MACHINING OPERATIONS

AND MACHINE TOOLS
1. Turning and Related Operations
2. Drilling and Related Operations
3. Milling
4. Machining & Turning Centers
5. Other Machining Operations
6. Shape, Tolerance and Surface Finish
7. Machinability
8. Selection of Cutting Conditions
9. Product Design Consideration

1

(Lathe) L Time of machining: Tm = fr Material Removal Rate: v MRR = vfd Do Df d f L 2 . 1. Turning & Related Operations • Turning – a machining v Rotational Speed: N = process in which a πDo single-point tool remove Do − D f = 2d material from the surface of a rotating Feed rate: f r = Nf work piece.

Operations related to Turning Contour turning Chamfering Facing Taper turning Form turning Cutoff Threading Boring Drilling Knurling 3 .

Work Holding • Mounting between two centers (Dog & Live center) • Chuck • Collet • Face plate 4 .

Engine Lathe Headstock Tailstock Tool post Carriage Bed Threaded Lead Screw 5 .

Other Lathes & Turning Machine • Toolroom Lathe and Speed Lathe • Turret Lathe – The tailstock is replaced with a turret • Chucking Machines – No tailstock • Automatic Bar Machine – Similar to chuck machine but with a collet – A single.and multiple-spindle bar machines • NC Lathe 6 .

Boring Machining • Boring – Cutting is done inside diameter of the work material Horizontal Boring Machining Vertical Boring Machining 7 .

cutting edge. Flute. Margin • Cutting conditions Spindle: N = v Feed rate: f = Nf r f(in/rev) πD πD 2 f r Metal Removal Rate: MRR = t+A 4 Machining time: Tm = f r For a through hole A d d Tm = For a blind hole t fr 8 .2. Neck and Drill body – Helix angle. Drilling & Related Operations • Geometry of Twist drill – Shank. Chisel edge. Point angle.

Twist Drill and Drilling Operations From Kalpakjian and Schmid (2003) 9 .

Machine Tool for drilling • Drill press – Upright drill – Bench drill – Radial drill – Gang drill . Jig and fixture 10 .2-6 drills together – NC drill • Vice.

3. End. Milling Up Milling Down Milling • Milling Conventional face – A machine operation in which a work part is fed past a rotating cylindrical tool with multiple edges. side and slotting straddle milling Profile • Up Milling (Conventional) & down milling (Climb) side Contour – Facing milling • Conventional face. slotting. Pocket & Pocket contour millings straddle Face Milling 11 Peripheral Milling . Profile. Partial face. (milling machine) Partial face Slab • Types – Peripheral milling End • Slab.

Cutting conditions • Milling cutters – Plain milling cutters – Form milling cutters Radial Rake Angle – Face milling cutters Relief Angle – End milling cutters Clearance • Cutting conditions Angle v Spindle rotation speed: N= πD Feed rate: f r = Nnt f Material Removal Rate: MRR = wdf r 12 .

Milling Machines • Knee-and-column Milling Machine – Horizontal and Vertical types – Universal and Ram types • Bed-type Mill • Planer-type Mills – the largest Horizontal Vertical category • Tracer (profile) Mill – reproduce an irregular part geometry • CNC Milling machine Universal Ram Bed-type mill 13 .

– Automatic tool changer – Pallet shuttles – Automatic workpart positioning • CNC turning center 14 . Machining Centers • Machining center – highly automated machine tool capable of performing multiple machining operations under CNC control.

A CNC mill-turn center A series of operations without human interactions Stock Turning Milling Drilling A part From a casting From a round stock From another casting 15 .

and Circular sawing 16 . Bandsawing. Other Machining Operations • Shaping and planing – A single-point tool moves linearly relative to the work part – Shaping .A tool moves – Planing – A workpart moves • Broaching – Performed by a multiple-tooth cutting tool by moving linearly relative to the work in the direction of the tool axis. 5. • Sawing – Hacksawing.

Broaching Semifinishing teeth Finishing teeth Roughing teeth 17 .

linear reciprocating motion Bandsaw . Sawing Hacksaw .linear continuous motion Saw Blade (Straight & Undercut tooth or Straight & Raker sets) 18 .