August 21, 2000

Art Montemayor Vessel Design Tips
Rev: 2(05-05-03)
The following are some guidelines and experienced hints for the design and utilization of process vessels.
This information is never taught nor discussed in University courses or academic circles. It has been
historically expected that graduate engineers will learn this information using their own efforts.

1) Always try to design around existing or available standard materials such as:
a. Standard pipe caps. These are usually available off-the-shelf in carbon steel, as well as stainless,
in sizes up to 42" and in various pipe schedule thicknesses.

b. Standard seamless pipe. This is basic material that can be readily found available today. Always
make this your first priority in selecting the vessel shell because of the convenience of eliminating
any plate rolling, longitudinal weld seam, and reducing the possibility of stress relief. This
option should be rejected only if required alloy, wall thickness, or diameter is not available.

2) Own a copy of Eugene Megyesy's "Pressure Vessel Handbook" as published by Pressure Vessel
Handbook Publishing Inc.; P.O. Box 35365; Tulsa, OK 74153. This is probably the most useful and
practical engineering book ever published in the USA. It clearly belongs on every process plant
engineer's desk. Study it thoroughly and your project problems will start to fade away.

3) Ellipsoidal 2:1 heads have, by definition, 50% of the volumetric capacity of a hemispherical head with the
same internal diameter.
Ellipsoidal heads are designed and fabricated on the basis of using the inside diameter as their nominal
diameter.
These type of heads are used in preference to ASME Flanged and Dished heads for pressures in the
range of 100 psig and for most vessels designed for pressures over 200 psig. Their inside depth of dish
(IDD) is defined as half of the minor axis and is equal to 1/4 of the inside diameter of the head.

4) ASME F&D (also called Torispherical) heads are designed and fabricated in the USA on the basis of using
the outside diameter as their nominal diameter.
Flanged and dished heads are inherently shallower (smaller IDD) than comparable ellipsoidal heads.
These heads (like the ellipsoidal) are formed from a flat plate into a dished shape consisting of two radii:
the "crown" radius or radius of the dish and the inside-corner radius, sometimes referred to as the
"knuckle" radius. Because of the relative shallow dish curvature, ASME F&D heads are subject to
higher localized stresses at the knuckle radius as compared to the ellipsoidal type. The pressure rating
of these heads is increased by forming the head so that the knuckle radius is made at least equal to 3
times the plate thickness. For code construction, the radius should in no case be less than 6% of the
inside diameter.
ASME F&D heads are used for pressure vessels in the general range of from 15 to about 200 psig .
Although these heads may be used for higher pressures, for pressures in excess of 200 psig it may be
more economical to use an ellipsoidal type.

5) The straight flange that forms part of each vessel head is part of the cylindrical vessel portion and should
be accounted for as such in calculating the vessel volume. These flanges vary in length depending on the
head thickness. A typical head flange length is about 1.5" to 2".

6) Try to stay away from the immediate area of the knuckle radius with respect to locating nozzles or doing
other welding, cutting or grinding. The need to locate a nozzle, insulation ring, clips or other item
near the knuckle radius should be consulted with a mechanical or fabrication engineer.

7) Be aware of the fact that the outside diameter of the cylindrical section may be bigger than that of the
head if a flush fit is required between the two inside diameters. This occurs because the required head
thickness for a given design pressure is usually less than for the corresponding cylindrical section.
This is especially true in the case of Hemispherical heads.

Electronic FileName: 346522529.xls
Page 1 of 72
WorkSheet: Notes & Experience

August 21, 2000
Art Montemayor Vessel Design Tips
Rev: 2(05-05-03)
8) Hemispherical heads are the strongest of the formed heads for a given thickness. A sphere is the
strongest known vessel shape. However, the main trade-off here is that all spheres have to be fabricated
as welded spherical segments. This requires more manual intensive work and results in a higher cost.

9) Always be cognizant of the need for vessel entry into a vessel as well as vessel internal parts such as
trays, baffles, agitators, dip pipes, downcomers, separator vanes, demister pads, etc. Sometimes these
items directly affect not only the height of a vessel, but also the diameter. A chemical engineer should
take these factors into consideration even though they normally are not considered while doing process
calculations and simulations. Often, if not in the majority of cases, these factors and items are the
controlling parameters that practically establish the diameter and height of the fabricated vessel regardless
of what the simulation program output states.

10) As you consider the physical dimensions of a process vessel, always keep in mind that you must have,
as a minimum, certain required nozzles built into the vessel - besides those required for basic process
operations. Many times some of these nozzles are not identified early in a project and their introduction
later requires costly change orders or, worse, vessel field modifications after the vessel is installed. Some
of these nozzles are: manways, inspection ports, drains, cleaning (spraying) ports, auxiliary level
instrument nozzle, liquid temperature probe, sample(s) probe, top head vents, critical high and low level
probes, etc. Process Chemical Engineers are the best qualified to identify this need and specify the
location and size. Never expect to lift a vessel by its nozzles. Lifting lugs are required for this, and a
qualified structural or mechanical engineer should be commissioned to design this critical need.

11) Do not forget to allow for insulation support rings. You must allow sufficient nozzle length so that any
required vessel insulation can be applied in the field without obstructing nozzle flanges and bolts.
It is always advisable for the process Chemical Engineer to participate in the specification of the ultimate
insulation requirements and type since he/she are the most informed people of the temperature ranges
and insulation types compatible with the vessel material, temperature, and service. Again, if this is not
considered initially and is found to be required later, project timing and costs will suffer due to field vessel
modifications that could involve an ASME "R" stamp procedure.

12) This Workbook was originally compiled to organize and utilize the techniques, formulas, basic data,
and other information that I saved and used over the course of approximately 40 years of experience
in Chemical Engineering. Users will probably find it useful for carrying out day-to-day process plant
projects such as:

1. Calculating the maximum volume capacity of a vessel;
2. Calculating the partial volumes of a vessel at different levels ("Strapping" a vessel);
3. Calculating the required vessel size for a given partial volume;
4. Calculating the surface area of a vessel for primer, painting and insulation purposes;
5. Calculating the location of critical liquid levels on a vessel for alarms and shutdown;
6. Calculating the weight of a process vessel for cost estimates or foundation work;
7. Calculating the "Line Pack", or volume content, of a piping system with fittings.

There are probably more uses or applications for this Workbook, but the above should suffice to
indicate the utilitarian value of this information to a Process or Project Engineer - especially in an
operating process plant in the field. Most of the basic information contained here was kept by me for
years in notes, 3-ring binders, between pages of text books, in formal calculations, etc. Thanks to God
for giving me the good common sense to save and document this information and for giving us the digital
computer and a spreadsheet to organize and distribute it for use and exploitation by others. I hope this
helps others - especially young, striving, and determined engineers who earnestly want to do a successful
and safe project.

Arthur Montemayor

Electronic FileName: 346522529.xls
Page 2 of 72
WorkSheet: Notes & Experience

May 15, 1998
Art Montemayor Partially-Filled Horizontal Vessels
Rev:1(01/22/00)

VOLUMES IN PARTIALLY FILLED HORIZONTAL VESSELS

Steps:
(1) Enter the required information in the YELLOW cells;
(2) The calculated results appear in RED numbers.

Name: General Purpose Tank

Item No: T­C­15 Vessel Volume
2:1     Ellip. 
Flat Heads Unit
Heads
Case: Partial Vol    
108,573 in 3
137,526
62.83 ft 3
79.59
Tank Inside Dia. in = 48.00 470.0 gal 595.4
Cylindrical Length, in = 60 
Liquid Height, in = 48.00 Hemi Heads Unit F & D Heads
L/D = 1.3     
H/D = 1.0000 166,479 in 3
120,489
96.34 ft 3
69.73
720.7 gal 521.6

Cylindrical radius = r  = 24.00 in.
Chord Length = CL  = 0.0 in.
Segment Area = Aseg  = 1,810 in2 U. S. Gallons
Cylindrical Volume = Vcyl  = 108,573 in3 470.0

F & Dished Volume = VFD   = 11,915 in3 51.6

Ellipsoidal Volume = Vell    = 28,953 in3 125.3

Spherical Volume = Vsph  = 57,906 in3 250.7

Electronic FileName: 346522529.xls
Page 3 of 72
WorkSheet: Partial-Filled HorizontalVessel

1999 Art Montemayor Volume Calibration Rev: 1(03/12/00) CALIBRATION DATA FOR HORIZONTAL TANK WITH FORMED HEADS Steps: (1) Enter the required information in the YELLOW cells. 7. Horizontal Storage Tank November 11.167 ft tan/tan. (2) The calculated results appear in RED numbers.22 cu.0 in. Tank Inside Diameter (ID) inches 90. 2:1 Ellipsoidal heads Electronic FileName: 346522529. tan/tan feet 7.000 = 7. If more than 3) Ellipsoidal (2:1) > 200 psig x one option contains an "x".ft.xls Page 4 of 72 WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping . the 4) Ellipsoidal (non-std) Varies program will use the first one it finds.000 (max 200) Calibration curve for 90.167 = 86 inches Tank HeadType Pressure 1) Std. dish (non-pressure) < 15 psig Note: Place an "x" in only one of the 2) Torispherical (ASME F&D) < 200 psig 5 head options available. dia tank.5000 ft Tank length.375 NOT REQUIRED FOR THIS HEAD TYPE Number of calibration increments: 90. 5) Hemispherical To Suit Head type selected: 2:1 Ellipsoidal Head Volume = 55. Inside depth of head (IDD): inches 20 NOT REQUIRED FOR THIS HEAD TYPE Head thickness: inches 0.

58 103.338 42 106.6 3.790.766 33 83.08 1.68 194.60 694.431 31 78.60 42.2 5.43 820.90 59.318.160 41 104.74 126.77 1.47 78.28 132.024 22 55.04 98.14 1.20 121.4 1.66 115.455 37 93.32 1.87 321.18 51.6 2.85 1.470 18 45.743.696.57 424.64 47.2 4.5 4.47 1.630 38 96.82 138.281 36 91.6 377 8 20.22 200.9 6.40 23.54 0.601. 1999 Art Montemayor Volume Calibration Rev: 1(03/12/00) Liquid Depth Liquid Volume Content Inches Centimeters Ft3 US Gals Liters 1 2.0 159 5 12.0 102 4 10.60 182.874 45 114.459.28 99.782 27 68.365.06 175.30 213.9 756 12 30.67 5.5 2.178.93 14.9 3.57 146.76 1.054 46 116.86 996.769 50 127.2 6.1 5.33 497.937 34 86.0 2.60 27.15 653.13 736.30 354.4 5.90 151.319 24 60.0 2.88 76.341 17 43.941 28 71.52 1.44 157.12 109.70 7.9 4.16 5.740 20 50.36 144.271.506.00 245.19 863.92 232.625 26 66.7 1.32 122.3 976 14 35.3 2.7 5.554.591 49 124.412.108 35 88.1 5.947 Electronic FileName: 346522529.8 3.806 39 99.96 87.695 44 111.837.50 92.52 169.87 389.62 3.8 555 10 25.24 10.16 1.21 1.648.10 42.84 219.34 71.46 238.94 26.32 16.604 19 48.56 38.0 19 2 5.598 32 81.01 1.041.2 1.58 289.880 21 53.14 188.98 163.86 19.59 1.05 1.01 1.3 1.4 4.412 48 121.233 47 119.086.76 207.5 6.44 258.983 40 101.5 6.0 1.5 297 7 17.132.53 1.72 56.38 535.02 34.5 1.471 25 63.6 653 11 27.7 3.094 15 38. Horizontal Storage Tank November 11.5 2.xls Page 5 of 72 WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping .78 13.39 460.4 463 9 22.91 1.8 4.3 224 6 15.80 66.5 864 13 33.215 16 40.90 1.48 30.74 778.26 61.29 1.4 3.65 199.170 23 58.91 951.54 574.6 4.02 172.8 6.517 43 109.266 30 76.02 907.4 3.8 6.86 1.5 1.5 55 3 7.102 29 73.46 228.38 226.224.80 613.1 2.42 81.

18 345.7 10.948 87 220.652 55 139.86 300.46 3.44 421.0 10.41 3.20 2.251.49 2.5 11.56 328. Horizontal Storage Tank November 11.644 83 210.244 79 200.2 10.52 2.72 350.124.98 423.3 8.04 3.826 56 142.0 8.1 11.76 2.848.06 3.1 7.6 10.xls Page 6 of 72 WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping .999 57 144.477 54 137.5 10.50 384.94 311.013 77 195.974.3 11.5 12.92 2.5 9.28 410.8 7.62 263.66 400.9 11. 1999 Art Montemayor Volume Calibration Rev: 1(03/12/00) 51 129.5 11.676 61 154.3 11.084 70 177.60 2.1 8.6 11.5 9.509 60 152.93 2.9 9.131 78 198.482 66 167.16 3.06 426.160.49 3.766 75 190.04 388.80 360.778.5 8.030.62 2.628.549.589.884.02 323.005 63 160.10 334.54 251.636 67 170.48 317.52 425.9 12.42 375.382.116.203.788 68 172.04 2.13 3.20 2.931.59 3.7 11.78 3.32 294.080.881.841 62 157.5 7.124 52 132.60 427.508.2 9.26 355.73 2.166 64 162.36 416.637 74 187.78 288.16 269.88 370.913.161.0 12.367 72 182.64 339.188.810 85 215.197.96 379.74 407.63 2.892 76 193.504 73 185.088 90 228.6 11.052 89 226.424.883 86 218.24 282.46 3.2 11.552 82 208.003.19 2.15 2.40 306.91 2.325 65 165.742.4 7.4 7.705.1 7.056.731 84 213.32 2.103.0 9.4 11.0 12.90 419.58 392.68 2.937 69 175.15 2.944.46 2.34 365.176.9 9.455 81 205.06 2.54 1.08 257.5 8.67 2.978.5 10.82 413.48 2.12 396.295.024.814.87 2.3 9.143.171 58 147.5 10.352 80 203.39 3.005 88 223.107 Electronic FileName: 346522529.20 404.070.667.74 3.26 2.70 276.74 1.339.301 53 134.227 71 180.19 2.30 1.341 59 149.467.206.

Horizontal Storage Tank November 11.xls Page 7 of 72 WorkSheet: Horizontal Tank Strapping . 1999 Art Montemayor Volume Calibration Rev: 1(03/12/00) Electronic FileName: 346522529.

f ( Ze )=− 1 −3+ D D Where. Horizontal Cylindrical Tank May 5. f ( Zc )= ( α −sin ( α ) cos ( α ) π ) f(Ze) = Ellipsoidal coefficient (from Doolittle tables) 2 H 2 H1 ( )( ) or.xls Page 8 of 72 WorkSheet: Partial Horizontal . 2001 Art Montemayor Partial Volume Determination Rev: 0 b L b D D/2  D/2 H1 Horizontal Cylindrical Tank with Ellipsoidal or Hemispherical Heads Total tank volume = (Total volume in two heads) + (Total volume in cylindrical section) = ( 1/6  K1 D ) + ( 1/4  D L ) 3 2 K1 = 2b/D Ze = H1/D Zc = H1/D Partial tank volume = ( 1/6  K1 D ) ([f(Ze)]) + ( 1/4  D L ) ([fZc)]) 3 2 f(Zc) = Horizontal cylinder coefficient (from Doolittle tables) or. H1 α=2 A tan ( √( 2 H1 D 2 ) − H 12 ) α is in radians For Ellipsoidal 2:1 heads. b = (1/4) D K1 = 1/2 Electronic FileName: 346522529.

com The volume V of a liquid in a horizontal cylindrical tank is: V = LD2 (2Z-sin(2Z)) /8 Where. Horizontal Cylindrical Tank May 5. Bernhard Spang Electronic FileName: 346522529.xls Page 9 of 72 WorkSheet: Partial Horizontal .about. Z = arccos(1-2h/D) h = height of liquid in the horizontal cylindrical tank D = diameter of the tank L = length of the tank Note that the result of the arccos-function has to be taken in radians. 1999 www. 2001 Art Montemayor Partial Volume Determination Rev: 0 Oct 31.

2 f ( Ze )= − H 1+ H 2 2b( )( ( −3+ H 1+ H 2 b )) Electronic FileName: 346522529.xls Page 10 of 72 WorkSheet: Partial Vertical . Vertical Cylindrical Tank May 05. 2001 Art Montemayor Partial Volume Determination Rev: 0 D b H2 L H3 H3 H1 b H1 Vertical Cylindrical Tank with Ellipsoidal or Hemispherical Heads Total tank volume = (Total volume in two heads) + (Total volume in cylindrical section) = ( 1/6  K1 D ) + ( 1/4  D L ) 3 2 Partial tank volume = ( 1/6  K1 D ) ([f(Ze)]) + ( 1/4  D H3) 3 2 K1 = 2b/D Ze = (H1 + H2)/K1D f(Ze) = Ellipsoidal coefficient (from Doolittle tables) or.

200000 0.800000 0. 13-7 0.000000 0.747685 0.050000 0.950000 0.981308 1.200000 H/D = Zc Electronic FileName: 346522529.300000 0.200000 0. p.600000 0.150000 0.563555 1.626470 f(x) = .000000 0.650000 0.000000 f(Zc) 0.373530 0.200000 0.600000 0.142378 0.436445 0.400000 0.857622 0.500000 0.900000 0.018692 0.800000 1.700000 0.000000 0.850000 0.688082 R² = 0. 1972.xls Page 11 of 72 WorkSheet: Partial Cylind.947956 0.195501 1. 1998 Art Montemayor Regression of Doolittle Partial Volume Coefficient Rev: 0 Zc f(Zc) 0.252315 0.000000 0.800000 0.311918 0.750000 0.000000 1.1440298947x^3 + 1.094061 0.0.500000 0.400000 0.450000 0.905939 0.250000 0.804499 0.9999514324 0. .716044842x^2 + 0.052044 Coefficients for Partial Volumes of Horizontal Cylinders 0.550000 0.600000 Data Source: NGPSA Engineering Data Book 9th Edition. Vol.000000 1.200000 0.100000 0.400000 0.1.4364926265x .350000 0.000000 0. May 15.0042537869 0.

P.28 0.48 0.1040 0.64 0.4400 0.60 0.9467 0.82 0.3520 0.8960 0.2000 0.20 0.92 0.94 0.26 0.40 0.36 0. 5th Edition.52 0.1239 0.76 0.56 0.38 0.0047 Volume Fraction of Horizontal Vessel Heads 0.98 0. May 27.30 0.4700 0.0026059555x^3 + 3.5000 0.7320 0.14 0.62 0.68 0.2160 f(x) = .70 0.32 0.0182 0.8000 0.0397 0.18 0.7050 0.0280 0.4100 0.3810 0.58 0.24 0.0000 0.0686 1.84 0.12 0.08 0. the volumetric capacity of the vessel headsHds mustPartial Vol.7840 0.5900 0.96 0. be calculated .6480 0.7580 0.9145 0.9988 1.78 0.9953 0.2420 0.72 0.22 0.6-87 Page 12 of 72 Electronic FileName: 346522529.88 0. Fraction 0.16 0.9818 0.0000 Liquid Depth/Head ID.9720 0.0000 0. 1998 Art Montemayor Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads Rev: 0 H/D Vol.4000 0.66 0.0039665652x^2 .1676 0.1451 0.04 0.6000 0.2000 0. Perry & Chilton.60 0.00 1.5600 0.0001080069 Volumetric Fraction 0.9314 0.50 0.0012 0.54 0.20 0.0104 0.44 0.0.74 0. (H/D) Reference: Chemical Engineers' Handbook.6770 0.6190 0.2950 0.42 0.80 1.5300 0.xls WorkSheet: To obtain the total volumetric capacity of a process vessel.0015535616x + 0.9603 0.02 0.46 0.90 0.3230 0.9999997558 0.8549 0.2680 R² = 0.80 0.00 0.1913 1.8324 0.0533 0.00 0.8761 0.34 0.2.40 0.8087 0.10 0.0855 0.06 0.9896 0.86 0.

.....Volume of a dished-only head. 5th Edition.6-87 To obtain the total volumetric capacity of a process vessel. in. Hemispherical 2....... Chem..30) ... Above this design pressure the 2:1 Ellipsoidal head is usually employed.... 5th ed.. 1998 Art Montemayor Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads Rev: 0 Reference: Chemical Engineers' Handbook.5 + 0. h = depth of liquid content in the horizontal head.........5d . h = depth of liquid content in the horizontal head.... Hydrocarbon Processing. To obtain the partially-filled liquid contents' volume of a horizontal tank requires the determination of the partial volume of the two vessel heads as well as the cylindrical partial volume.. p.. consequently. Eng..(Chem..5d-h)(dh-h2)0.. Standard Dished (a misnomer.....Volume of 2:1 Ellipsoidal head.5d ... in US gallons VHH = 2 VEll ..S. in..00226 h2 (1. cylindrical.25d-0. Engrs.xls Electronic FileName: be done using the analytical expressions noted above. The calculation of the partially-filled cylindrical portionPage of a horizontal 13 of 72 vessel is straight-forward and can346522529...... in.E.. 2:1 Ellipsoidal 3..Volume of Hemispherical head. May 27. 6/11/73) 2) V2 = 0.h) .00433 L{d2/8-[(0.. The ASME F&D head is usually restricted to pressure vessels designed for less than 200 psig..... F... The contents of a partially-filled vessel are arrived at by adding the partial contents of the Cylindrical portion and both heads: Partial Volume = (Total Cylinder volume)(Zc) + (Total Heads' volume)(Ze) where.. Perry & Chilton. L = total straight...G.... derived .. d = inside diameter of the horizontal head.... does not comply with the A. in US gallons VEll = 0.. F. since there are no existing standards for dished heads) 5. ASME F&D (Torispherical) 4. in... July 1968) 3) V3 = L r2[(/57. with the Hemipherical head reserved for those applications that require the maximum in pressure resistance and mechanical integrity..h) .. the volumetric capacity of the vessel heads must be calculated separately and added to the vessel's cylindrical volume... horizontal length..5h)]} .(Kowal.sincos] ..5}L .. 130-132... in US gallons where.25d2arcSine(0. It is restricted to pressures less than 15 psig. pp... Perry/Chilton.. Hydrocarbon Processing... Conical The Standard Dished head is not suited for pressure vessels and. P... Pressure Vessel Code... degrees The partial volumes of horizontal-oriented heads (except for Hemi-heads) are not defined in a mathematically exact formula but can be expressed by the following analytical expressions: (From Caplan...6-86) where... July 1968) VDH = 0. Zc = Cylindrical partial volume coefficient Ze = Heads' partial volume coefficient The cylindrical partial volume can be expressed by the following explicit analytical expressions: 1) V1 = {r2cos-1[(r-h/r]-(r-h)(2rh-h2)0.0009328 h2 (1. The five types of formed vessel heads most frequently used are: 1.(Caplan.. The equation given by Caplan (V ) should be very accurate sinceHds WorkSheet: it isPartial directlyVol.. = 1/2 of the total angle subtended by the chord forming the liquid level. Handbook. V1 = in3 V2 = gal V3 = in3 r = vessel's inside radius....M. in.

May 27.) Doolittle made some simplifying assumptions which affect the accuracy of the volume given by his equation.00093 h2 (3r .R. ft. 399.(1959).xls WorkSheet: Hds Partial Vol. Ze = -2 (h/d)3 + 3 (h/d)2 . although of the same form. His equation for an ellipsoidal head. in. The Table or the resulting 3rd order polynomial equation. in. 322-323 (1928)] equation is used: Vpartial = 0. Eng. r = inside radius of the horizontal heads. Chem.h) where. For this purpose. The partial volume of heads is open to inaccuracies and while the analytical equations are suitable for estimating. 12th Ed. torispherical (ASME F&D). Micro Motion Coriolis flowmeter). . and hemispherical heads with an error of less than 2% of the entire head's volume. gallons h = depth of liquid in both heads. the Doolittle [Ind. ft d = diameter of the small end. above. This fraction. the equivalent volume can be quickly converted from the measured fluid mass. The measurement may be made by weighing. ft D = diameter of the large end. p.. or by repeatedly filling small measuring tanks which have been calibrated by weight. h = height of the cone. This is done by draining (or filling) the tank and measuring the volume of liquid.e. calibration may be necessary.C. Page 14 of 72 Electronic FileName: 346522529. cu. p. From the known fluid density at the measured temperature. (Note that this is the same equation offered by Caplan. Vc = total conical volume. is given in the Table listed above and regressed in the accompanying Chart.0001 can be used to arrive at a partial volume of standard dished. but the equation is satisfactory for determining the volume as a fraction of the entire head. the method usually used is the Ze method for determining the liquid fraction of the entire head. by a calibrated fluid meter (i. The equation given by Caplan (V 2) should be very accurate since it is directly derived from an exact mathematical model presented in C. is 142% in excess of the basic Doolittle relationship. Conical heads' volumes are defined by the exact mathematical expression for a truncated cone: Vc = h (D2 + dD + d2) / 12 where. ellipsoidal. calculated by Doolittle's formula. Vpartial = partial volume. Standard Mathematical Tables. for a dished-only head. 21. ft When a tank volume cannot be calculated. 1998 Art Montemayor Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads Rev: 0 The calculation of the partially-filled cylindrical portion of a horizontal vessel is straight-forward and can be done using the analytical expressions noted above.0.0016 (h/d) + 0. or when greater precision is required.

.. note that the H/D ratio represents the Liquid depth divided by the Major Axis (internal diameter) of the Ellipsoidal heads... May 27. V = liquid volume in the dish.. inches L = radius of the dish. However.. For Horizontal Vessel Heads: In this case.(Chemical Processing Nomographs. "standard" dished heads at various depths is: V = 0..xls WorkSheet: Hds Partial Vol... Davis. gallons (excluding flanged section) H = liquid depth in the dish. This means that the Inside Depth of Dish (IDD) must be known. For Vertical Vessel Heads: The H/D ratio corresponding to this orientation is the Liquid depth divided by the Minor Axis... minus 6 inches) Page 15 of 72 Electronic FileName: 346522529.. Refer to the above illustrations of Ellipsoids oriented horizontally and vertically.. p. it is important to note that the H/D ratio that sets the fractional Coefficient.01363 H2 L ..004545 H3 . 276) where... inches (usually equal to the tank ID. The IDD is the depth of the head at its center and includes the inside corner radius but not the straight flange or nominal thickness of the head. not the Major Axis (internal diameter) of the Ellipsoidal heads. 1998 Art Montemayor Doolittle Equation for Parially-Filled Vessel Heads Rev: 0 Horizontal vessel minor axis diameter (D) (D) (major axis) H H Horizontal Vessel Heads' orientation Vertical Vessel Heads' orientation The Doolittle relationship can be applied to Horizontal and Vertical-oriented Ellipsoidal (and F&D) vessel heads.Dale S.. since no standards exist for dished heads) ASME F&D head: OD / 6 Ellipsoidal.. Ze. Chemical Publishing Co.. is measured differently in both cases.. Characteristic IDD's for various types of heads are: Standard dished head: OD / 7 (Note: This is only approximate.. .1969. 2:1 head: ID / 4 Hemispherical head: ID / 2 An analytical equation for the partial volume of vertical oriented..0.

000 1.648000 f(x) = .000000 0.992750 1.400000 volume for 1 head!! 0.718250 0.600000 f(Ze) Data Source: NGPSA Engineering Data Book 9th Edition.200 0.400 0.896000 0.500000 0. p.2x^3 + 3x^2 .050 0.104000 1.200 H/D = Ze Electronic FileName: 346522529.550 0.900 0. 13-9 NOTE: These capacity coefficients apply for the volume of 2 ellipsoidal or hemispherical heads…….281750 0.300 0.000000 0.500 0.060750 0.425250 0.200000 0. Vol.784000 R² = 1 0.600 0.216000 0.200000 0.100 0.800000 0.450 0.156250 0.850 0. 1972.150 0.350 0.028000 Coefficients for Partial Volumes in Ellipsoids & Spheres 0.574750 1.200 0. 1998 Art Montemayor Regression of Doolittle Partial Volume Coefficient Rev: 1(02/25/01) Ze f(Ze) 0.11227034484436E-016 0. May 15.56061827796986E-015x + 3.2.972000 0.000 1.000 0.000000 0.007250 0.600 0.250 0..352000 0.843750 0.000000 0.not the 0.650 0.700 0. .800 0.950 0.000 0.400 0.750 0.939250 0.800 1.xls Page 16 of 72 WorkSheet: Partial Ellip.

55 36.82 6.37 4.76 265.09 75.70 15.33 0.25 1.62 226.95 22.08 0.5000 644.06 205.65 1.09 56.23 44.50 38.3333 0.1667 2.25 2.31 4.96 2.28 0.45 14.81 70.69 28 2.53 96.08 126.93 7.10 150 12.45 174.04 11.44 0.73 162 13.75 27.05 45.85 95.36 1.33 255.5000 224.98 1.09 1.12 322.21 0.0000 190.40 122.31 0.26 0.33 67.05 1.62 48 4.95 2.91 32 2.03 138 11.59 45.34 190.28 3.13 112.57 54 4.09 122.72 66.64 24 2.58 1.5000 110.04 7.80 44.22 12.38 86.13 0.90 35.76 8.46 112.22 19.64 18.22 63.28 4.42 145.88 40 3.88 0.79 1.0000 348.73 42 3.78 2.93 132.31 52.00 0.14 Electronic FileName: 346522529.30 0.66 1.38 5.59 34 2.34 3.99 81.07 121.26 5.14 71.60 5.25 4.20 0.36 2.50 53.88 31.36 3.56 21.62 0.6667 4.86 11.0000 32.07 16 1.36 95.1667 0.90 83.14 26 2.37 102.30 19.17 287.33 5.13 16. 1998 Art Montemayor Pressure Vessel Heads Rev:1(08/21/00) Internal Diameter Volume of one head.44 100.86 78.04 33.46 169.02 42.72 156 13.61 8.01 8.88 286.07 3.05 1.26 11.36 56.19 156.0000 89.27 18.14 1.6667 1.36 7.02 14.28 28.0000 575.5000 398.09 2.19 144.08 100.36 10.07 59.55 7.24 12.12 2.64 66 5.23 71.23 81.28 182.32 8.5000 71.05 0.0000 134.75 108 9.61 0.39 226.85 0.27 102 8.18 84 7.29 92.39 0.51 0.74 132.09 104.80 4.61 3.21 0.53 64.09 1.16 2.28 30 2.1667 8.90 60 5.00 3.22 5.38 76.86 12.14 9.09 23.0000 452.18 110.16 199.55 5.13 0.78 80.04 9.57 1.06 0.81 103.31 7.45 11.09 2.44 6.05 173.03 23.53 2.02 11.87 39.37 42.55 28.45 6.24 143.89 8.xls Page 17 of 72 WorkSheet: Hds Vol & Surf Area .43 25.27 18.62 114 9.70 4.99 17.22 35.77 20 1.0000 7.44 156.61 4.18 96 8.93 14.23 22.66 62.3333 3.5000 303.5000 0.48 1.45 55.76 90.5000 511.5000 43.58 2.28 32.78 1.72 113.19 144.18 22 1.42 0.31 36 3.06 4.69 245.75 10.87 144 12. Ft2 Inches Ft Hemisphere Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Standard F&D Hemisphere Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Standard F&D 12 1.33 1.43 28.8333 5.11 92.81 0.40 18 1.48 90 7.30 39.5000 23.17 7.65 1.80 130.07 127.43 6.78 13.96 141.5000 160.61 88.52 30.45 5.3333 9.71 3.0000 0.66 1.59 132 11.0000 16.43 60.92 47.13 2.61 0.26 1.23 33.93 0.58 2.90 28.52 207.0000 261.67 0.18 3.79 14 1.90 1.16 133.53 2.43 50.12 10.27 78 6.12 6.44 131.66 163.09 1.85 3.59 183.23 111.60 157.45 117.49 72.35 83.70 39.70 4.0000 2.07 38 3.58 56.97 49.92 113.45 169. Ft3 Internal Surface Area of one head.04 67.81 20.76 72 6.0000 56.5000 11.72 16.80 15.27 25.88 120 10.84 9.68 8.07 151.5000 4.36 3. August 04.8333 1.38 9.39 51.54 126 10.

20 668.0000 1.51 287.094.63 317.403.47 222 18.83 204 17.44 597.38 240.5000 1.69 339.38 537.34 453.17 342. Eugene F.0000 2. the resultant Area is slightly less than the actual external surface area.5000 1.0000 1.41 486.59 284.30 380.5000 974.06 198 16. August 04.84 572.91 487.19 229.38 240.01 153.E.88 196.941.55 252.62 828. N.13 399.H.94 176.xls Page 18 of 72 WorkSheet: Hds Vol & Surf Area .81 528.22 643.60 508.24 263.25 208.40 335.06 361.87 254.26 481.53 216 18.72 186 15.08 701. 1998 Art Montemayor Pressure Vessel Heads Rev:1(08/21/00) 168 14.81 213.28 237.41 330. Brownell & E.0000 1.60 377.44 314. The Internal Diameter is used in calculating the Surface Area.10 188.78 427.45 310.26 210. 1959 (3) A..69 192 16. Megyesy.5000 1.32 268.09 240.14 397.98 210 17.08 307. L. Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing.37 226.22 182.24 165.65 240 20.0000 1.53 234 19.176.48 195.67 353.72 201.04 588.96 289. 8th Edition. John Wiley & Sons.90 353.81 180.5000 798.12 147.5000 1.61 342.73 367.22 283.32 400.02 219.10 298.80 228 19.81 763.52 223.60 619.57 441. (2) Process Vessel Design.12 256. Inc.79 281.81 268.13 180 15.0000 883.21 970.0000 718. References and Sources: (1) Pressure Vessel Handbook.56 163.16 Note: The Volume and Surface Area attributable to a head's straight flange is not included in this data. therefore.65 272.526.97 312.33 536.Y.072.94 324.795. Montemayor personal files Electronic FileName: 346522529.80 628.02 375.38 359.06 254.11 410.286.657.40 1.06 306.64 567.54 447.36 300.047. Young.55 402.44 371.94 174 14.00 428.43 225.94 199.68 897.

50 0.002.432 59.960 0.535 2.603 6.672 39.821 224.918 103.306 2.00 16.084 1.045 1.00 67.262 0.370 4.048 6.182 3.877 3.188 839.548 11.00 3.951 22.010 8.722 5.047 0.310 125. 1997 Art Montemayor Mfr's Hds' Vol Rev 0 Diameter Head Volume in Cubic Feet Head Volume in U.842 15.932 167.216 7.618 83.442 0.463 36.197 537.S.672 293.299 3.260 607.613 1. Head Division Catalog No.613 1.793 4.50 21.264 32.50 112.430 7.101 178.098 190.382 323.041 27.909 89.209 1.082 0.344 25.366 5.672 3.577 52.725 6.50 35.00 28.799 53.803 43.519 135.328 8.880 10.239 134.778 33.764 160.613 3.081 89.980 0.093 826.884 0.958.780 244.667 7.255 16.890 217.00 130.768 9.043 6.852 39.582 501.903 110.427.541 671.053 0.072 56.450 1.025 43.396 1.871 979.218 7.248 30.276 18.254 325.741 1.829 67.083 601.228 58.280 4.271 713. Page 15 Electronic FileName: 346522529.591 529.819 110. Gallons ft Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Hemispherical Dished Ellipsoidal ASME F&D Hemispherical Dished 1.095 0.447 22.310 41.411 76.277 0.351 71.636 211. Inc.226 34.794 268.361 2.983 Data source: Trinity Industries.50 80.298 10.756 3.454 26.00 8.797 18.778 1.692 11.881 442.394 50.679.50 5.50 55.364 10.963 162.988 27.378 5.237 70.172 261.832 4.389 379.767 23.00 95.510 10.00 44.008 87.728 138.393 402.969 17.696 206.00 0.477 335.091 0.202.444 16.448 62.896 14.703 247.072 6.902 29.928 7.078 345.656 2.131 0. 7962M.908 81.800 50.50 11.727 413.225 2.907 15.460 46.217 2.857 4.188 423.201 170. September 12.069 1.xls Page 19 of 72 WorkSheet: Mfr's Hds' Vol .733 122.119 261.478 9.557 8.779 13.00 1.50 2.

23 60 122.04 198 4398.44 8000.99 48 62.39 138 1489.93 84 335. inches 200 250 300 180 3304..00 174 2985.00 96 501.92 72 211. D. 1997 Art Montemayor Ellipsoidal Curve Fit Rev 0 I.39 4000. TX Product & Services Catalog # 7962M (1996) Electronic FileName: 346522529.907 Ft3 216 5711.29 228 6716.89 90 413.12 5000.26 3000.38 102 601.000567137 x^2.31 24 7.52 6000.95 Ellipsoidal Head Inside Diameter = 120 inches 204 4811.9998426901 Volum e.98 2:1 Ellipsoidal Head Volume 18 3.00 144 1692.61 132 1303.59 120 979.67 f(x) = 0.63 192 4011.07 240 7834.21 Volume of Single Ellipsodial Head = 979.33 2000.39 0 50 100Ins ide Diam e te150 r.06 Reference: Trinity Industries.00 30 15. gallons 54 89.9999999872 66 162.26 Gallons = 130. inches Vol. September 12.03 222 6200.30 36 26.09 210 5248.00 126 1133.16 150 1912.73 234 7261.88 114 839.xls Page 20 of 72 WorkSheet: Ellipsoidal Curve Fit .00 R² = 0.99 186 3646. Gallons 12 0.43 1000.00 42 41.41 7000.08 0.00 108 713.00 162 2409.83 9000.34 168 2687. Inc. Head Division Navasota.00 78 268.61 156 2151.

84 Inches 51mm Verify all dimension 624 mm 1723 mm with vendor drawings Key In the Head I.00 Approximate area for nozzle attachment Start of Knuckle Radius mm 1524 Inside Depth Knuckle Radius (= I./4) Inches 12. FileName: 346522529.xls Page 21 of 72 Worksheet: Ellipsoidal Heads . 2003 Art Montemayor 2:1 Ellipsoidal Heads Rev: 1 Inches 60. 75 Inches 1905 mm 2:1 Elliptical Head NOTE: Ellipsoidal 2:1 heads are fabricated and measured using the Internal Diameter (ID) of the head. Any cylindrical shell fabricated to fit these heads must conform to or match the ID dimension.55 Inches Dish Radius (Varies) 2" Nom.95 18. Note: 67. May 21. Note that this measurement convention is opposite to that of the ASME F&D head.D.D.75 Inches mm 329 476 mm Tangent Line Straight Flange 24.

700.9957737184 66 103.078.91 30 10. inches Volume.89 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 174 1.730.61 234 4.361.31 5.78 f(x) = 0.09 96 323.00 168 1.29 Gallons = 27.74 108 442.27 150 1.000.89 180 2.000. September 12.61 ASME F&D HEAD VOLUME 18 2.02 156 1. 12 0.28 162 1. Head Division Navasota.20 84 217.025.62 48 39. TX Product & Services Catalog # 7962M (1996) Electronic File: 346522529.227.443 Ft3 210 3.21 Inside Diam e ter.00 126 714.324.015.45 3.07 24 4.9999295479 72 135.02 216 3.54 Volum e.187.78 120 607.04 138 934.21 2. 1997 Art Montemayor ASME F&D Curve Fit Rev 0 I.582. D.12 222 3.0003650453 x^2.853.000.00 228 4.19 4.82 0. gallons 90 261.00 36 16.10 60 76.00 144 1.000.88 Reference: Trinity Industries.057.712.83 ASME F&D Head Inside Diameter = 84 inches 198 2.90 240 5.515.58 42 27..312.25 R² = 0. inche s 186 2. Inc.504.000.00 54 58.15 1.90 132 809.000.51 204 3.25 6.08 114 529.53 192 2.00 102 379.42 Volume of Single ASME F&D Head = 205. gal.00 78 167.xls Page 22 of 72 WorkSheet: ASME F&D Curve Fit .879.

May21, 2003
Art Montemayor ASME Flanged and Dished Heads
Rev: 0

Flanged and Dished Head (ASME)
Area for nozzle attachment
O.D. - (R2+T)x2
Wall Thickness "T"
Knuckle Radius Inside Depth
"R2" of Dish
"IDD"
Tangent Line

Straight
All Dimensions Flange
are in Inches (mm) (Varies)
Verify all dimension Dish Radius 2" Nom.
with vendor drawings "R1" 51mm

Outside Diameter (O.D.)

NOTE:
ASME F&D heads are fabricated and measured using the Outside Diameter (OD) of the head.
Note that this measurement convention is opposite to that of the Ellipsoidal head.
Any cylindrical shell fabricated to fit these heads must conform to or match the OD dimension.

Not all wall thicknesses are shown. Interpolate for approximate inside depth O.D. dish IDD
Inches (Flanged & Dished Head ASME Table) Millimeters (Flanged & Dished Head ASME Table)
O.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD ASME O.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
0.38 24 1.63 4.50 10 610 41 114
0.50 24 1.63 4.44 26" 13 610 41 113
26" 0.63 24 1.88 4.50 660 16 610 48 114
0.75 24 2.25 4.69 19 610 57 119
0.38 26 1.75 4.81 10 660 44 122
0.50 26 1.75 4.75 28" 13 660 44 121
28" 0.63 26 1.88 4.75 711 16 660 48 121
0.75 26 2.25 4.94 19 660 57 125
0.38 30 1.88 4.88 10 762 48 124
0.50 30 1.88 4.81 30" 13 762 48 122
30"
0.63 30 1.88 4.81 762 16 762 48 122
0.75 30 2.25 5.00 19 762 57 127
0.38 30 2.00 5.56 10 762 51 141
0.50 30 2.00 5.50 32" 13 762 51 140
32" 0.63 30 2.00 5.38 813 16 762 51 137
0.75 30 2.25 5.50 19 762 57 140
0.38 34 2.13 5.56 10 864 54 141
0.50 34 2.13 5.50 34 13 864 54 140
34" 0.63 30 2.13 6.00 864 16 762 54 152
0.75 30 2.25 6.06 19 762 57 154
0.38 36 2.25 5.94 10 914 57 151
0.50 36 2.25 5.88 36" 13 914 57 149
36" 0.63 36 2.25 5.81 914 16 914 57 148
0.75 36 2.25 5.75 19 914 57 146
O.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD ASME O.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
0.38 36 2.38 6.50 10 914 60 165
0.50 36 2.38 6.44 38" 13 914 60 164
38" 0.63 36 2.38 6.38 965 16 914 60 162
0.75 36 2.38 6.38 19 914 60 162
0.38 40 2.50 6.63 10 1016 64 168
0.50 40 2.50 6.56 40" 13 1016 64 167
40" 0.63 36 2.50 6.94 1016 16 914 64 176
0.75 36 2.50 7.00 19 914 64 178
0.38 40 2.63 7.19 10 1016 67 183
0.50 40 2.63 7.13 42" 13 1016 67 181
42"
0.63 40 2.63 7.06 1067 16 1016 67 179
0.75 40 2.63 7.00 19 1016 67 178
0.38 42 3.00 8.00 10 1067 76 203
0.50 42 3.00 8.75 42" 13 1067 76 222
48"
FileName: 346522529.xls
Page 23 of 72
Worksheet: ASME F&D Heads

May21, 2003
Art Montemayor ASME Flanged and Dished Heads
Rev: 0
48" 0.63 42 3.00 8.69 1219 16 1067 76 221
0.75 42 3.00 8.63 19 1067 76 219
0.38 54 3.25 8.94 10 1372 83 227
0.50 48 3.25 9.75 54" 13 1219 83 248
54" 0.63 48 3.25 9.75 1372 16 1219 83 248
0.75 48 3.25 9.63 19 1219 83 245
0.38 60 3.63 10.00 10 1524 92 254
0.50 60 3.63 9.88 60" 13 1524 92 251
60" 0.63 54 3.63 10.69 1524 16 1372 92 272
0.75 54 3.63 10.63 19 1372 92 270
O.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD ASME O.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
0.38 66 4.00 11.00 10 1676 102 279
0.50 60 4.00 10.94 66" 13 1524 102 278
66" 0.63 60 4.00 11.75 1676 16 1524 102 298
0.75 60 4.00 11.63 19 1524 102 295
0.38 72 4.38 12.00 10 1829 111 305
0.63 72 4.38 11.88 72" 16 1829 111 302
72" 0.75 72 4.38 11.88 1829 19 1829 111 302
0.88 66 4.38 12.63 22 1676 111 321
0.38 78 4.75 13.00 10 1981 121 330
0.50 72 4.75 13.81 78" 13 1829 121 351
78"
0.75 72 4.75 13.69 1981 19 1829 121 348
1.00 72 4.75 13.50 25 1829 121 343
0.38 84 5.13 14.00 10 2134 130 356
0.63 84 5.13 13.88 84" 16 2134 130 353
84" 0.88 84 5.13 13.75 2134 22 2134 130 349
1.00 84 5.13 13.69 25 2134 130 348
0.38 90 5.50 15.13 10 2286 140 384
0.50 84 5.50 15.81 90" 13 2134 140 402
90" 0.75 84 5.50 15.69 2286 19 2134 140 399
1.00 84 5.50 15.56 25 2134 140 395
0.38 96 5.88 16.13 10 2438 149 410
0.50 90 5.88 16.88 96" 13 2286 149 429
96" 0.88 90 5.88 16.63 2438 22 2286 149 422
1.25 90 5.88 16.44 32 2286 149 418
O.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD ASME O.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
0.50 96 6.13 17.88 13 2438 156 454
0.75 96 6.13 17.69 102" 19 2438 156 449
102" 1.00 96 6.13 17.56 2591 25 2438 156 446
1.13 90 6.13 18.50 29 2286 156 470
0.50 102 6.50 18.88 13 2591 165 480
0.75 102 6.50 18.75 108" 19 2591 165 476
108" 1.00 102 6.50 18.56 2743 25 2591 165 471
1.13 96 6.50 19.44 29 2438 165 494
0.50 108 6.88 19.88 13 2743 175 505
0.75 108 6.88 19.75 114" 19 2743 175 502
114"
1.00 108 6.88 19.63 2896 25 2743 175 499
1.25 108 6.88 19.50 32 2743 175 495
0.50 114 7.25 20.88 13 2896 184 530
0.88 114 7.25 20.69 120" 22 2896 184 526
120" 1.25 108 7.25 21.44 3048 32 2743 184 545
1.63 108 7.25 21.25 41 2743 184 540
0.50 120 7.63 21.88 13 3048 194 556
0.88 120 7.63 21.69 126" 22 3048 194 551
126" 1.25 120 7.63 21.50 3200 32 3048 194 546
1.38 114 7.63 22.31 35 2896 194 567
0.75 126 8.00 22.81 19 3200 203 579
0.88 120 8.00 23.69 132" 22 3048 203 602
132" 1.25 120 8.00 23.44 3353 32 3048 203 595
1.63 120 8.00 23.25 41 3048 203 591
O.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD ASME O.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
0.63 132 8.38 23.94 16 3353 213 608
1.00 132 8.38 23.75 138" 25 3353 213 603
138" 1.38 132 8.38 23.56 3505 35 3353 213 598
1.75 132 8.38 23.38 44 3353 213 594
0.63 132 8.75 25.88 16 3353 222 657
1.00 132 8.75 25.63 144" 25 3353 222 651
144" 1.38 132 8.75 25.44 3658 35 3353 222 646
1.75 132 8.75 25.19 44 3353 222 640

FileName: 346522529.xls
Page 24 of 72
Worksheet: ASME F&D Heads

May21, 2003
Art Montemayor ASME Flanged and Dished Heads
Rev: 0
0.75 144 9.38 27.75 19 3658 238 705
1.13 144 9.38 27.50 156" 29 3658 238 699
156"
1.50 144 9.38 27.31 3962 38 3658 238 694
1.88 144 9.38 27.06 48 3658 238 687
0.75 144 10.13 31.81 19 3658 257 808
1.13 144 10.13 31.50 168" 29 3658 257 800
168" 1.50 144 10.13 31.31 4267 38 3658 257 795
1.88 144 10.13 31.13 48 3658 257 791
0.88 170 10.88 31.44 22 4318 276 799
1.25 170 10.88 31.25 180 32 4318 276 794
180" 1.63 170 10.88 31.00 4572 41 4318 276 787
2.00 170 10.88 30.81 51 4318 276 783
0.88 170 11.63 35.44 22 4318 295 900
1.25 170 11.63 35.19 192" 32 4318 295 894
192" 1.63 170 11.63 34.94 4877 41 4318 295 887
2.00 170 11.63 34.75 51 4318 295 883
O.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD ASME O.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm)
0.88 170 12.25 39.56 22 4318 311 1005
1.25 170 12.25 39.38 204" 32 4318 311 1000
204" 1.63 170 12.25 39.19 5182 41 4318 311 995
2.00 170 12.25 38.94 51 4318 311 989
1.00 170 12.63 41.81 25 4318 321 1062
1.38 170 12.63 41.63 210" 35 4318 321 1057
210" 1.75 170 12.63 41.31 5334 44 4318 321 1049
2.25 170 12.63 41.00 57 4318 321 1041
1.00 170 13.00 44.25 25 4318 330 1124
1.38 170 13.00 44.00 216" 35 4318 330 1118
216" 1.75 170 13.00 43.69 5486 44 4318 330 1110
2.00 170 13.00 43.50 51 4318 330 1105
1.00 180 13.75 46.56 25 4572 349 1183
1.38 180 13.75 46.31 228" 35 4572 349 1176
228" 1.75 180 13.75 46.06 5791 44 4572 349 1170
2.00 180 13.75 45.69 51 4572 349 1161

FileName: 346522529.xls
Page 25 of 72
Worksheet: ASME F&D Heads

262 1.50 160.857 R² = 0.00 56.9999999971 5.00 2.50 11.852 9.261930186 x^2.00 12.756 4.50 71.00 2.9997356256 4.069 3.00 134. Ft.50 0.50 110. HEMISPHERICAL HEAD VOLUME 1.725 5.00 7.xls Page 26 of 72 WorkSheet: Hemispherical Curve Fit .797 Volum e.00 8.095 2.959.00 10.041 8.799 Reference: Trinity Industries. cu. September 12. ft Volume.00 4.46 100 10.00 6.50 224.00 190. Head Division 50 Navasota.225 250 f(x) = 0.000 inches Volume of Single Hemispherical Head = 261.557 200 6. TX Product & Services Catalog # 7962M (1996) 0 0.1 Gallons Electronic FileName: 346522529.778 9. Inc.548 6. Ft Hemispherical Head Inside Diameter = 120.447 150 8.900 Ft3 = 1.00 89.091 3.50 23.896 7.00 32.50 43. CuFt 7.00 261.00 0.884 300 2.00 16.50 4.00 Inside Diam e te r. 1997 Art Montemayor Hemispherical Curve Fit Rev 0 Internal Hemispherical Diameter.

733 40. ft Volume.310 R² = 0.448 4.00 0. September 12.00 0.00 1.794 Volum e . 1997 Art Montemayor Dished Curve Fit Rev 0 Internal Dished Diameter.0 Gallons Electronic FileName: 346522529. TX Product & Services Catalog # 7962M (1996) 0.00 18.00 27. 10. Inc.50 0.909 5.727 30.00 6.50 22.9999975663 4.083 9.053 60.963 6.00 Ins ide Diam e te r.188 20.271 9.000 0.60 Ft3 = 401.00 53.477 7.000 5.000 f(x) = 0.00 10.00 39.00 3.50 33.00 8.50 46.00 11. Ft Dished Head Inside Diameter = 120.00 12.842 3.00 2.50 0.0032720473 3.00 6.50 4.582 8.50 2.430 2.636 6. Ft3 DISHED HEAD VOLUME 1.50 14.871 Reference: Trinity Industries.000 inches Volume of Single Dished Head = 53.0535515348 x^3.182 2.000 Head Division Navasota.000 1.454 50.50 8.000 8.00 4.xls Page 27 of 72 WorkSheet: Dished Curve Fit .000 10. CuFt 7.

50 5.75 40 2.13 5.75 30 6.50 4.50 10 660 114 114 0.D.38 26" 13 610 38 111 26" 0.38 30 4. May 21.38 26 4.50 26 4.38 48 1.38 36 5.31 5.88 19 914 57 175 0. Interpolate for approximate inside depth O.81 10 914 29 148 0.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm) 0.63 36 1.50 5.63 4.94 19 660 125 125 0.13 6.13 4.63 30 4.63 24 1.63 30" 13 762 118 118 30" 0.38 34 5.75 711 16 660 121 121 0.38 1067 16 1067 48 162 0.38 30 5.25 42" 13 1067 38 159 42" 0.44 36" 13 914 138 138 36" 0.69 19 610 57 119 0.75 26 4.44 5.75 4.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD O.88 6.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD O.63 48 1.63 4.81 10 1016 29 148 0.44 5.75 30 5.D.) NOTE: F & D heads are fabricated and measured using the Outside Diameter (OD) of the head.38 36 1.13 965 16 914 48 156 0. Any cylindrical shell fabricated to fit these heads must conform to or match the OD dimension.06 10 1067 29 154 0.75 24 2.88 6.38 40 1.19 5.81 19 1016 57 173 0.06 19 762 154 154 0.38 24 1.00 10 762 127 127 0.63 42 1.19 1219 16 1219 48 183 FileName: 346522529.13 5.25 10 914 133 133 0.81 4.25 10 610 29 108 0.50 42 1.25 6.31 19 914 57 160 0.63 33 5.38 42 1.88 6.88 4.00 5.D.63 26 4.50 40 1.63 30 5.50 48 1.13 6. .25 4.63 28" 13 660 118 118 28" 0.50 24 1.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm) 0.50 6.19 34 13 864 132 132 34" 0. 2003 Art Montemayor Flanged and Dished Heads Rev: 0 Flanged and Dished Head Area for nozzle attachment O.94 40" 13 1016 38 151 40" 0. dish IDD Inches (Flanged & Dished Head Table) Millimeters (Flanged & Dished Head Table) O.88 10 1219 29 175 0.50 7.94 4.44 864 16 838 138 138 0.50 36 5.75 19 914 146 146 O.75 30 5. with vendor drawings "R1" 51mm Outside Diameter (O.50 30 4.50 4.06 6.00 38" 13 914 38 152 38" 0.19 32" 13 762 132 132 32" 0.63 36 5.75 5.50 34 5.69 1016 16 914 48 170 0.00 5.63 36 1.25 6.63 914 16 914 143 143 0.50 660 16 610 48 114 0.00 19 762 127 127 0.31 813 16 762 135 135 0.50 4. Not all wall thicknesses are shown.75 36 5.88 7.00 42" 13 1219 38 178 48" 0.xls Page 28 of 72 Worksheet: Dished Heads .00 10 864 127 127 0.50 36 1.19 5.25 6.00 5.50 19 762 140 140 0.50 6.50 30 5.25 5.75 36 2.50 10 762 114 114 0.(R2+T)x2 Wall Thickness "T" Knuckle Radius Inside Depth "R2" of Dish "IDD" Tangent Line Straight All Dimensions Flange are in Inches (mm) (Varies) Verify all dimension Dish Radius 2" Nom.81 762 16 762 122 122 0.75 36 2.63 5.

50 54 1.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm) 0.13 120" 22 3048 67 435 120" 1.88 13.63 84 1.63 20.25 15.50 15.63 14.88 132 2.00 96 3.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD O.63 3658 29 3658 86 524 1.75 16.50 13.13 7.75 48 2.50 120 1.63 144 1.00 16 3658 48 508 0.00 3353 29 3353 86 483 1.63 84 1.25 7.06 2438 25 2438 76 357 1.75 19 1676 57 248 0.63 60" 13 1524 38 219 60" 0.88 84" 16 2134 48 302 84" 0.13 38 3353 114 537 0.88 9.63 78 1.38 12.81 32 2591 95 427 0.88 18.81 29 1981 86 300 0.25 8.13 10.13 8.00 102 3.88 13 2896 38 403 0.00 29 1829 86 279 0.50 13 3200 38 445 0.13 78 3.25 9.00 14.63 17.69 3505 29 3353 86 526 1.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD O.13 84 3.50 7.38 90 1.63 20.38 19. 2003 Art Montemayor Flanged and Dished Heads Rev: 0 0.38 78 1.25 13 2591 38 362 0.00 15.25 120 3.13 12.00 16.31 144" 22 3658 67 516 144" 1.88 19.06 13 2743 38 383 0.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD O.00 17.88 120 2.50 126 1.69 10 1372 29 195 0.38 72 1.50 66 1.75 17.88 8.63 120 4.00 96 3.75 19.13 132 3.38 84 1.88 8.94 19 1524 57 227 O.38 72" 16 1829 48 264 72" 0.31 2134 22 2134 67 313 1.25 120 3.38 20.13 144 3.63 132 1.50 102 1.38 60 1.75 90" 16 2134 48 349 90" 0.63 1676 16 1676 48 245 0.25 3200 32 3048 95 489 1.25 15.75 17.75 60 2.50 9.50 102" 19 2438 57 394 102" 1.63 132 1.75 114 2.88 120 2.50 19.31 29 2134 86 363 0.75 96 2.38 14.81 126" 22 3048 67 478 126" 1.75 108 2.88 11.69 1829 22 1829 67 272 1.63 120 4.13 132 3.38 11.00 1372 16 1372 48 203 0.50 132 4.50 21.25 108 3.50 132 4.50 1981 22 1981 67 292 1.69 10 2134 29 297 0.13 38 3658 114 537 0.50 16.75 16.xls Page 29 of 72 Worksheet: Dished Heads .88 11.25 96 3.13 72 3.50 8.50 15.38 20.75 54 2.69 41 3048 124 500 0.44 16 3353 48 468 0.88 84 2.63 18.25 16.06 32 2438 95 408 0.38 2896 25 2743 76 441 1.75 14.19 114" 19 2896 57 411 114" 1.75 96 2.56 2743 25 2591 76 421 1.06 10 1829 29 256 0.50 10 1524 29 216 0.75 144 2.50 38 3353 114 495 O.13 16 3353 48 511 0.75 96" 19 2438 57 349 96" 1.88 132 2.25 96 3.88 10 1981 29 276 0.50 108 1.13 11.63 29 2134 86 321 0.88 144 2.25 8.38 66 1.69 19 3658 57 602 FileName: 346522529.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm) 0.63 32 2743 95 448 0.06 41 3048 124 459 0.50 96 1.50 21.88 72 2.63 10.81 54" 13 1372 38 198 54" 0.50 14.00 2286 22 2134 67 356 1.63 11.25 13.38 11.88 78 2.63 54 1.63 66 1.88 10.75 132" 22 3353 67 476 132" 1.50 60 1.44 66" 13 1676 38 240 66" 0.88 18. May 21.00 108 3.75 2591 25 2438 76 400 1.88 84 2.19 19 1372 57 208 0.63 60 1.63 12.38 32 2438 95 365 O.50 114 1.31 10 1676 29 236 0.13 9.50 144 4.38 19 1219 57 187 0.44 138" 22 3353 67 519 138" 1.63 18.44 13 2438 38 341 0.50 10 2286 29 318 0.13 10.19 78" 16 1981 48 284 78" 0.59 3048 32 3048 95 447 1.38 108" 19 2743 57 391 108" 1.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm) 0.88 20.88 20.25 23.50 17.25 102 3.13 84 3.81 1524 16 1524 48 224 0.38 54 1.63 72 1.69 13 3048 38 424 0.75 66 2.

31 5182 41 4318 124 897 2.75 41.63 170 4.56 4572 41 4318 124 700 2.38 24.38 23.44 240" 32 4572 95 1180 240" 1.63 46.88 170 2.75 27.69 22 4318 67 678 1.50 3962 38 3658 114 622 1.63 24.50 22 4318 67 775 1.13 19 4318 57 588 1.19 48 4318 143 614 0.xls Page 30 of 72 Worksheet: Dished Heads .00 180 6.50 170 4.00 40.25 22 4572 67 1048 1.13 144 3.88 170 2.63 41.75 35.25 180 3.63 24.13 156" 29 3658 86 613 156" 1.25 180 3.63 180 4.63 22 4318 67 880 1.00 170 6.81 51 4572 152 1189 FileName: 346522529.88 170 5.75 39.D "T" "R1" "R2" IDD O.00 170 6.94 48 3658 143 633 0.50 144 4.88 144 5.88 31.75 170 2.88 41.75 30.25 170 3.13 180 32 4318 95 689 180" 1.25 170 3.25 23.00 51 4318 152 711 0. May 21.50 24.63 30.25 170 3.06 4267 38 4318 114 611 1.88 180 2.25 22 4572 67 1175 1. 2003 Art Montemayor Flanged and Dished Heads Rev: 0 1.88 39.00 51 4318 152 1016 0.88 170 2.00 28.25 170 3.00 51 4572 152 1067 0.75 46.63 170 4.D "T" (mm) "R1"(mm) "R2"(mm) IDD(mm) 0.50 216" 32 4318 95 1003 216" 1.06 22 4318 67 992 1.88 27.63 6096 41 4572 124 1184 2.63 26.00 180 6.63 180 4.88 46.88 180 2.00 170 6.00 170 6.63 51 4318 152 803 O.00 42.88 192" 32 4318 95 784 192" 1.50 228" 32 4572 95 1054 228" 1.00 31.88 35.63 39.75 5486 41 4318 124 1010 2.63 170 4.88 170 2.25 4877 41 4318 124 794 2.13 170 3.63 34.63 170 4.56 168" 29 4318 86 598 168" 1.50 24.75 5791 41 4572 124 1060 2.00 46.63 51 4318 152 905 0.00 35.00 204" 32 4318 95 889 204" 1.

334 15.834 88 26.xls Page 31 of 72 WorkSheet: Cylindrical Tank Volume .482 58 11.646 40 5.5 1.582 80 21.762 53 9.660 122 50./in.662 104 36. Gal.978 23..164 33 3.715 74 18.511 86 25.649 19.050 25.799 42 5.0 1.0 2.041 45 6.861 134 61.557 27.817 28.285 102 35.878 43 6.440 72 17.360 36 4. Gal.186 20. 5th Edition.500 92 28.926 116 45.0 0.5 2.438 108 39.914 100 34.958 44 6.499 38 4..774 17. 15..5 1.5 0.5 2.241 24.998 76 19.859 54 9. Diam.0 2.721 41 5.0 1.572 39 5.194 96 31.638 128 55.960 21.0 1.406 64 13.293 35 4.202 18.expressed as Gallons of Liquid Content per inch length of Cylinder.0 2.886 25.5 1. 1998 Art Montemayor Cylindrical Vessel Volume Relationship Rev:1(06/06/01) Cylindrical Volumes of Vessels --.388 49 8.0 0.983 30 3.540 142 68.373 17.843 94 30.930 60 12.910 68 15.0 1./in.227 34 3.479 50 8.000 16. 6-86 Diam.571 51 8. in.429 37 4.618 126 53.777 144 70.653 16.870 29.5 1. Diam.657 18. in.5 2.341 21.194 84 23.760 132 59.473 Electronic FileName: 346522529.171 70 16.959 55 10.810 118 47.146 138 64.041 31 3.287 78 20.835 110 41.5 1./in.765 28.0 1. p.5 2.926 29. Perry & Chilton.5 1.0 0. in. Diam.722 120 48.165 62 13.5 0.460 24.685 130 57. Gal. Source: Chemical Engineers' Handbook.5 2.885 82 22..125 46 7.267 57 11.102 32 3.703 59 11.240 112 42.329 140 66.047 106 38.750 20.640 26.551 98 32.0 1.140 19.0 2.163 90 27.042 146 72./in.990 136 62.666 52 9.5 2.0 2.626 124 52.278 22. in.705 23.605 22.211 47 7.655 66 14.070 114 44.474 148 74. Gal.0 1.502 27.298 48 7. May 27.060 56 10.5 1.749 26.

2 2.804.526.3 23.0 34.997.161.985.47 Nominal 90o Elbows 180o Returns 45o Elbows Tees Caps Pipe Long Radius Short Radius Long Radius Short Radius Long Radius Full-size outlets Size.130.5 0.3 967.7 1.091.145.912.0 5.675.6 1.6 110.8 9.480.224.243.3 490.8 1.3 30 47.256.1 430.0 35.9 19.2 17.092.6 20 13.906.260.816.0 239.538.2 14.442.476.1 245.130.809.7 7.3 11.7 1.2 5.9 11.327.971..0 10.020.2 367.366.1 12.2 6 408.0 3.9 4.6 55.602.301.8 42 132.856.9 72.899.3 7.9 28.3 48 198.1 23.1 94.0 184.030.260.681.7 46.2 3.0 1.1 24 23.5 7.7 216.0 14.4 22 18.7 1.879.128.707.6 18.701.443.5 9.7 62.8 7.3 69.4 1.8 4.2 1.5 94.9 59.8 6.329.733.432.3 3.351.8 3.7 3.813.0 14.125.471.1 3.7 11.664.042.882.7 130.0 14 4.049.322.493.6 18 9.784.5 2.8 87.7 1.936.135.4 0.1 1.532.010.6 3.6 8.041.953.1 34 69.2 6.014.3 572.8 123.7 2.182.490.5 13.9 1.7 2.4 4.5 471.6 1.758.1 46.207.745.0 22.482. Tube Turns Division of Chemetron Corp.4 63.8 6.6 12 3.2 413.6 18.9 23.1 104.0 35.415.6 27.7 11.347.054.8 8.700.1 31.810.5 6.429.9 3.2 31.0 0.5 879.155.3 54.0 11.4 9.713.644.2 1.1 2.054.1 77.9 2.1 3.5 1.0 26 30.2 20.2 88. June 02.0 13.8 2.8 1-1/2 7.2 1.3 8 942.0 40.3 860.110.752.261.4 1.3 5.238.598.8 108.0 2.4 3.449.8 21.9 143.995.1 19.365.520.5 4.658.2 0.5 0.9 1.8 13.4 2.3 79.0 176.451.7 8.179.195.2 6.2 4.5 9.5 5.0 684.064.1 736.648.2 19.6 23.172.6 24.250.289.026.884.8 31.5 13.2 4.2 6.9 14.4 62.8 8.8 11.3 0.8 0.9 8.4 5.061.7 0.376.0 40.4 2.6 159.348.9 10.1 1-1/4 4.7 52.0 196.5 9.764.xls Page 32 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes .5 23.9 1.634.8 204.4 66.9 7.9 54.621.2 6.4 14.853.8 36.344.0 61.077.2 2.0 1.4 93.4 4.0 1.8 3.1 18.935.647.5 9.642.163.8 2.0 Electronic FileName: 346522529.3 62.1 27.8 9.1 3.7 6.3 47.203. p.9 3 52.914.188.834.5 108.9 0.8 31.964.3 517.157.7 3.6 1.5 2 15.085.712.6 1.1 0.2 26.9 295.260.1 4 119.391.8 6.5 10 1.967.189.013.2 20.322.441.4 10.0 145.917.695.1 368.1 68.108.759.116.7 29.6 62.323.516.9 2.209.316.7 2.8 8.353.6 544.0 2.3 628.6 15.2 46.4 12. Nov.7 34.9 8.5 4.1 62.991.449.396.836.3 928.4 15.4 81.8 65.9 36 82. in.5 34.0 110.1 881.6 0.2 148.545.5 2.6 1 2.350.6 16 6.7 40.702.0 144.249.720.707. Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong Standard 1/2 0.3 3/4 0.2 58.7 1.4 4.4 816.054. 1999 Art Montemayor Rev: 0 VOLUMETRIC CAPACITY FOR BUTT-WELDED FITTINGS All volumes expressed in cubic inches Reference: Piping Engineering.273.5 13.3 65.763.730.945.3 3.4 5.1 3.5 52.3 4.5 8.8 4. 1971.221.4 12.1 135.0 93.6 40.1 811.8 30.1 41.594.0 26.676.297.3 272.4 1.

1999 Art Montemayor Rev: 0 90o Elbows: V =  2D2A/8 V = Volume D = Inside diameter A = Center to face distance A 180o Returns: V =  2D2O/8 V = Volume D = Inside diameter A = Center to center distance 45o Elbows: V =  2D2A/8 V = Volume D = Inside diameter A = Center to face distance Full Size Outlet Tees: V = (D2/2) (C + M/2) .xls Page 33 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes .D3/3 V = Volume D = Inside diameter Electronic FileName: 346522529. June 02.

xls Page 34 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes . 1999 Art Montemayor Rev: 0 C= Center to end of run M = center to end of branch Pipe Caps: V = (D2/4) (E .D/12) V = Volume D = Inside diameter E = length t = wall thickness Crosses: V = (D2/2) (C + M) . June 02.(2/3)D3 V = Volume D = Inside diameter C= Center to end of run M = center to end of branch Concentric & eccentric reducers: Electronic FileName: 346522529.t .

xls Page 35 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes . June 02. 1999 Art Montemayor Rev: 0 Electronic FileName: 346522529.

938.5 3.1 132.4 1.4 80.0 3-1/2 62.0 22.5 7.3 313.8 1 50.9 15.4 2.0 3.7 2 25.0 4.3 1 8.1 321.4 108.9 0.5 13.6 41.920.9 5.5 9.3 20.9 983.2 17.9 51.9 9.8 37.5 3.1 55.666.084.802.7 4 147.9 45.368.4 99.061.4 6 3-1/2 134.6 1.6 1.311.1 301.0 3/4 4.492.0 97.6 6.0 15.0 1.6 3/4 7.094. Concentric & Eccentric with Reducing Outlet X-Strong Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong Large end Small end Standard X-Strong Standard X-Strong 0.7 24.7 3/8 1.5 152.313.3 8.9 6.4 48.2 3.8 2.189.7 8.371.4 16.8 3 123.5 110.5 346.4 0.3 33.6 5.8 166.5 5.9 3.010.3 1.9 3/4 2.9 3.402.006.7 501.5 2.4 39.1 1/2 2.0 5.3 441.1 2.682.2 6.6 1/2 4.3 2.0 9.7 6.6 334.7 108.6 788.157.8 1.7 15.2 10.3 1 0.144.884.8 354.4 1-1/4 20.6 6.0 2.7 55.6 52.5 2-1/2 11.1 6.4 10.5 4.1 208.3 58.3 1/2 1.9 19.7 2.7 1.8 5.1 7.6 10.6 2 640.4 1.6 1-1/2 11.868.081.4 69.1 1-1/4 3/4 3.985.6 3.5 911.8 121.5 4 2-1/2 46.6 16.2 475.5 26.4 2.2 0.4 52.5 72.9 1.3 1-1/4 6.723.3 4.0 8.2 5.8 46.131.0 5.8 9.7 2 41.8 113.9 264.3 3.6 1.634.9 125.592.0 231.171.2 365.0 400.5 22.1 1. Reducers Tees Full-size outlets Lap Joint in.1 2.811.1 2-1/2 29.4 17.3 340.4 1-1/2 37.7 4.9 9.8 1-1/4 10.6 13.6 1-1/2 65.0 2.5 1.5 9.2 Electronic FileName: 346522529.7 9.7 20.4 76.6 8.4 1.8 3.8 2.1 17.0 6.5 2.9 103.1 122.9 119.0 307.043.8 17.804. 1999 Art Montemayor Rev: 0 Caps Crosses Stub Ends Nominal Pipe Size.5 1.0 18. June 02.1 2.9 3 1-1/2 21.120.4 21.xls Page 36 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes .4 8.1 12.9 47.5 1 5.654.6 2.4 9.4 2.9 114.2 27.3 5.5 8.6 16.7 3.0 12.8 1 3.191.9 44.7 3 54.0 3.4 3.5 746.9 100.363.7 111.1 49.255.

329.587 2.8 2.360 5.0 1.404 9.0 690.657 18 9.0 2. 1999 Art Montemayor 6 Rev: 0 5 175.976 16 4.9 655.5 3-1/2 221.496 1.8 1.855 12 6.022 6 2.059 6.4 4 385.7 2.8 444.350.656 2.0 730.013 14 4.985 8 5.0 5 639.321 2.0 10 993.300.532 8 2.396.717 7.147 5.041 1.0 2.373.104 3.916 10 12.915 8 1.432.0 5 428.0 1.4 606.054 4.8 2.598 4.318.248 6.0 8 4 235.7 5 269.382 2.291 4.0 2 4/2 8 827.224.992 1.458 7.920 4.891 4.318 4.0 6 1.0 2.6 661.8 3 716.029 2.7 1. June 02.803 3.0 2 0/2 6 476.0 546.0 8 586.191 10 3.877 8.7 375.212 3.8 722.288 2.414 16 7.922 2.711 18 12 3.6 215.976 3.289 3.621 2.747 8.993 5.4 2.419 1.488 2 8/2 10 2.027 11.0 6 697.163 9.3 401.745 22 Electronic FileName: 346522529.323.0 1.552 3.7 658.9 791.283 16 10 2.180 6.0 1.701 12 3.7 201.0 2.413 3.738 1.175 5.348.567.010 5.695 4.7 361.221 20 14 6.250.8 753.5 6 309.4 1.816 12 2.396 3.426.606 7.902 8 4.214 10 6.1 719.849 4.821 3.6 245.150 10.974 7.952 2.741 14 3.0 779.430.6 668.0 1.9 362.8 947.973 6.506.xls Page 37 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes .2 280.922 6.204 6.646 2.3 158.468.

102 33.711 9.226 11.334 10.474 1.006 18 30.710 20 9.520 30.131 26 33.908 30.477 16.701 8.184 34 24 46.392 20 31.887 21.389 32 50.795 12.637 8.606 16.265 44.221 14.242 49.936 28 34.325 20 10.287 12 20.283 29.419 12.110 22 16 8.449 20 21.116 20 45.571 Electronic FileName: 346522529.345.141 22 16.919 22 21.445 24 32.351 30 49.385 43.628 14.058 48.745 24 16 8.526 18 9.600 22 45.995 12.813.337 18 8.622 12.394 12.164 14 30.548 45.841 12.972 14.233 19.129 12.652 32. June 02.487 24 22.869 30 22 31.768 16 30.364 46.837 16 20.693 28 48.668 14 20.451 9.779 44.724 18 44.xls Page 38 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes .851 45. 1999 Art Montemayor Rev: 0 12 12.565 22.316 20.879 26 47.620 12.333 7.465 20.386 30.846 20.055 7.018 47.519 12 14.062 19.944 14 7.094 16.070 26 18 20.603 14 10.458 32.848 8.979 10.583 16 44.964 31.172 10 8.

947 28 56.636 79.256 138.462 80.365 22 125.044 126.053 36.902 38.253 24 32.639 76.173 133.958 18 53.693 125.923 135.353 20 53.840 40.163 126.723 26 33.667 124.378 127.050 111.404 56.700 54.311 83.521 132.375 81.831 58.185 20 76.540 34 40.874 24 85.176 33.954 Electronic FileName: 346522529.540 80.746 75.207 40 123.972 42 28 79.132 78.031 30 98.186 123.344 126.610 30 30.341 81.359 55.539 30.432 46 141.425 36 42.574 78.429 24 54.098 52.736 32 103.841 22 54.172 76.377 28 127.044 101.650 30 37.753 129.128 36 26 55.742 137.144 139.314 31.825 22 77.031 31.622 140.561 77.710 133.143 83.245 48 34 107.229 82.617 33.402 42 129.354 88.xls Page 39 of 72 WorkSheet: Fittings' Volumes .587 52.419 130.594 57.305 97.151 36 113.842 34 34.113 38 118.760 122.899 77.635 130.276 82.337 134.317 116.710 32 38.653 32 32.984 125.701 51.959 106.878 54.685 138. June 02.960 134.693 131.866 42.358 26 89. 1999 Art Montemayor Rev: 0 16 52.047 128.940 59.177 53.561 128.660 44 135.462 129.927 133.698 59.071 57.

. Spherical Radius and Diameter used.Knuckle radius. and the true ellipse for the same diame head height is shown in Blue. Treating a Torisphere as an ellipse for volume calculation will gene give a slight under estimate of the volume. Torispherical heads can have dif profiles depending on the relationship between: . which is correct for a semi- ellipsoidal head but only approximate for a Torispherical profile. Two typical Torispherical profiles are shown below in Red.Profiles of Torispherical Dished Heads The volume calculator assumes the head profile to be a perfect ellipse.K radius. Spherical Radius and Diameter. The error will depend on the relationship between: .

50 inches b = D/2 .0.022 160 546 68% 90% 332 245 992 386 87 1.067 412 798.7 ° b x = Ri Cos ß .c 123.63 inches z h= x+z 368.2 mm a = b Ri / (Ri .c .3761518341x^3 + 1.9999648571 80% Volume of Fill 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Level of Fill FileName: 346522529.ri) .87 inches x a h z = Ri .91 US gals Volume of partially filled Torispherical head: Liquid Height Sector Area Knuckle Area Total Head Volume Level in End dish: "h" (mm) "z" "r" Volume (1) "x" "r" Volume (2) litres % 0% 0 0 0 0 0 992 0 0 0% 10% 37 37 395 9 0 992 0 9 1% 20% 74 74 556 36 0 992 0 36 5% 30% 111 111 678 80 0 992 0 80 10% 40% 147 147 779 142 0 992 0 142 18% 50% 184 184 867 221 0 992 0 221 28% 60% 221 221 946 316 0 992 0 316 40% 70% 258 245 992 386 13 1.45 245 992 386 124 1.0.045 283 669 84% 100% 368.134 mm = 84.2 mm ß c = ((Ri .4 litres = 210.0663660421x R² = 0. Vertical Torispherical Tank Head Volume 100% f(x) = .Art Montemayor Volume of a Partially Filled Torispherical Bottom Head July 20.7 mm = 9.b ) 2 2 ½ 1.000 41 427 54% 80% 295 245 992 386 50 1.484 radians c Ri 27.x 244. 2003 Rev: 1 VERTICAL TANK BOTTOM TORISPHERICAL HEAD VOLUME CALCULATION Tank Internal Diameter(3) D 2.ri 927.4 100% Notes: (1) Sector volume = PI / 6 * "z" (3 * "r"2 + "z"2) (2) Knuckle volume = PI / 3 * "x" ("r"2 + "r" * a + a2) (3) Torispherical (also called ASME F&D) heads are designed and fabricated in the USA on the basis of using the outside diameter as their nominal diameter.765.6 mm ri ß = Sin (a / Ri) -1 0.02 inches Crown Radius Ri 2.xls Page 41 of 72 WorkSheet: F & D Partial Volume .51 inches Approx.4453300722x^2 .ri) 992.55% Knuckle Radius ri 139. Head Volume =  / 6 * z (3a2 + z2) +  / 3 * x ((D/2)2 + (D/2)a + a2) approximate calculation for knuckle section = 386.1 + 412.8 mm = 5.3 = 798.134 mm = 84.02 inches % Knuckle Radius 6.7 mm = 4.4 mm = 14.

9075 u(h) = 5.9075 8.35379 in h = 24 in V = 58.6383 s = 5.22 h Top h = 15.77 9.420 in3 = 252.0 inches k = Knuckle-Radius (kD) 0.xls Page 42 of 72 WorkSheet: Vertical F&D Head Volume .00 h 9.7706 inches Acos  = 1.35379 in h = 15.87 Gallons V = 102.565584 t = 8.583195 Limits of the Equation 0.255 in3 = 234.35 Gallons FileName: 346522529.06 inches f = dish-radius parameter (fD) 1 kD = 5.D.183 in3 = 442.468085 a1 = 9.062004 Asin  = 0.4538 inches D1 = 78.508792 a2 = 4.04 inches fD = 84 inches  0.487 radians Cos  = 0.77 h 14.90 Gallons V = 54.22 14. September 30. 2004 Art Montemayor Vertical Tank Bottom Torispherical Head Volume Rev: 0 I. = 84.883683 Sin  = 0.

|a| < R. An ellipsoidal head must be exactly half of an ellipsoid of revolution. Ph. All volume equations give fluid volumes in cubic units from tank dimensions in consistent linear units. 2 graphically illustrate horizontal tank variables. Figure 1. and a dish-radius parameter.E. All variables defining tank shapes required for tank volume calculations are defined in the “Variables and Definitions” sidebar. f. June 15. Exact fluid volumes in elliptical horizontal or vertical tanks can be determined by calculating the fluid volumes of appropriate cylindrical horizontal or vertical tanks using the equations described above. spherical or torispherical heads. pp. as shown in Fig. and then by adjusting those results using appropriate correction formulas. guppy. h. only a hemi ellipsoid is valid . |a| < L/2. P. 1 and Fig.xls Page 43 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article . A torispherical head is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME-type) head defined by a knuckle-radius parameter. as is true in the case of a spherical head that can be a spherical segment. and Fig. spherical or torispherical heads where the fluid height.no “segment” of an ellipsoid will work. Guppy or Spherical Heads FileName: 346522529. For concave conical. Ellipsoidal. 1. ellipsoidal. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 The following article appeared in "Chemical Processing" magazine on Novermber 17. Horizontal cylindrical tanks Fluid volume as a function of fluid height can be calculated for a horizontal cylindrical tank with either conical. guppy. Calculating fluid volume in a horizontal or vertical cylindrical tank or elliptical tank can be complicated. For a spherical head. k. These equations allow rapid and accurate fluid-volume calculations. where R is the radius of the cylindrical tank body. 3 and Fig. Parameters for Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks with Conical. depending on fluid height and the shape of the heads (ends) of a horizontal tank or the bottom of a vertical tank.D. 4 graphically illustrate vertical tank variables. Fig. Exact equations now are available for several commonly encountered tank shapes. as shown in Fig. is measured from the tank bottom to the fluid surface. 46-50: Computing Fluid Tank Volumes Updated equations allow engineers to calculate the fluid volumes of many tanks quickly and accurately By Dan Jones. ellipsoidal. A guppy head is a conical head with its apex level with the top of the cylindrical section of the tank.. 2. 2002.

For instance. • D > 0. for concave head a < 0 5. L > 0 for a > 0. of the ellipse defining the cross section of the body of a vertical elliptical tank. FileName: 346522529. convex (a > 0) or concave (a < 0). For spherical head of radius r. Ellipsoidal head must be exactly half of an ellipsoid of revolution 7. However. • f > 0. DH & DW These are the height and width.5 for torispherical heads. f This is the dish-radius parameter for tanks with torispherical heads or bottoms. L > 2|a| for a < 0 6.e. Both heads of a tank must be identical. h This is the height of fluid in a tank measured from the lowest part of the tank to the fluid surface. the other must be conical with the same dimensions. Variables used in Volumetric Equations and their Definitions a This is the distance a horizontal tank's heads extend beyond (a>0) or into (a<0) its cylindrical section or the depth the bottom extends below the cylindrical section of a vertical tank. • 0 < h < 2R for all tanks. one with conical heads and the other with ellipsoidal heads. the equations can be combined to calculate the fluid volume of a horizontal tank with heads of different shapes. For convex head other than spherical. • L > 0. The heads of a horizontal tank can be flat (a = 0). respectively. kD is the knuckle radius.. Above diagram is for definition of parameters only. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 1. L This is the length of the cylindrical section of a horizontal tank. 2. June 15. D This is the diameter of the cylindrical section of a horizontal or vertical tank. a = 0. if one head is conical. calculate fluid volumes of two tanks. Both heads of a horizontal cylindrical tank must be identical for the equations to work. • 0 < k < 0. • |a| < L/2 for concave ends. DA & DB These are the major and minor axes.xls Page 44 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article . Af This is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in a horizontal tank's cylindrical section. r > R and |a| < R 4. 0 < a < a . For a horizontal tank with flat heads or a vertical tank with a flat bottom. and average the results to get the desired fluid volume. fD is the dish radius. of the ellipse defining the cross section of the body of a horizontal elliptical tank. i. respectively. The following variables must be within the ranges stated: • |a| < R for spherical heads. k This is the knuckle-radius parameter for tanks with torispherical heads or bottoms. 0 < h < D. Cylindrical tube of diameter D (D > 0).5 for torispherical heads. if a horizontal cylindrical tank has a conical head on one end and an ellipsoidal head on the other end. radius R (R > 0) and length L (L > 0) 3.

of fluid depth h. “a” is not required input. For torispherical heads. and 5.63 gal for torispherical heads. The fluid volumes are 2.96 gal for ellipsoidal heads. the calculated value is “a” = 18. where the fluid height. and Af is the cross-sectional area of fluid in the cylindrical body of the tank in square units consistent with the linear units used for R and h.935.288 in. spherical and torispherical head. Vf is the total volume of fluid in the tank in cubic units consistent with the linear units of tank dimension parameters. 3 and Fig. For example 1. for conical. 5.. The equation for Af is given by: Horizontal cylindrical tank examples Two examples can be used to check application of the equations. (example 2). k = 0. spherical and “standard” ASME torispherical (f = 1. 4 for tank configurations and dimension parameters. L = 156 in. In the Vf equation for torispherical heads. a = 42 in. For these torispherical head examples. 2. spherical.90 gal for torispherical heads..180. r This is the radius of a spherical head for a horizontal tank or a spherical bottom of a vertical tank. In the horizontal tank equations. for fluid depths in the tanks of 36 in.16 gal for spherical heads..380.954. Horizontal tank equations The following are the specific equations for fluid volumes in horizontal cylindrical tanks with conical. h. a = 42 in. h = 84 in.for a conical.] in diameter with cylinder lengths of 156 in. 6.72 gal for guppy heads. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 R This is the radius of the cylindrical section of a horizontal of vertical tank. 2.96 gal for spherical heads and 2. is measured from the center of the bottom of the tank to the surface of the fluid in the tank. h = 36 in. (except torispherical). L = 156 in.. Parameters for Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks with Torispherical Heads FileName: 346522529. June 15.939. in horizontal cylindrical tanks 108 inches [in..303. the parameters are D = 108 in. ellipsoidal. guppy. guppy. k and D.103. the parameters are D = 108 in. f = 1 and k = 0. Vf This is the fluid volume. 7.xls Page 45 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article . in a horizontal or vertical cylindrical tank. which also are defined in the “Variables and Definitions” sidebar.. ellipsoidal.06) heads.041.19 gallon (gal) for conical heads. (example 1) and 84 in.. ellipsoidal. Vertical cylindrical tanks The fluid volume in a vertical cylindrical tank with either a conical. 1. in gallons.06. each head extending beyond the ends of the cylinder 42 in. use + (-) for convex (concave) heads. and torispherical heads (use radian angular measure for all trigonometric functions and D/2 = R > 0 for all equations). See Fig.54 gal for conical heads.06. Calculate five times for each fluid depth .028..931. Find the volumes of fluid. ellipsoidal.45 gal for ellipsoidal heads.. it can be calculated from f. f = 1 and k = 0. The fluid volumes are 6. spherical or torispherical bottom can be calculated. guppy. Figure 2.11 gal for guppy heads. For example 2.

4. An ellipsoidal bottom must be exactly half of an ellipsoid of revolution. ellipsoidal. a < R for a spherical bottom. Figure 3. Parameters for Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Torispherical Bottoms FileName: 346522529. Figure 4. • D > 0. • 0 < k < 0. |a| < R. For a spherical bottom. and the dish radius will be fD. where a is the depth of the spherical bottom and R is the radius of the cylindrical section of the tank. as shown in Fig. The following parameter ranges must be observed: • a > 0 for all vertical tanks. • f > 0.5 for a torispherical bottom. spherical and torispherical bottoms are provided in the Vertical Tank Equations sidebar (use radian angular measure for all trigonometric functions. The knuckle radius then will be kD. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 A torispherical bottom is an ASME-type bottom defined by a knuckle-radius factor and a dish-radius factor.5 for a torispherical bottom. Parameters for Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Conical. Ellipsoidal or Spherical Bottoms Vertical tank equations The specific equations for fluid volumes in vertical cylindrical tanks with conical.xls Page 46 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article . June 15. and D > 0 for all equations).

with the assumption that the heads and bottoms are "deformed" proportionately to the deformation of the cylindrical body to form the elliptical body. June 15.. but can be calculated from the values of f. 5. and D. not necessity. D = 132 in... The heads of horizontal elliptical tanks and the bottoms of vertical elliptical tanks may be any of those described above for the corresponding cylindrical tanks. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 Vertical cylindrical tank examples Two examples can be used to check application of the equations for vertical cylindrical tanks. 2. To calculate the fluid volume in a horizontal elliptical tank with the elliptical body oriented in one of the two orientations shown in Fig. h = 60 in.251.902.18 gal for a conical bottom.46 gal for a spherical bottom and 3. D = 132 in. Figure 5. k. 5 .07 gal for a torispherical bottom. ellipsoidal. a horizontal elliptical tank must be one of two possible configurations.67 gal for a conical bottom. The fluid volumes are 250. parameter "a" is not required input. where the major and minor axes of the elliptical cross-sections are either vertical or horizontal. this distinction will be made for all cases for the sake of consistency. the calculated value is a = 22.where the head parameters are defined in the vertical plane through the tank centerline (plane goes through DH) .where the head parameters are defined in the horizontal plane through the tank FileName: 346522529. for each example. Cross-sections of Horizontal Elliptical Tanks To calculate the fluid volume in a horizontal elliptical tank with the elliptical body oriented in one of the two orientations shown in Fig.calculate the volume of a horizontal cylindrical tank with D = D H using the equations for horizontal cylindrical tanks with the appropriately shaped heads. 783. Multiply the volume found by DW /DH to get the elliptical tank fluid volume..36 gal for an ellipsoidal bottom. and k = 0. f = 1. and k = 0. Horizontal and vertical elliptical tanks The cross-sections of tank bodies of horizontal and vertical tanks with elliptical bodies are ellipses. h = 24 in.60 gal for a spherical bottom and 904.06.. For this article. 583. For example 1. For a torispherical bottom. it is necessary to distinguish which elliptical axis defines the head or bottom shape and which axis has been proportionately stretched or compressed from the cylindrical tank shape to form the elliptical tank shape. For example 2.658. f = 1.76 gal for a torispherical bottom. The fluid volumes are 2.xls Page 47 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article . shown in Fig. a = 33 in. 2.. 5 .353 in.83 gal for an ellipsoidal bottom. calculate the fluid volumes for conical. therefore. spherical and torispherical bottoms.036. In certain cases such as those with torispherical heads and bottoms and spherical heads and bottoms. a = 33 in. For these examples.06.

calculate vertical cylindrical tank volumes with D = 96 in. Multiply the volume found by D A/DB to get the desired elliptical tank volume.8 and k = 0.6 in. use D = DB. fluid height h = 53 in. x 120/100).. define DA and DB to be the major and minor axes. and h = 48. use D = DA.. of the ellipse defining the cross-section of the tank body. calculate horizontal cylindrical tank volumes with D = 100 in. For example 1. for ellipsoidal and spherical heads. To calculate the fluid volume in a vertical elliptical tank.1 for torispherical heads. for example 1 and 22. spherical and torispherical bottoms with the following measurements: DA = 96 in. The results are summarized in the following table: The values for "a" in the above torispherical head cases are 27. respectively.9 and k = 0.1 for torispherical heads.. and multiply the volume found by 72/96. f = 0. Examples for horizontal elliptical tanks Find the fluid volumes (in gal.) of horizontal elliptical tanks with ellipsoidal. f = 0. calculate horizontal cylindrical tank volumes with D = 120 in. and h = 57.. and multiply the volume found by 96/72.8 and k = 0. (for conical and spherical bottoms). for ellipsoidal and spherical heads.. f = 0. L = 156 in. for conical and spherical bottoms..2 (for the torispherical bottom). a = 34 in. and multiply the volume found by 100/120. For a vertical elliptical tank.2 for the torispherical bottom. Multiply the volume found by DH/DW to get the desired elliptical tank fluid volume. a = 25 in. DB = 72 in. Use the equations above for a vertical cylindrical tank with the appropriately shaped bottom. L = 156 in.2 (for the torispherical bottom). L = 156 in... for example 2. a = 25 in. calculate vertical cylindrical tank volumes with D = 72 in.1 for torispherical heads.9 and k = 0.calculate the volume of a horizontal cylindrical tank with D = D W and a fluid height h' = h(DW /DH) using the equations for horizontal cylindrical tanks with the appropriately shaped heads.. Multiply the volume found by D B/DA to get the elliptical tank volume.. and head parameters of each tank defined (1) in a horizontal plane through the tank centerline and (2) in a vertical plane through the tank centerline. Examples for vertical elliptical tanks Find the fluid volumes (in gal..xls Page 48 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article .554 in. Use the equations above for a vertical cylindrical tank with the appropriately shaped bottom. For example 2. f = 0.) of vertical elliptical tanks with conical. for ellipsoidal and spherical heads. For example 1. June 15. (48 in. and h = 53 in.8 and k = 0. DW = 120 in. f = 0. and multiply the volume found by 120/100. f = 0. where the bottom parameters are defined in the plane through both the tank centerline and through D B. spherical and torispherical heads with the following measurements: DH = 100 in. For example 2... 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 centerline (plane goes through DW ) . Head parameters of each tank defined (1) in a plane through the tank centerline and DA and (2) in a plane through the tank centerline and D B. where the bottom parameters are defined in the plane through both the tank centerline and through D A.065 in. fluid height h = 48 in. To calculate the fluid volume in a vertical elliptical tank. The results are summarized in the following table: FileName: 346522529.. and h = 53 in. a = 34 in.9 and k = 0. a = 25 in. a = 34 in. (for conical and spherical bottoms).

for examples 1 and 2.xls Page 49 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article .684 in. and 22. June 15.554 in. CP Horizontal Tank Equations Conical Heads 2 ( ) ( K )⋯⋯for 0≤h < R V f = A f L+ 2a R 3 2 V = A L+ ( )( 2 )⋯⋯for h=R 2a R π f f 3 2 V = A L+ ( )( π− K ) ⋯⋯for R< h≤2 R 2a R f f 3 FileName: 346522529. respectively. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 Calculated values for "a" in the torispherical-bottom cases are 25.

a≠0. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 K=cos −1 M + M cosh 3 −1 ( M1 )−2 M √ 1−M ⋯⋯where . or −R h V f = A f L+π a h 1− 2 ( 3R ) 4.xls Page 50 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article .01FileName: D 346522529. D.01 D { [ a 2 r3 ] } 2 2 2 3 V f = A f L+ |a| 3 cos−1 R −r w R ( w−r ) +cos−1 R +r w z − 2+ R ( w+r ) r R r ( ( )) −1 cos w R ( 2 w −2 w r − 3 ) y 4w yz tan−1 + z 3 h≠R. For the condition where: h=D and |a|≤R  a V f  Af L  3  3R 2  a 2  3. M =|R−h 2 R | Ellipsoidal Heads h V f = A f L+ π a h2 1− ( 3R ) Guppy Heads (Eccentric Cone) 2 a R2 h 2a V f = A f L+ 3 cos−1 1− + R 9R ( ) √ 2 R h−h2 ( 2 h−3 R )( h+R ) Spherical Heads 1. −R . R . D. R . For the condition where: h≠R . For the condition where: h=0 or a=0. For the condition where: h=R and |a|≤R πa V f = A f L+ ( 3 R 2 + a2 ) 6 2. a≠0. R . −R . June 15. and |a|<0. and |a|≥0.

For the condition where: h≠R.xls Page 51 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article .01 D [ ] R √ 2 2 a −1 R −x V f = A f L+ 2 ∫ r −x tan ( 2 2 ) dx− A f z |a| w r 2 −R 2 For the above 5 spherical heads equations: 2 2 a +R r= ……… where. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 5. and |a|<0. and a=±( r −√ r 2 −R2 ) + or (− ) for convex or ( concave ) heads 2 |a| w=R−h y= √2 R h−h2 z=√ r 2 −R2 Torispherical (ASME Flanged & Dished) Heads FileName: 346522529. D. R . −R . a≠0. June 15. a≠0 .

Garyville. FileName: 346522529.Jones@degussa.com. Contact him at Dan. La. June 15. 2003 Art Montemayor Determining Vessel Volumes Rev: 0 Jones is a senior process chemist for Stockhausen Louisiana LLC.xls Page 52 of 72 WorkSheet: Reference Article .

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