Endocrine Gland  Hormone(s) Secreted  Stimulus  Effect of  Inhibition  Pathology 


Hypothalamus GHRH​ (growth hormone Fall in GH levels Prompts the anterior Rise in GH levels
releasing hormone) pituitary to release GH

GHIH ​(growth hormone Rise in GH levels Inhibits release of GH Fall in blood sugar level
inhibiting hormone)

GnRH Stimulates the anterior Rise in sex steroids
(gonadotropin-releasing pituitary to release FSH levels
hormone) and LH

(prolactin-inhibiting High levels of estrogen and Inhibits prolactin, and During birth, placenta
hormone) progesterone thereby, milk production goes away, taking
estrogen away

(prolactin-releasing Prompts the anterior In tumours, prolactin is most
hormone) pituitary to stimulate commonly produced, making people
breast milk production sterile
through the production
of prolactin

(corticotropin-releasing Sympathetic nervous Cortisol release
hormone) system, in response to

(thyrotropin-releasing Low blood levels of T3 and Triggers release of TSH
hormone) T4 or low metabolic rate

Pituitary gland TSH ​
(thyroid stimulating Release caused by TRH Stimulates release of
(anterior) hormone or thyrotropin) (thyrotropin-releasing thyroid hormones

FSH​(follicle stimulating Release caused by GnRH Gamete (sperm and Rise in sex steroids
hormone) produced by (gonadotropin-releasing egg) production levels
gonadotroph cells hormone)

LH​ (luteinizing hormone) Release caused by GnRH Sex hormone Rise in sex steroids
produced by gonadotroph production in gonads levels

Hypoglycemia cells levels . .Muscle growth (somatostatin or growth blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) → produced by somatotroph . amnenorrhea. impotence (male) MSH​         ​ (melanocyte Causes release of stimulating hormone) melanin NON-TROPIC Pituitary gland Oxytocin produced by Suckling or pressure on Uterine contraction and Delivery of baby or baby (posterior) hypothalamus uterine cervix milk ejection stops feeding Antidiuretic Hormone (​ ADH​ ) .Pain and certain drugs (diuresing) Pancreas Beta-cells: insulin Rise in blood glucose levels Signals glucose uptake in Fall in blood glucose . NON-TROPIC prolactin-inhibiting subfertility or infertility hormone) .Hyperprolactinaemia → galactorrhea. ACTH​ (andrenocorticotropic Release caused by CRH Causes cortisol release hormone or corticotropin) (corticotropin-releasing from the adrenal cortex produced by corticotroph hormone) cells hGH​ (human growth Release caused by GHRH .Diabetes mellitus Alpha cells: glucagon Fall in blood glucose levels Stimulates release of Rise in blood glucose Hyperglycemia glucose by cells levels .Low blood pressure and blood by the kidneys low blood volume and prevents urination .Hypoprolactinaemia lactotroph cells (dopamine or → poor or absent milk production.Increased osmolarity of Increases water Adequate or over Diabetes Insipidus produced by hypothalamus the blood absorption into the hydration of the body .Tissue Repair hormone-inhibiting diabetes cells hormone) -​Gigantism​ —occurs if the hGH levels NON-TROPIC rise before epiphyseal lines close -​Acromegaly—​ occurs when hGH levels rise after the epiphyseal lines close PRL ​(prolactin) produced by Release caused by PRH Milk production Inhibited by PIH .Bone growth Inhibited by GHIH -​hGH-secreting tumour​ causes high hormone or somatotropin) .

calcium levels levels hypoparathyroidism. iodine deficiency. Rise in TH levels is Goiters.Promote resistance to stress Zona reticularis Androgens Release of cortisol Regulation of sex No negative feedback Congenital          ​ Adrenal (cortez) main: ​ DHEA hormone Hyperplasia—excess production of (​ dehydroepiandrosterone) androgens Adrenal medulla Catecholamines Short term stress · Stimulate any cell that Tumour of adrenal medulla (rare) (epinephrine & (sympathetic system) has adrenergic receptor norepinephrine) . Na+ deficiency . thyroid cancer.Promote protein and levels secretion main: ​ cortisol emotional things).Regulation of sugar Rise in blood cortisol Cushing’s         ​ Syndrome—excess cortisol (cortez) hormones) temperature. or low glucose breakdown cortisol . and development gland. which is followed by mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) blood pressure water Zona fasciculate Glucocortocoids (stress Stressors (extremes in .Thyroid gland TH (thyroid hormone) TSH stimulates release of Regulate metabolism. hyperthyroidism/ TH energy. and growth sensed by pituitary hypothyroidism. osteoporosis .Increase formation of vitamin D Adrenal cortex Zona glomerulosa (cortez) Aldosterone Dehydration. Graves’ disease Calcitonin produced by Rise in blood calcium levels Decreases blood Fall in blood calcium parafollicular cells calcium levels levels Parathyroid glands PTH​ (parathyroid hormone) Fall in blood calcium levels .Increases blood Rise in blood calcium Hyperparathyroidism. .Kidney reabsorption of to normal cortisol production or volume → decrease in Na. body pain.long term stress . solitary secretion of TSH thyroid nodule. decreasing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.Regulation of salt Blood pressure returns Addison’s         ​ Disease—insufficient (mineralocortioid) → decrease in blood .