z > 0 then xy yz zx 1 + 2 + 2 ≤ . Prove that if a. a (b + c) b (c + a) c (a + b) 2 25 . then ab bc ca + 5 + 5 ≤ 1. a3 + b + 1 b + c + 1 c + a3 + 1 3 3 98.

111. c > 0 with a + b + c = 1. Let a. Let a. a +b b +c c +a 2 105. c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. . Prove that if a. c. MIXED PROBLEMS 104. then prove that √ p abc + (1 − a)(1 − b)(1 − c) < 1. Let a. Prove that √ √ √ x + y + z ≥ xy + yz + zx. c. b. b. If a. Prove that a b c + + ≥ a + b + c. Let a. c be positive real numbers with product 1. c > 0 and abc = 1. b. c be positive real numbers such that abc ≤ 1. Prove that 1 1 1 (a − 1 + )(b − 1 + )(c − 1 + ) ≤ 1. z be positive real numbers with sum 3. b. 113. Prove that 3(a2 − ab + b2 ) ≥ a2 + ab + b2 for any real numbers a and b. Prove that a3 b3 c3 1 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 ≥ . a+b+c ab + bc + ca 107. b. c ∈ (0. Prove that a3 b3 c3 a+b+c 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 ≥ a + ab + b b + bc + c c + ca + a 3 for positive real numbers a. b. Prove that ab bc ca a+b+c + + ≤ . (Russia2002) Let x. p p p √ 3 2 110. b c a 108. y. Prove that b+c c+a a+b √ √ √ √ + √ + √ ≥ a + b + c + 3. Prove that a2 + (b − 1)2 + b2 + (c − 1)2 + c2 + (a − 1)2 ≥ 2 for arbitrary real numbers a. b. (IMO2000/2) Let a. 112. b. c be positive real numbers. then 3 6 1+ ≥ .26 CHAPTER 5. b c a 106. a + b + 2c b + c + 2a c + a + 2b 4 114. b. a b c 109. 1).

Let a. d the inequality holds √3 √3 p ab + cd ≤ 3 (a + c + b)(a + c + d). 27 115. b. b. Prove that 1 1 1 9 + + ≥ p . √ b = y 2 + yz + z 2 . c be positive real numbers. Let x. 123. Prove that ab3 bc3 ca3 + + + 3abc ≥ 2(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a). c = z 2 + zx + x2 . a4 + b4 b4 + c4 c4 + a 4 2 125. b − bc + c c − ca + a a − ab + b a+b+c 116. b. Prove that if a. Prove that if a. Prove that a b c √ +√ +√ ≥ 1. c > 0. z be positive reals with x + y + z = 1 and let a = x2 + xy + y 2 . b. c a b 124. Let a. a+b b+c c+a a + b + c + 3(ab + bc + ca) 121. Prove that a+b+1 b+c+1 c+a+1 (a + 1)(b + 1)(c + 1) + 1 2 3 + 2 3 + 2 3 ≤ . b. p 119. then a5 b5 c5 1 + + ≥ . Prove that x3 + y 3 ≤ 2. b. then a3 + b3 b3 + c3 c3 + a3 + + ≥ a + b + c. Let a. b. a+b +c b+c +a c+a +b a+b+c 122. c > 0 with abc = 1. a2 + 8bc 2 b + 8ca 2 c + 8ab 117. Prove that if a. Prove that for positive real numbers a. a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2 118. y > 0 and x2 + y 3 ≥ x3 + y 4 . b. b. Prove that ab + bc + ca ≥ 1. then a3 b3 c3 3(ab + bc + ca) 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 ≥ . c be positive real numbers. Let a. c > 0. c > 0 with abc = 1. 120. Prove that a b c + + ≤ 1. (IMO2001/2)Let a. py. c. a2 + 2 b2 + 2 c2 + 2 . c are positive real numbers with a + b + c = 1. If x. c are positive.

Let a. MIXED PROBLEMS 126. ay + bz az + bx ax + by a+b . then X a3 + b3 + 1 ≥ 3. Prove that if a. Prove that yz zx xy + 2 + ≥ 1. c > 0. 2x2 + yz 2y + zx 2z 2 + xy 135. z be positive reals. yz(xz + y 2 + yz) 133. Prove that x3 y3 z3 + + ≤ 1. Prove that x4 y4 z4 + + ≥ 48. (MMO/2009) Let a. 2x2 + yz 2y 2 + zx 2z 2 + xy 136. (Mathematical Excalibur) Let x. Prove that if x. y. Prove that x2 y2 z2 + + ≤ 1. x3 yz + yz 4 2 129. z > 0. x. 3 3 134. y. Let x. y. z ∈ R+ . y. z be positive reals. Prove that a b c 1 + 2 + 2 ≥ . z ∈ R+ we have: X x5 3 ≥ . z > 1. b. a2 + b2 + 1 132. a2 + b + 1 b2 + c + 1 c2 + a + 1 131. y. a2 − bc + 1 b − ca + 1 c − ab + 1 a+b+c 128. Prove that r a+b+c 3 3 3 27 a + b + c ≥ . c > 0 with (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 8. y(x2 + 2y 2 ) z(y 2 + 2z 2 ) x(z 2 + 2x2 ) 130. b. Prove that ∀x. Let a. Let x. Prove that x y z 3 + + ≥ . b. then X x2 z 2 + y 4 + y 2 z 2 ≥ 3. y. z > 0. b. (y − 1)2 (z − 1)2 (x − 1)2 127.28 CHAPTER 5. Prove that if a. c > 0 with abc = 1. then a b c + + ≤ 1. y. c > 0 such that ab + bc + ca = 31 . Let x. b.

c > 0) a b c d + + + ≥1 b + 2c + d c + 2d + a d + 2a + b a + 2b + c 1 1 + 1c . b. a. Proposed by Serbia and Montenegro) (a. c > 0) b+c c+a a+b 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 ≥ + + a2 b c a b c 3 (Romania 2005. Traian Tamaian) (a. b. b. Cezar Lupu) (1 = (a + b)(b + c)(c + a). c > 0  4 (Romania 2005. c > 0) 3 ab + bc + ca ≥ 4 29 .Chapter 6 PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS (From ’Inequalities Through Problems’-Hojoo Lee) 1 (BMO 2005. a. b. Cezar Lupu) a + b + c ≥ a + b 3 a+b+c≥ abc 5 (Romania 2005. Cezar Lupu) (a. c > 0) a2 b2 c2 4(a − b)2 + + ≥a+b+c+ b c a a+b+c 2 (Romania 2005. b.

b. b. Unused) (a + b + c ≥ b + c + ac . a. a. c > 0) a b c 3 + + ≥ (a + 1)(b + 1) (b + 1)(c + 1) (c + 1)(a + 1) 4 13 (Japan 2005) (a + b + c = 1. b. c > 0) 1 1 1 a (1 + b − c) 3 + b (1 + c − a) 3 + c (1 + a − b) 3 ≤ 1 . b. Unused) (abc = 1. a. b. b. a. a. b. c > 0) r a b c 3 √ +√ +√ ≥ b+c c+a a+b 2 11 (Romania 2005. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 6 (Romania 2005. c > 0) a b c 3 + + ≥ b2 (c + 1) c2 (a + 1) a2 (b + 1) 2 a b 9 (Romania 2005. Unused) (a + b + c = 1. b. a. a. Unused) (ab + bc + ca + 2abc = 1. c > 0) a2 b2 c2 ≥ (3 − 2a)(3 − 2b)(3 − 2c) 7 (Romania 2005) (abc ≥ 1. c > 0) 1 1 1 + + ≤1 1+a+b 1+b+c 1+c+a 8 (Romania 2005. a. c > 0) √ √ √ 3 ab + bc + ca ≥ 2 12 (Chzech and Solvak 2005) (abc = 1. Robert Szasz) (a + b + c = 3. c > 0) a3 c b3 a c3 b 3 + + ≥ b(c + a) c(a + b) a(b + c) 2 10 (Romania 2005.30 CHAPTER 6.

b. c > 0) a b c + + ≤1 a2 + 2 b2 + 2 c2 + 2 . d > 0) 1 1 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 + ≥1 (1 + a) (1 + b) (1 + c) (1 + d)2 18 (China 2005) (ab + bc + ca = 13 . b. b. 31 14 (Germany 2005) (a + b + c = 1. c ≤ 1) a b c + + ≤2 bc + 1 ca + 1 ab + 1 20 (Poland 2005) (ab + bc + ca = 3. b. c > 0)  3  3  3 a b c 3 + + ≥ a+b b+c c+a 8 16 (China 2005) (a + b + c = 1. a. a. c > 0) a3 + b3 + c3 + 6abc ≥ 9 21 (Baltic Way 2005) (abc = 1. a. b. c. a. a. b. c ≥ 0) 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 ≤3 a2 − bc + 1 b − ca + 1 c − ab + 1 19 (Poland 2005) (0 ≤ a. c > 0)   b c a 1+a 1+b 1+c 2 + + ≥ + + a b b 1−a 1−b 1−c 15 (Vietnam 2005) (a. b. b. a. c > 0) 10(a3 + b3 + c3 ) − 9(a5 + b5 + c5 ) ≥ 1 17 (China 2005) (abcd = 1.

c > 0)  2   a b c 1 1 1 + + ≥ (a + b + c) + + b c a a b c 26 (Austria 2005) (a. a. b. c > 0) √ √ √ 1 a b+b c+c a≤ √ 3 25 (Iran 2005) (a. b. b. c > 0) √ √ √ a + b + c ≥ ab + bc + ca 24 (Bosnia and Hercegovina 2005) (a + b + c = 1. y. b. d > 0) 1 1 1 1 a+b+c+d 3 + 3+ 3+ 3 ≥ a b c d abcd 27 (Moldova 2005) (a4 + b4 + c4 = 3. c > 0) 1 1 1 + + ≤1 4 − ab 4 − bc 4 − ca 28 (APMO 2005) (abc = 8. a. b. a. b. c > 0) r a b c 3 √ +√ +√ ≥ (a + b + c) b+c c+a a+b 2 23 (Serbia and Montenegro 2005) (a + b + c = 3. z > 0) x5 − x2 y5 − y2 z5 − z2 + 5 + 5 ≥0 x5 2 +y +z 2 y +z +x2 2 z + x2 + y 2 . PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 22 (Serbia and Montenegro 2005) (a. a.32 CHAPTER 6. x. c. c > 0) a2 b2 c2 4 p +p +p ≥ (1 + a3 )(1 + b3 ) (1 + b3 )(1 + c3 ) (1 + c3 )(1 + a3 ) 3 29 (IMO 2005) (xyz ≥ 1. b.

c > 0) (a2 + 2)(b2 + 2)(c2 + 2) ≥ 9(ab + bc + ca) 35 (USA 2004) (a. y. 33 30 (Poland 2004) (a + b + c = 0. c ∈ R) b2 c2 + c2 a2 + a2 b2 + 3 ≥ 6abc 31 (Baltic Way 2004) (abc = 1. c > 0. b. c > 0) (2a + b + c)2 (2b + c + a)2 (2c + a + b)2 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 ≤8 2a + (b + c) 2b + (c + a) 2c + (a + b)2 . b. c > 0) r r r 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 + 6b + + 6c + + 6a ≤ a b c abc 34 (APMO 2004) (a. a. 0)}) √ 2 2 x+y 2 2 ≥ 2 x +y x − xy + y 2 33 (IMO Short List 2004) (ab + bc + ca = 1. y) ∈ R2 − {(0. a. a. c > 0) (a5 − a2 + 3)(b5 − b2 + 3)(c5 − c2 + 3) ≥ (a + b + c)3 36 (Junior BMO 2003) (x. b. b. z > −1) 1 + x2 1 + y2 1 + z2 + + ≥2 1 + y + z2 1 + z + x2 1 + x + y2 37 (USA 2003) (a. n ∈ N) 1 1 1 + + ≤1 an + bn + 1 bn + cn + 1 cn + an + 1 32 (Junior Balkan 2004) ((x. b. b.

b. Dung Tran Nam) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 9. b. c > 0) 1 1 1 27 + + ≥ b(a + b) c(b + c) a(c + a) 2(a + b + c)2 . b. c ∈ R) 2(a + b + c) − abc ≤ 10 44 (Bosnia and Hercegovina 2002) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. a. d > 0 abcd ≥ 3 40 (Albania 2002) (a. d > 0) p 2|ad − bc| p p p (a + c)2 + (b + d)2 + p ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ≥ (a + c)2 + (b + d)2 (a + c)2 + (b + d)2 42 (Canada 2002) (a. c > 0) a3 b3 c3 + + ≥a+b+c bc ca ab 43 (Vietnam 2002. b. a. y. z > 0) √ √ √ x + y + z ≥ xy + yz + zx   1 1 1 1 39 (Latvia 2002) 1+a4 + 1+b4 + 1+c4 + 1+d4 = 1. c ∈ R) a2 b2 c2 3 + + ≥ 1 + 2bc 1 + 2ca 1 + 2ab 5 45 (Junior BMO 2002) (a. a. b. c. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 38 (Russia 2002) (x + y + z = 3.34 CHAPTER 6. c. c > 0) √   1+ 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 p √ (a + b + c ) + + ≥ a + b + c + a2 + b2 + c2 3 3 a b c 41 (Belarus 2002) (a. x. b. b.

a. b. c ≥ 0) √ a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 3abc 52 (USA 2001) (a2 + b2 + c2 + abc = 4. z > 0) √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x + yz + y + zx + z + xy ≥ xyz + x+ y+ z 50 (Ireland 2001) (x + y = 2. c > 0) a b c 3 √ √ √ 2 + + ≥ a a + b b + c c b2 + 1 c2 + 1 a2 + 1 4 2 47 (Greece 2002) (bc 6= 0. y. c. 21  abcd a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 ≤ (1 − a)(1 − b)(1 − c)(1 − d) (1 − a) + (1 − b)4 + (1 − c)4 + (1 − d)4 4 49 (APMO 2002) ( x1 + 1 y + 1 z = 1. b. a. 35 46 (Greece 2002) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. 1−c bc ≥ 0. x. 51 (BMO 2001) (a + b + c ≥ abc. y ≥ 0) x2 y 2 (x2 + y 2 ) ≤ 2. a. b. y ∈ R) 3(x + y + 1)2 + 1 ≥ 3xy . d ∈ 0. c ∈ R) 10(a2 + b2 + c2 − bc3 ) ≥ 2ab + 5ac 48 (Taiwan 2002) a. a. b. c ≥ 0) 0 ≤ ab + bc + ca − abc ≤ 2 53 (Columbia 2001) (x. b. x.

b. b. c > 0)     1 1 1 a−1+ b−1+ c−1+ ≤1 b c a 58 (Czech and Slovakia 2000) (a. b. c > 0) a b c √ +√ +√ ≥1 a2 + 8bc 2 b + 8ca 2 c + 8ab 6. Titu Andreescu) (abc = 1. n ∈ N. 1]) (1 − xn )m + (1 − (1 − x)m )n ≥ 1 . b. c > 0) 1 + ab2 1 + bc2 1 + ca2 18 3 + 3 + 3 ≥ 3 c a b a + b3 + c3 60 (Czech Republic 2000) (m. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 54 (KMO Winter Program Test 2001) (a. b > 0) s   r r 3 1 1 3 a 3 b 2(a + b) + ≥ + a b b a 59 (Hong Kong 2000) (abc = 1. x ∈ [0.36 CHAPTER 6. a. c > 0) p p p p a4 + b4 + c4 + a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 ≥ a3 b + b3 c + c3 a + ab3 + bc3 + ca3 56 (IMO 2001) (a. b.1 Years 1996 ∼ 2000 57 (IMO 2000. c > 0) p p (a2 b + b2 c + c2 a) (ab2 + bc2 + ca2 ) ≥ abc + 3 (a3 + abc) (b3 + abc) (c3 + abc) 55 (KMO Summer Program Test 2001) (a. a.

y. pp. b.25]) (x. z ≥ 0) 4 x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x ≤ 27 68 (Proposed for 1999 USAMO. z > 0) √ x2 + y 2 + z 2 ≥ 2 (xy + yz) 62 (Russia 1999) (a. b. [AB. YEARS 1996 ∼ 2000 37 61 (Macedonia 2000) (x. q. z > 1) 2 +2yz y 2 +2zx z 2 +2xy xx y z ≥ (xyz)xy+yz+zx . c > 0) 1 1 1 3 + + ≥ 1 + ab 1 + bc 1 + ca 2 64 (Czech-Slovak Match 1999) (a. p. r > 0) 7(pq + qr + rp) ≤ 2 + 9pqr 67 (Canada 1999) (x + y + z = 1. b. a. y.6. b. c > 0) ab bc ca a b c + + ≥ + + c(c + a) a(a + b) b(b + c) c+a b+a c+b 66 (United Kingdom 1999) (p + q + r = 1. c > 0) a b c + + ≥1 b + 2c c + 2a a + 2b 65 (Moldova 1999) (a. c > 0) a2 + 2bc b2 + 2ca c2 + 2ab + 2 + 2 >3 b2 + c2 c + a2 a + b2 63 (Belarus 1999) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 3.1. x. y.

y. x. a. a. z > 1 √ √ p √ x+y+z ≥ x−1+ y−1+ z−1 74 (Belarus 1998. ace + bdf ≥ 108 a. I. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 69 (Turkey. b. Gorodnin) (a. c > 0) √ a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 3abc ≤ 1 72 (Canda 1999) (x + y + z = 1. f > 0 1 abc + bcd + cde + def + ef a + f ab ≤ 36 . b. b. c > 0)      a b  c a+b+c 1+ 1+ 1+ ≥2 1+ √ 3 b c a abc 1  76 (Poland 1998) a + b + c + d + e + f = 1. x. c > 0) 1 √ a+b+c+ ≥4 3 abc 71 (Poland 1999) (a + b + c = 1. b. b. e. c > 0) a b c a+b b+c + + ≥ + +1 b c a b+c a+b 75 (APMO 1998) (a. z ≥ 0) 4 x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x ≤ 27   1 1 1 73 (Iran 1998) x + y + z = 2.38 CHAPTER 6. y. c. 1999) (c ≥ b ≥ a ≥ 0) (a + 3b)(b + 4c)(c + 2a) ≥ 60abc 70 (Macedonia 1999) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. d.

z > 0) 1 1 1 3 √ +p +√ ≤ 1 + x2 1+y 2 1 + z 2 2 78 (Hong Kong 1998) (a. y. x2 . b. z > 0) x3 y3 z3 3 + + ≥ (1 + y)(1 + z) (1 + z)(1 + x) (1 + x)(1 + y) 4 80 (Belarus 1997) (a.6. b. z > 0) √ p 3+ 3 xyz(x + y + z + x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) ≥ 9 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )(xy + yz + zx) 84 (Belarus 1997) (a. x. x.1. b. x1 . YEARS 1996 ∼ 2000 39 77 (Korea 1998) (x + y + z = xyz. c ≥ 1) √ √ √ p a − 1 + b − 1 + c − 1 ≤ c(ab + 1) 79 (IMO Short List 1998) (xyz = 1. y. x. y. + + + x1 x2 x3 x4 83 (Hong Kong 1997) (x. x4 > 0)   3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 ≥ max x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 . x3 . a. z > 0) a+y a+z a+x a+z a+x a+y x+ y+ z ≥x+y+z ≥ x+ y+ z a+x a+x a+y a+z a+y a+z 81 (Ireland 1997) (a + b + c ≥ abc. c ≥ 0) a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ abc 82 (Iran 1997) (x1 x2 x3 x4 = 1. c > 0) a b c a+b b+c c+a + + ≥ + + b c a c+a a+b b+c . y.

x. a. y. b. c > 0) a2 + b2 + c2 − ab − bc − ca ≥ 3(a − b)(b − c) . b. y ∈ R) p p x2 + y 2 + 1 > x y 2 + 1 + y x2 + 1 91 (APMC 1996) (x + y + z + t = 0. c > 0) 1 1 1 1 + + ≤ . a3 + b3 + abc b3 + c3 + abc c3 + a3 + abc abc 89 (Japan 1997) (a. c > 0) a2 b2 c2 bc ca ab + 2 + 2 ≥1≥ 2 + + a2 + 2bc b + 2ca c + 2ab a + 2bc b2 + 2ca c2 + 2ab 88 (USA 1997) (a. b. t ∈ R) −1 ≤ xy + yz + zt + tx ≤ 0 92 (Spain 1996) (a. z > 0) x9 + y 9 y9 + z9 z 9 + x9 + + ≥2 x6 + x3 y 3 + y 6 y6 + y3 z3 + z6 z 6 + z 3 x3 + x6 87 (Romania 1997) (a. y. x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 = 1. z. b. c > 0) (b + c − a)2 (c + a − b)2 (a + b − c)2 3 + + ≥ (b + c)2 + a2 (c + a)2 + b2 (a + b)2 + c2 5 90 (Estonia 1997) (x.40 CHAPTER 6. b. x. c > 0) 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ≤ + + 1+a+b 1+b+c 1+c+a 2+a 2+b 2+c 86 (Romania 1997) (xyz = 1. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 85 (Bulgaria 1997) (abc = 1.

y. a.1. a. YEARS 1996 ∼ 2000 41 93 (IMO Short List 1996) (abc = 1. b. b > 0) a2 b2 1 + ≥ a+1 b+1 3 96 (Vietnam 1996) (a. c > 0) ab bc ca + 5 + 5 ≤1 a5 + b + ab b + c + bc c + a5 + ca 5 5 94 (Poland 1996) a + b + c = 1. d ≥ 0) 2 a+b+c+d≥ (ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) 3 . c. z > 0) xy + yz + zx ≥ 9(x + y + z) 98 (Iran 1996) (a. b. c ∈ R) 4 4 (a + b)4 + (b + c)4 + (c + a)4 ≥ a + b4 + c4  7 √ 97 (Bearus 1996) (x + y + z = xyz. x. b. c > 0)   1 1 1 9 (ab + bc + ca) 2 + 2 + 2 ≥ (a + b) (b + c) (c + a) 4 99 (Vietnam 1996) (2(ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) + abc + bcd + cda + dab = 16. b. a. a. c ≥ − 34  a b c 9 + 2 + 2 ≤ a2 +1 b +1 c +1 10 95 (Hungary 1996) (a + b = 1. b.6.

b. Nazar Agakhanov) (abc = 1. y > 0) (n−1)(m−1)(xn+m +y n+m )+(n+m−1)(xn y m +xm y n ) ≥ nm(xn+m−1 y+xy n+m−1 ) 106 (Hong Kong 1994) (xy + yz + zx = 1. S.2 Years 1990 ∼ 1995 Any good idea can be stated in fifty words or less. a. y > 0) 1 x y ≥ 4 + 4 xy x + y2 y + x2 104 (Macedonia 1995) (a. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 6. c > 0) 1 1 1 3 + + ≥ a3 (b + c) b3 (c + a) c3 (a + b) 2 103 (Russia 1995) (x. x. z > 0) √ 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 x(1 − y )(1 − z ) + y(1 − z )(1 − x ) + z(1 − x )(1 − y ) ≤ 9 .42 CHAPTER 6. c. b. x. M. c > 0) r r r a b c + + ≥2 b+c c+a a+b 105 (APMC 1995) (m. b. c > 0) a+b+c aa bb cc ≥ abc 3 102 (IMO 1995. Ulam 100 (Baltic Way 1995) (a. y. d > 0) a+c b+d c+a d+b + + + ≥4 a+b b+c c+d d+a 101 (Canda 1995) (a. b. n ∈ N.

c. v > 0) xy + xv + uy + uv xy uv ≥ + x+y+u+v x+y u+v 110 (IMO Short List 1993) (a + b + c + d = 1. d > 0) a b c d 2 + + + ≥ b + 2c + 3d c + 2d + 3a d + 2a + 3b a + 2b + 3c 3 108 (APMC 1993) (a. a. c ≤ 1) a2 + b2 + c2 ≤ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a + 1 112 (Poland 1992) (a. x. u. a. b. z ∈ R) x + y + z ≤ 2 + xyz 115 (Mongolia 1991) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 2. b. b ≥ 0) √ !2 √ √ √ u √ √ v √ 3 3 3 3 !3 a+ b a + a2 b + ab2 + b a + ab + b u a2 + b2 ≤ ≤ ≤ t 2 4 3 2 109 (Poland 1993) (x. b. c. c. c ∈ R) (a + b − c)2 (b + c − a)2 (c + a − b)2 ≥ (a2 + b2 − c2 )(b2 + c2 − a2 )(c2 + a2 − b2 ) 113 (Vietnam 1991) (x ≥ y ≥ z > 0) x2 y y 2 z z2x + + ≥ x2 + y 2 + z 2 z x y 114 (Poland 1991) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2. a. d > 0) a3 b3 c3 d3 1 + + + ≥ b+c+d c+d+a d+a+b a+b+c 3 . d > 0) 1 176 abc + bcd + cda + dab ≤ + abcd 27 27 111 (Italy 1993) (0 ≤ a. c ∈ R) √ |a3 + b3 + c3 − abc| ≤ 2 2 116 (IMO Short List 1990) (ab + bc + cd + da = 1.6. y. b. b. YEARS 1990 ∼ 1995 43 107 (IMO Short List 1993) (a. b. y.2.

x. b.3 Supplementary Problems 117 (Lithuania 1987) (x. x. z > 0) 1 x3 + y 3 + z 3 + 6xyz ≥ . b > 0) 1 1 √ √ (a + b)2 + (a + b) ≥ a b + b a 2 4 119 (Yugoslavia 1984) (a. b+c+1 c+a+1 a+b+1 122 (USA 1979) (x + y + z = 1. y. b. z > 0) x3 y3 z3 x+y+z + 2 + 2 ≥ x2 + xy + y 2 y + yz + z 2 z + zx + x2 3 118 (Yugoslavia 1987) (a. y. c ∈ [0. 1]) a b c + + + (1 − a)(1 − b)(1 − c) ≤ 1. b. d > 0) a b c d 1< + + + <2 a+b+d b+c+a b+c+d a+c+d .44 CHAPTER 6. d > 0) a b c d + + + ≥2 b+c c+d d+a a+b 120 (IMO 1984) (x + y + z = 1. c. z ≥ 0) 7 0 ≤ xy + yz + zx − 2xyz ≤ 27 121 (USA 1980) (a. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 6. 4 123 (IMO 1974) (a. c. y.

z < 1) 1 1 + ≥2 (1 − x)(1 − y)(1 − z) (1 + x)(1 + y)(1 + z) 128 (Carlson’s inequality) (a. b. b.6. c > 0)          1 1 1 1 1 1 a+ −1 b+ −1 + b+ −1 c+ −1 + c+ −1 a+ −1 ≥3 b c c a a b 130 ([ONI]. Vasile Cirtoaje) (a. z2 ∈ R. y2 . a. x2 > 0. c. b. c > 0) r r 3 (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ab + bc + ca ≥ 8 3 129 ([ONI]. b > 0) √   1 a+b ln b − ln a 2 ab + ≥ 3 2 b−a 127 (Klamkin’s inequality) (−1 < x. z1 . SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 45 124 (IMO 1968) (x1 . Vasile Cirtoaje) (a.3. c > 0) a b c 3 + + ≥ b+c c+a a+b 2 126 (Polya’s inequality) (a 6= b. y1 . x2 y2 > z2 2 ) 1 1 8 + ≥ x1 y1 − z1 2 x2 y2 − z2 2 (x1 + x2 )(y1 + y2 ) − (z1 + z2 )2 125 (Nesbitt’s inequality) (a. x1 y1 > z1 2 . b. d > 0) a−b b−c c−d d−a + + + ≥0 b+c c+d d+a a+b . y.

Donauw¨ orth) (abc = 1. Peter Starek. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS ˜ 131 (Elemente der Mathematik. c > 0) 1 1 1 3 + 2 + 2 ≥ . y. x. Peter Starek. a2 (b + c) b (c + a) c (a + b) 2 √ 136 ( W U RZEL. a. b. Sefket Arslanagi´ c) (abc = 1. y. a. x. Sefket Arslanagi´ c) (a. a b c 2 √ 137 ( W U RZEL. Donauw¨orth) (x+y+z = 3. z > 0) x y z x+y+z + + ≥ 3√ y z x xyz √ 132 ( W U RZEL. c > 0) 3 a3 b3 c3 (a + b + c) + + ≥ x y z 3 (x + y + z) √ ˇ 135 ( W U RZEL. b. z > 0)   6 1 x y z 1+ ≥ + + xyz 3 z x y . z > 0) (1 + x)(1 + y)(1 + z) ≥ (1 − x2 )2 + (1 − y 2 )2 + (1 − z 2 )2 √ urgen Seiffert) (xy > 0. b. x2 +y 2 +z 2 = 7. Problem 1207. Heinz-J¨ r 2xy x2 + y 2 √ x+y + ≥ xy + x+y 2 2 √ ˇ 134 ( W U RZEL. c > 0) 1 1 1 1 3 + 3 + 3 ≥ (a + b) (c + a) (b + c) − 1. x.46 CHAPTER 6. Sefket Arslanagi´ c) (x. y. y ∈ R) 133 ( W U RZEL. Walther Janous) (x + y + z = 1.

c > 0) 1 1 1 b+c c+a a+b + + ≥ 2 + + a b c a + bc b2 + ca c2 + ab 145 (C2581) (a. c > 0) 1 1 1 n + + ··· + <p a + b a + 2b a + nb a(a + nb) 141 ([ONI]. b. c > 0) p p p p p p a4 + a2 b2 + b4 + b4 + b2 c2 + c4 + c4 + c2 a2 + a4 ≥ a 2a2 + bc+b 2b2 + ca+c 2c2 + ab 143 (C1 2362. Sefket Arslanagi´ c) (a. b+1 c+1 a+1 a+b+c+3 139 (a. b. Gabriel Dospinescu. b. c > 0) a b c 3 + + ≥ 1+b 1+c 1+a 1 + abc 144 (C2580) (a. b. b. c > 0) a2 + bc b2 + ca c2 + ab + + ≥a+b+c b+c c+a a+b 1 CRUX with MAYHEM . SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 47 √ ˇ 138 ( W U RZEL.6. Marian Tetiva) (a. c > 0) a2 + b2 + c2 + 2abc + 3 ≥ (1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c) 142 (Gazeta Matematic˜ a) (a. Mohammed Aassila) (a. b. Mircea Lascu. b ≥ 0) a3 (b + 1) + b3 (a + 1) ≥ a2 (b + b2 ) + b2 (a + a2 ) 140 (Latvia 1997) (n ∈ N. b. a. c > 0) a b c 3 (a + b + c) + + ≥ .3.

y < 1) xy + y x > 1 151 (x. y. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 146 (C2532) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. c > 0) 1 1 1 9 + + ≤ 1 − ab 1 − bc 1 − ca 2 148 (C2645) (a. z > 0) x y z p + p + p ≤1 x+ (x + y)(x + z) y+ (y + z)(y + x) z+ (z + x)(z + y) . y. y ∈ R) 1 (x + y)(1 − xy) 1 − ≤ 2 2 ≤ 2 (1 + x )(1 + y ) 2 150 (0 < x. x. b. Vasile Cirtoaje) (a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. b. c > 0) 2(a3 + b3 + c3 ) 9(a + b + c)2 + 2 ≥ 33 abc (a + b2 + c2 ) 149 (x. c.48 CHAPTER 6. a. c > 0) 1 1 1 2(a3 + b3 + c3 ) + + ≥ 3 + a2 b2 c2 abc 147 (C3032. z > 0) √ |x − y| + |y − z| + |z − x| x+y+z 3 xyz + ≥ 3 3 152 (a. b. a. y. z > 0) p3 √ 3 √ (a + x)(b + y)(c + z) ≥ abc + 3 xyz 153 (x. b.

y. 161 (Darij Grinberg) (x. b. z > 0) r x y z 3 √ +√ +√ ≥ 1−x 1−y 1−z 2 155 (a.3. y. c > 0) p p p a2 − ab + b2 + b2 − bc + c2 ≥ a2 + ac + c2 157 (xy + yz + zx = 1. b. SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 49 154 (x + y + z = 1. c > 0) p p p p ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a) ≥ 4abc + (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 160 (Darij Grinberg) (x. y. y.6. x y z (y + z) (z + x) (x + y) . z > 0) x y z 2x(1 − x2 ) 2y(1 − y 2 ) 2z(1 − z 2 ) + + ≥ + + 1 + x2 1 + y2 1 + z2 (1 + x2 )2 (1 + y 2 )2 (1 + z 2 )2 158 (x. z ≥ 0) xyz ≥ (y + z − x)(z + x − y)(x + y − z) 159 (a. x. z > 0) √ √ √ y+z z+x x+y 4 (x + y + z) + + ≥p . x. z ≥ 0) p p p √ p x (y + z) + y (z + x) + z (x + y) · x + y + z ≥ 2 (y + z) (z + x) (x + y). c ∈ R) √ p 2 2 p 2 2 p 2 2 3 2 a + (1 − b) + b + (1 − c) + c + (1 − a) ≥ 2 156 (a. y. b.

b. c ∈ R) (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 ≥ 3(a3 b + b3 c + c3 a) . (b + c ) (2a + b + c) (c + a ) (2b + c + a) (a + b ) (2c + a + b) 3 163 (Darij Grinberg) (a. PROBLEMS FROM OLYMPIADS 162 (Darij Grinberg) (a. b. b. c > 0) a2 b2 c2 2 2 + 2 + 2 < . 2a2 + (b + c) 2b2 + (c + a) 2c2 + (a + b) 3 164 (Vasile Cirtoaje) (a. c > 0) a2 (b + c) b2 (c + a) c2 (a + b) 2 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 > .50 CHAPTER 6.