Basic 1

Personal pronouns

The subject pronouns in Italian are:
 Io - I
 Tu - Singular You
 Lui - He
 Lei - She
 Esso/Essa - It (archaic and literary)
 Noi - We
 Voi - Plural You / You all
 Loro - They (speaking of people)
 Essi/Esse - They (archaic and literary)

The verb is always conjugated to match the subject, and the subject is only specified for clarity
or emphasis.


Articles have to match gender and number of the noun they refer to.

The singular determinate articles (the) are:
 Lo - masculine, used before Z, S+consonant, GN, and some rarer consonant clusters.
 Il - masculine, used before consonants except the above.
 La - feminine, used before all consonants.
 L' - an elision of the above used before vowels.

The indeterminate articles (a/an) are:
 Uno - masculine, used before Z, S+consonant, GN, and some rarer consonant clusters.
 Un - masculine, used in all other cases.
 Una - feminine, used before all consonants.
 Un' - feminine, used before vowels.

for masculine nouns before vowels. nello. sull'. alle  Da + article: dal. alla. GN and some rarer consonant clusters.for feminine nouns. dei. as it presumes that the day is over (same as "good night"). allo. However.g. the Italian non always precedes it. dallo. agli. The English not almost always translates to the Italian non.g. "no!"): this translates directly to the Italian no. Greetings  Ciao is used both ways in Italian: when meeting (also salve) and when parting (alsoarrivederci or addio). nei. i. ai. Articulated prepositions When some prepositions are followed by a definite article they merge into a single word. dello.  Buongiorno and buonasera are normally used when meeting. while not often follows the verb it negates or its auxiliary. S+consonant. nelle  Su + article: sul. gli.  I . la.  Determiner (e.  Article: il. dai. dalla. with the exception of col (con + il) for which the contraction is optional. dagli. although they can be used when parting as well: the first is used in the first half of the day and the latter in the remaining half. nell'. Z. della. sullo. l'. le  Di + article: del. dell'. degli. sugli. sui. "no one"): you'll learn the translations for this in a later section. delle  A + article: al.for masculine nouns in all other cases. all'. sulla. .  Le . sulle The compounds formed by con and per are archaic and literary. lo. Phrases The English no has two main uses:  Particle (e. Basic 2 Plural articles The plural definite articles (the) are:  Gli .  Buonanotte is always used when parting. nella. dall'. negli. dalle  In + article: nel.

in many cases using one instead of the other can give hints on the dish's composition.g. In this case the article is never used before the ingredient. e. In this case a definite article can be used before the ingredient. Questions In this section you'll meet the first proper questions. or tastes like the ingredient. "succo di limone" (lemon juice). and it's the customary answer to reply to received thanks. e.  Dish con ingredient: the ingredient is a visible component of the dish or used as garnish.  Per favore.g. "fragole con panna" (strawberries with cream). When there is no room for confusion the three can occasionally be mixed up. "panino al salame" is as common as "panino con salame". "gelato al cioccolato" (chocolate ice cream). e. forming an articulated preposition with a. where "avere cibo" simply means owning food .g.g. Tips It's important to keep in mind that the English idiom of "having food" being synonymous with "eating food" doesn't apply to Italian. In this case the definite article is mandatory before the ingredient. meaning that the question mark at the end and the raising tone of voice are usually the only differences between a question and a statement. however.  Prego is a courtesy form used in many occasions to accompany a kind action.  Dish a ingredient: the dish has been flavored with the ingredient. In Italian word order doesn't change in a question. e. per piacere and per cortesia are courtesy forms used when asking for something Food Ingredients Italian has three ways to express the presence of an ingredient in the name of a dish:  Dish di ingredient: the ingredient is the main or only component of the dish.