Skyscrapers

Skyscrapers are known to be super tall building either
residential, work place or of mix use. They are now tending to
coincide with major downturns in the economy. Today the
number of skyscrapers that are being built all around the
world are increasing where the land is highly expensive (as in
big / metropolitan cities) as they provide high ratio of floor
space to be used to per unit area of available land. They are
not built just for the economy of space; they are considered to
be symbol of city’s economic power. They do not only define
the skyline but also defines the city’s identity. In many places
exceptionally tall skyscrapers have been built not just because
of necessity of space but to define the city’s identity and
presence of power as a city.

The first skyscrapers would have been typically an office
building of more than 10 storeys. The concept was
undoubtedly originated in the USA, in Chicago and in New
York, where space was limited and where the best option was
to increase the height of the buildings. The crucial
developments for skyscrapers were steel, reinforced concrete,
water pumps, and elevators. Until the 19th century, buildings
of over six stories were rare. So many flights of stairs were
impractical for inhabitants, and water pressure was usually
insufficient to supply running water above about 15 metres
(50 feet). The weight-bearing components of skyscrapers
differ substantially from those of other buildings. Buildings up
to about four stories can be supported by their walls, while
skyscrapers are larger buildings that must be supported by a
skeletal frame.

In the late 19th century, the first skyscrapers would have been
typically an office building of more than 10 storeys. The
concept was undoubtedly originated in the USA, in Chicago
and in New York, where space was limited and where the best

This led to what is known as the “Chicago Skeleton.option was to increase the height of the buildings. Skyscraper foundations are considerably more complex than those for normal buildings. exposure to wind. earthquake and their location in relation to surrounding property. the value of the foundation / excavation can be as much as the 7. Design and construction . The complexity brought is just because of their height and weight and can be further depend on the certain specific factors such as nature of soil.5% of the total project value. the structural skeleton was a bolted steel frame without bracing supporting the loads coming from the walls and the slabs. the type of foundation and the characteristics of the ground. Built in 1884-1885 its height was 42 m/10 storeys. Designed by Major William Le Baron Jenney. Depending on the nature of the structure. The Home Insurance Building in Chicago was perhaps the first skyscraper in the world. founded on a raft. a graduate of l’EcoleCentrale des Arts et Manufactures de Paris.

and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the occupants. even on the upper floors. The concept of a skyscraper is a product of the industrialized age. One common feature of skyscrapers is a steel framework from which curtain walls are suspended. engineering. The buildings must support their weight. Yet they must also be conveniently accessible. resist wind and earthquakes. It further enables buildings to take on various shapes. The construction of skyscrapers was enabled by steel frame construction that surpassed brick and mortar construction starting at the end of the 19th century and finally surpassing it in the 20th century together with reinforced concrete construction as the price of steel decreased and labour costs increased.The design and construction of skyscrapers involves creating safe. and protect occupants from fire. skyscrapers can also have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls and have a small surface area of windows. tubular designs have been used for high rises. and construction management. It allows fewer interior columns. made possible by cheap fossil fuel derived energy and industrially refined raw materials such as steel and concrete. and so creates more usable floor space. This reduces the usage of material (more efficient in economic terms .Willis Tower uses a third less steel than the Empire State Building) yet allows greater height. [52] Since about 1960. The steel frames become inefficient and uneconomic for supertall buildings as usable floor space is reduced for progressively larger supporting columns. rather than load-bearing walls of conventional construction. However. . Most skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables them to be built taller than typical load-bearing walls of reinforced concrete. Because the walls are not load-bearing most skyscrapers are characterized by surface areas of windows made possible by the concept of steel frame and curtain wall. Skyscrapers usually have a particularly small surface area of what are conventionally thought of as walls. habitable spaces in very tall buildings. The problems posed in skyscraper design are considered among the most complex encountered given the balances required between economics.

furniture. . Thus. among which the most common for skyscrapers can be categorized as steel frames. the dead load. but particularly for skyscrapers since even a small chance of catastrophic failure is unacceptable given the high price. reducing wind shear Basic design considerations Good structural design is important in most building design. The Empire State Building's setbacks are actually a result of the building code at the time (1916 Zoning Resolution). Some of these new techniques include mass dampers to reduce vibrations and swaying. Centre’s shape is uniquely the result of how it supports loads. This presents a paradox to civil engineers: the only way to assure a lack of failure is to test for all modes of failure. As such. tube within tube design. the weight of the structure is much larger than the weight of the material that it will support beyond its own weight. engineers question whether the failure was due to some lack of foresight or due to some unknowable factor. but can only have large enough margins of safety such that a failure is acceptably unlikely. On the other hand. Loading and vibration The load a skyscraper experiences is largely from the force of the building material itself. vehicles. the load of the structure. while increasing in height. When buildings do fail. and shear walls. In most building designs.). the amount of structural material required within the lower levels of a skyscraper will be much larger than the material required within higher levels. Vertical supports can come in several types. and were not structurally required. concrete cores. This is not always visually apparent. is larger than the live load. and gaps to allow air to pass through. the weight of things in the structure (people. In technical terms. etc.Advances in construction techniques have allowed skyscrapers to narrow in width. But the only way to know of all modes of failure is to learn from previous failures. in both the laboratory and the real world. no engineer can be absolutely sure that a given structure will resist all loadings that could cause failure.

so for very tall buildings. as in the centres of big cities. Skyscrapers are rarely seen in small cities and they are characteristic of large cities. in New York City. Economic rationale Skyscrapers are usually situated in city centres where the price of land is high. Today. but for smaller cities a lot of parking spaces are needed. so a lot of land area is needed. In fact. Some skyscrapers have been built in areas where the bedrock is near surface. skyscrapers are an increasingly common sight where land is expensive. because of the critical importance of high land prices for the construction of skyscrapers. the lateral wind load imposed on super-tall structures is generally the governing factor in the structural design. One problem with skyscrapers is car parking. commercial and hotel users can afford the rents in the city centre and thus most tenants of skyscrapers are of these classes. for example this is the case in Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan. because this makes constructing the foundation cheaper. Wind pressure increases with height. . Constructing a skyscraper becomes justified if the price of land is so high that it makes economic sense to build upwards as to minimize the cost of the land per the total floor area of a building.The wind loading on a skyscraper is also considerable. Other vertical and horizontal loading factors come from varied. Thus the construction of skyscrapers is dictated by economics and results in skyscrapers in a certain part of a large city unless a building code restricts the height of buildings. but not in-between these two parts of the city. Usually only office. In the largest cities most people commute via public transport. such as earthquakes. Multi-storey car parks are impractical to build very tall. because they provide such a high ratio of rentable floor space per unit area of land. the loads associated with wind are larger than dead or live loads. unpredictable sources.

attracting the talents of such great architects as Stanford White and Carrere and Hastings. (87 m) high. a neo-Gothic "Cathedral of Commerce" overlooking City Hall. and to achieve this height with other construction methods of that time would have been very difficult. and may have been the first building in New York City to use a skeletal steel frame. . was designed by Cass Gilbert. It was one of the first buildings designed with a steel framework.There may be a correlation between skyscraper construction and great income inequality but this has not been conclusively proved History of the tallest skyscrapers At the beginning of the 20th century. [64] Subsequent buildings such as the Singer Building and the Metropolitan Life Tower were higher still. it became the world's tallest building upon its completion in 1913. made possible by its steel skeleton. New York City and Chicago became the focal point of the competition for the tallest building in the world. is considered by some to be New York City's first skyscraper. At 792 feet (241 m).[63] while the Home Insurance Building in Chicago. many of which are icons of 20th-century architecture:  The Flatiron Building. when it was overtaken by 40 Wall Street. designed by Bradford Gilbert and built in 1889. As better construction and engineering technology became available as the century progressed. is considered the world's first skyscraper due to its steel skeleton). (The Tower Building. which was built in 1884.  The Woolworth Building. was one of the tallest buildings in New York City upon its completion in 1902. designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham and standing 285 ft. an honour it retained until 1930. Each city's striking skyline has been composed of numerous and varied skyscrapers. New York City was a centre for the Beaux-Arts architectural movement.

Kilometer-plus structures present architectural challenges that may eventually place them in a new architectural category. Designed by William Van Allen. 508 m to tip Floors: 101 Opened: 31 December 2004 Architectural style: Postmodern Architecture . scraping the sky at 1.046 feet (319 m). the Chrysler Building continues to be a favourite of New Yorkers to this day Future developments At the time Taipei 101 broke the half-km mark in height. an Art Deco style masterpiece with an exterior crafted of brick. it was already technically possible to build structures towering over a km above the ground. That same year. Proposals for such structures have been put forward. the Chrysler Building took the lead as the tallest building in the world. Height: 449 m. The first building under construction and planned to be over one kilometre tall is the Jeddah Tower. including the Burj Mubarak Al Kabir in Kuwait and Azerbaijan Tower in Baku.

HARI (1301014) FINAL YEAR.CIVIL DEPARTMENT .SUBMITTED BY R.