CHAPTER 1 SUBSTRUCTURE

1.1 Earthwork

INTRODUCTION
• Earthwork: the processes whereby the surface of the
earth is excavated and transported to and compacted
at another location.

• Earthworks are engineering works created through the
moving or processing of parts of the earth's surface involving
quantities of soil or unformed rock. The earth may be moved
to another location and formed into a desired shape for a
purpose.

• Much of earthworks involves machine excavation and fill or
backfill.

• Scale: ranges from small works (the excavation of ditches
and trenches for drainage and pits and trenches for
foundations) to the large earthworks (highways and dams).

o Weather condition . INTRODUCTION • carried out at an early stage in a construction project. o the choice and efficient use of the correct types and size of plant to meet the particular requirements of the site. • completion of the earthworks within the scheduled time is often the key to the completion on time of the whole project • success often depends on: o an adequate site investigation and preparing practical and satisfactory designs of the earthworks.

SCOPE OF EARTHWORKS .

 terrain. slipping area.Site clearing Parameters to be checked on before commencing the clearing works. soil condition and foliage  ensure that sub contractor has proper controls of erosion and drainage  environment protection plan has been approved and the contractor is familiar with the requirements .  marking of the respective area to be cleared and grubbed  checked the cut-off elevations  checked depth and size of trees to be removed  identified clearly and verified the existing utilities and services lines  ensure that monuments. etc. markers and special trees are properly marked for protection.  marks all trees and vegetations that are to be undisturbed  potential hazard such as flammable area.

butts. shrubs. demolition of existing buildings. vegetation. the grubbing out bushes and trees. breaking up and removing all trees. grubbing. fences and other obstruction within the site which have been designated to be demolished or removed. • Clearing. Site clearing • Site Clearing Involves. disposal works and the removal of top soil to reduce level. . • All spoils and debris shall be removed and disposed of off- site at an approved certified construction landfill. demolishing. structures such as walls.

Demolition .

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Site clearing .

• To determine the amount of soil to be moved. Cutting and excavation • Most construction projects require the movement of earthwork on site. This will result in altering the existing elevation to a different or finish elevation. . the estimator needs to have a plot plan or topographic survey. • This drawing is developed by plotting the readings (elevations) obtained from a topographic field survey usually performed by a licensed land surveyor.

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Types of Materials Purposes Cutting and excavation .

this is any combination of material types Cutting and excavation .this usually contains excess water and unsuitable soil  Unclassified excavation .Classification of Excavation based on type of material:  Topsoil excavation  Earth excavation  Rock excavation  Muck excavation .

Classification of Excavation based on it purposes:  Stripping  Roadway excavation  Drainage or structure excavation  Bridge excavation  Channel excavation  Footing excavation  Borrow excavation  Dredge excavation Cutting and excavation .

g. cuttings) or a temporary expedient in the construction of the works (e. . Cutting and excavation • Excavation can be either a part of the permanent works (e. for foundations and drainage) • The sides of the excavations are required to remain stable during their design life. can be achieved by:  excavating the material to a stable slope angle  retaining or supporting the material.g.

Cutting and excavation .

calculations can be performed with a computer and specialized software.  In the past.Cut and Fill in during earthworks  Engineers need to concern themselves with issues of geotechnical engineering (such as soil density and strength) and with quantity estimation to ensure that soil volumes in the cuts match those of the fills. while minimizing the distance of movement. including optimisation on haul cost and not haul distance. Cutting and excavation .  Nowadays. volume analysis were done by hand using a slide rule and with methods such as Simpson's rule.

Cutting and excavation .

Cutting and excavation .

Increases in such volumes require additional trucks (or more runs of the same truck). • Trucks or dump trucks are the most necessary equipment to transport excavated material. which cost money. aggregates and construction material. • Earthwork is expressed in units of volumes (cubic meters in metric). • It is important for designers to design the project which require very little earthwork. . Transport and moving • Earthwork transportation is something that projects seldom avoid.

Transport and moving .

Transport and moving .

Compaction Reasons: • Increased bearing capacity • Increased compressibility • Reduce permeability • Improve stability • Heavy/highway vs. building foundation compaction operations .

or with other approval compacting equipment. Compaction . All pronounced depressions left in the original ground surface by removal of objectionable material from within embankment limits are filled with acceptable material and compacted to the density required.  The upper 6 in. of the original ground is compacted weighing no less than 10 t.

Compaction .  The types of compactors commonly used are:  Three wheel roller Smooth drum vibrator roller Vibratory tamping roller Static tamping roller or sheepsfoot Crawler-tread equipment or bulldozer Mechanical tamps or vibrator. Compacting equipment requirements vary from contract to contract.

Compaction .  The compactor to be used is determined by the Contractor and is dependent upon several factors: Size of embankment Type of materials being compacted Conditions of materials being compacted Availability of equipments Contractor’s preference.

max Vibratory Tamping-Foot Soil or shale Length of tamping foot Crawler-Tread rock Refer specifications Crawler-Tread aggregates 6 in. max Vibratory Mechanical tamp or aggregates 4 in. max Smooth drum aggregates 6 in. max Vibratory Mechanical Tamp or soils 6 in. max Smooth Drum All soils 8 in.Compactor type Material Lift Depth 3 wheel All soils 8 in. max Vibratory Compaction .

Compaction .

• Early stabilization of surfaces is critical in construction. Sloping • Function of the natural angle of repose. • Difficult slopes may require riprap. density. • Eliminate points of concentrated flow using slope drains as outlets. gabions. surface and subsurface water flow. . or other measures for permanent stabilization .

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• Properly designed slope protection and stabilization has to include two components:  a vegetational-biological and  a mechanical-structural component. both components must be integrally planned prior to construction. Sloping . • For maximum effect. • Slope stabilization is important to ensure that failure or landslides will not occur.

Sloping .

Sloping .

Maintain optimum moisture range by drying. mixing .minimize stockpiling . Good layout (horizontal & vertical control) 5. Identify and monitor cut & fill quantities 4. KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL EARTHWORK OPERATIONS 1. or wetting 3. Minimize handling . Control surface and subsurface water 2.

Optimize haul lengths 7. Minimize cycle time 8. Experienced personnel in the field To be continue…. .. Proper selection and sizing of excavators and haul units 9. Alternate haul unit wheel paths 10. KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL EARTHWORK OPERATIONS 6.