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Angular frequency, Measured in radians per second. 1RPM = / 30 rad/second

Number of teeth, N How many teeth a gear has, an integer. In the case of worms, it is the

number of thread starts that the worm has.

Gear, wheel The larger of two interacting gears or a gear on its own.

Pinion The smaller of two interacting gears.

Path of contact Path followed by the point of contact between two meshing gear teeth.

Line of action, pressure line Line along which the force between two meshing gear teeth

is directed. It has the same direction as the force vector. In general, the line of action

changes from moment to moment during the period of engagement of a pair of teeth. For

involute gears, however, the tooth-to-tooth force is always directed along the same line

that is, the line of action is constant. This implies that for involute gears the path of

contact is also a straight line, coincident with the line of actionas is indeed the case.

Axis Axis of revolution of the gear; center line of the shaft.

Pitch point, p Point where the line of action crosses a line joining the two gear axes.

Pitch circle, pitch line Circle centered on and perpendicular to the axis, and passing

through the pitch point. A predefined diametral position on the gear where the circular

tooth thickness, pressure angle and helix angles are defined.

Pitch diameter, d A predefined diametral position on the gear where the circular tooth

thickness, pressure angle and helix angles are defined. The standard pitch diameter is a

basic dimension and cannot be measured, but is a location where other measurements are

made. Its value is based on the number of teeth, the normal module (or normal diametral

pitch), and the helix angle. It is calculated as:

Module, m A scaling factor used in metric gears with units in millimeters whose effect is

to enlarge the gear tooth size as the module increases and reduce the size as the module

decreases. Module can be defined in the normal (mn), the transverse (mt), or the axial

planes (ma) depending on the design approach employed and the type of gear being

designed.[15] Module is typically an input value into the gear design and is seldom

calculated.

Operating pitch diameters Diameters determined from the number of teeth and the center

distance at which gears operate.[4] Example for pinion:

Pitch surface In cylindrical gears, cylinder formed by projecting a pitch circle in the axial

direction. More generally, the surface formed by the sum of all the pitch circles as one

moves along the axis. For bevel gears it is a cone.

Angle of action Angle with vertex at the gear center, one leg on the point where mating

teeth first make contact, the other leg on the point where they disengage.

Arc of action Segment of a pitch circle subtended by the angle of action.

Pressure angle, The complement of the angle between the direction that the teeth exert

force on each other, and the line joining the centers of the two gears. For involute gears,

the teeth always exert force along the line of action, which, for involute gears, is a

straight line; and thus, for involute gears, the pressure angle is constant.

Outside diameter, Do Diameter of the gear, measured from the tops of the teeth.

Root diameter Diameter of the gear, measured at the base of the tooth.

Addendum, a Radial distance from the pitch surface to the outermost point of the tooth. a

= (Do D) / 2

Dedendum, b Radial distance from the depth of the tooth trough to the pitch surface. b =

(D rootdiameter) / 2

Whole depth, ht The distance from the top of the tooth to the root; it is equal to addendum

plus dedendum or to working depth plus clearance.

Clearance Distance between the root circle of a gear and the addendum circle of its mate.

Working depth Depth of engagement of two gears, that is, the sum of their operating

addendums.

Circular pitch, p Distance from one face of a tooth to the corresponding face of an

adjacent tooth on the same gear, measured along the pitch circle.

Diametral pitch, pd Ratio of the number of teeth to the pitch diameter. Could be measured

in teeth per inch or teeth per centimeter.

Base circle In involute gears, where the tooth profile is the involute of the base circle.

The radius of the base circle is somewhat smaller than that of the pitch circle.

Base pitch, normal pitch, pb In involute gears, distance from one face of a tooth to the

corresponding face of an adjacent tooth on the same gear, measured along the base circle.

Interference Contact between teeth other than at the intended parts of their surfaces.

Interchangeable set A set of gears, any of which will mate properly with any other.

Helix angle, Angle between a tangent to the helix and the gear axis. It is zero in the

limiting case of a spur gear, albeit it can considered as the hypotenuse angle as well.

Normal circular pitch, pn Circular pitch in the plane normal to the teeth.

Transverse circular pitch, p Circular pitch in the plane of rotation of the gear. Sometimes

just called "circular pitch". pn = pcos()

Several other helix parameters can be viewed either in the normal or transverse planes.

The subscript n usually indicates the normal.

Lead Distance from any point on a thread to the corresponding point on the next turn of

the same thread, measured parallel to the axis.

Linear pitch, p Distance from any point on a thread to the corresponding point on the

adjacent thread, measured parallel to the axis. For a single-thread worm, lead and linear

pitch are the same.

Lead angle, Angle between a tangent to the helix and a plane perpendicular to the axis.

Note that it is the complement of the helix angle which is usually given for helical gears.

Pitch diameter, dw Same as described earlier in this list. Note that for a worm it is still

measured in a plane perpendicular to the gear axis, not a tilted plane.

Notes on Spur Gears

Definitions

Addendum:

The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the top of the teeth.

Arc of Action:

That arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact between gear

teeth and the last.

Arc of Approach:

That arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact between gear

teeth and the the Pitch Point.

Arc of Recession:

That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of

contact between gear teeth.

Backlash:

Base Circle:

The circle from which is generated the involute curve upon which the tooth

profile is based.

Center Distance:

Chordal Addendum:

The distance between a chord, passing through the points where the Pitch

Circle crosses the tooth profile, and the tooth top.

Chordal Thickness:

The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the

points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile.

Circular Pitch:

Inches of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth.

Circular Thickness:

The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch Circle

Clearance:

The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into

which it fits on the meshing gear.

Contact Ratio:

The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch.

Dedendum:

The radial distance between the bottom of the space between teeth and the

top of the teeth.

Diametral Pitch:

Pitch.

Face:

The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and

the top of the tooth.

Face Width:

Flank:

The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and

the bottom of the space between gear teeth

Gear:

The larger of two meshed gears. If both gears are the same size, they're both

called "gears". See Pinion.

Land:

Line of Action:

That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels,

between the first point of contact and the last.

Module:

Pinion:

Pitch Circle:

The circle, the radius of which is equal to the distance from the center of the

gear to the pitch point.

Pitch Diameter:

Pitch Point:

The point of tangency of the pitch circles of two meshing gears, where the

Line of Centers crosses the pitch circles.

Pressure Angle:

Angle between the Line of Action and a line perpendicular to the Line of

Centers.

Profile Shift:

lower the practical tooth number or acheive a non-standard Center Distance.

For a description of Profile Shift, see DANotes.

Ratio:

Root Circle:

The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces.

Root Diameter:

Stub Gear:

Stub Tooth:

Undercut:

A gear tooth which is thinner at the base than at the Pitch Circle. Caused by

too few teeth (too course a Diametral Pitch) for a given Pitch Diameter.

Whole Depth:

The distance between the top of the teeth and the bottom of the spaces

between teeth.

Working Depth:

The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the

mating gear.

General Notes

Gears that are smaller than 32 teeth for a 14.5 Pressure Angle, or 18 teeth for a 20 Pressure

Angle, have a Root Circle smaller than the Base Circle, resulting in the teeth being undercut.

Undercutting is avoided by the use of Profile Shift, the shifting the the Addendum and

Dedendum outward without altering the location of the base circle. Profile shift is also used to

attain non-standard center distances. Gears with shifted profiles will run properly with standard

gears.

Standard Pressure Angle is 20, but 14.5 is traditional. 14.5 was chosen because the sine is

almost exactly , which simplified design in the pre-computer age.

There are no "standards" for pitch, but industry has settled on certain common values. Common

Diametral Pitches include 48, 32, 24, 20, 18, 16, and 12. Common Modulusises (Modulae?

Moduli?) include 0.5, 0.8, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 2.50, and 3.

Formulae

I prefer the term "formulae" to "formulas". I also prefer "octopodes" to "octopi", on the grounds

that the suffix "pus" is Greek, and should have a Greek plurization rather than a Latin

pluralization, but I digress...

Pitch Diameter = Teeth Circular Pitch pi

Center Distance = (Teeth on Pinion + Teeth on Gear) (2 Diametral Pitch)

Center Distance = (Teeth on Pinion + Teeth on Gear) Circular Pitch (2 pi)

Teeth = Pitch Diameter Circular Pitch

Addendum = 0.3183 Circular Pitch

Dedendum = 0.3683 Circular Pitch

Working Depth = 0.6366 Circular Pitch

Whole Depth = 0.6866 Circular Pitch

Clearance = 0.05 Circular Pitch

Outside Diameter = (Teeth + 2) Circular Pitch

Addendum = 0.2546 Circular Pitch

Dedendum = 0.3183 Circular Pitch

Working Depth = 1.6 Diametral Pitch

Working Depth = 0.5092 Circular Pitch

Whole Depth = 0.5729 Circular Pitch

Clearance = 0.0637 Circular Pitch

Outside Diameter = (Teeth + 1.6) Circular Pitch

Addendum = Module

There are a lot of ways to do this, the obvious one being to use a gear tooth pitch gauge, but I

don't have one, so the methods I use are as follows. First:

2. Add two;

This gives me the Diametral Pitch. It rarely gives me an exact pitch, due to errors in measuring,

but it is usually very close to one of the common pitches of 32, 24, 16, etc.

If this gives me a goofy answer like 22.1, I suspect it is a metric gear, and divide 25.4 by the

pitch (or divide the pitch by 25.4 and hit the 1/x button on the calculator) and see if it comes

reasonably close to one of the standard metric moduli of 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 2.5, etc.

If this still gives me a goofy answer like 1.14, then I figure it might be a Stub Gear, and try this:

1. Count the teeth (it doesn't usually change from the last time);

2. Add 1.6;

It should be close to one of the common pitches, but, alas, it often isn't. If I have a gear with

which it meshes, I try this:

2. Divide by two;

If this doesn't work, it must be a profile-shifted gear, so I try swearing, which also doesn't work.

Helical Gears

Introduction

Helical gears are similar to spur gears except that the gears teeth are at an angle with the

axis of the gears. A helical gear is termed right handed or left handed as determined by the

direction the teeth slope away from the viewer looking at the top gear surface along the

axis of the gear. ( Alternatively if a gear rests on its face the hand is in the direction of the

slope of the teeth) . Meshing helical gears must be of opposite hand. Meshed helical gears

can be at an angle to each other (up to 90o ). The helical gear provides a smoother mesh

and can be operated at greater speeds than a straight spur gear. In operatation helical gears

generate axial shaft forces in addition to the radial shaft force generated by normal spur

gears.

In operation the initial tooth contact of a helical gear is a point which develops into a full

line contact as the gear rotates. This is a smoother cycle than a spur which has an initial

line contact. Spur gears are generally not run at peripheral speed of more than 10m/s.

Helical gears can be run at speed exceeding 50m/s when accurately machined and

balanced.

Standards ... The same standards apply to helical gears as for spur gears

factors and Calculation Methods for involute Spur Gear

and Helical Gear Teeth

gears. Definitions and allowable values of deviations

relevant to corresponding flanks of gear teeth

gears. Definitions and allowable values of deviations

relevant to radial composite deviations and runout

information

spur and helical gears. Basic principles, introduction and

general influence factors

and helical gears. Calculation of surface durability

(pitting)

and helical gears. Calculation of tooth bending strength

and helical gears. Strength and quality of materials

A helical gear train with parallel axes is very similar to a spur gear with the same tooth

profile and proportions. The primary difference is that the teeth are machined at an angle

to the gear axis.

Helix Angle ..

The helix angle of helical gears is generally selected from the range 6,8,10,12,15,20

degrees. The larger the angle the smoother the motion and the higher speed possible

however the thrust loadings on the supporting bearings also increases. In case of a double

or herringbone gear values 25,30,35,40 degrees can also be used. These large angles can

be used because the side thrusts on the two sets of teeth cancel each other allowing larger

angles with no penalty

Pitch /module ..

The traverse circular pitch (p) is the same as for spur gears and is measured along the pitch

circle

The normal circular pitch p n is measured normal to the helix of the gear.

The diametric pitch is the same as for spur gears ... P = z g /dg = z p /d p ....d= pitch circle

dia (inches).

The module is the same as for spur gears ... m = dg/z g = d p/z p.... d = pitch circle dia

(mm).

p = Circular pitch = d g. / z g = d p. / z p

-1

n = Normal pressure angle = tan ( tan.cos )

=Helix angle

a a = Addendum = m

a f =Dedendum = 1.25*m

When two helical gears are used to transmit power between non parallel, non-intersecting

shafts, they are generally called crossed helical gears. These are simply normal helical

gears with non-parallel shafts. For crossed helical gears to operate successfully they must

have the same pressure angle and the same normal pitch. They need not have the same

helix angle and they do not need to be opposite hand. The contact is not a good line

contact as for parallel helical gears and is often little more than a point contact. Running in

crossed helical gears tend to marginally improve the area of contact.

The relationship between the shaft angles and the helix angles 1 & 2 is as follows

For gears with a 90o crossed axis it is obvious that the gears must be the same

hand.

The centres distance (a) between crossed helical gears is calculated as follows

Designing helical gears is normally done in accordance with standards the two most

popular series are listed under standards above: The notes below relate to approximate

methods for estimating gear strengths. The methods are really only useful for first

approximations and/or selection of stock gears (ref links below). Detailed design of spur

and helical gears should best be completed using :

a) Standards.

b) Books are available providing the necessary guidance.

c) Software is also available making the process very easy. A very reasonably priced and

easy to use package is included in the links below (Mitcalc.com)

The determination of the capacity of gears to transfer the required torque for the desired

operating life is completed by determining the strength of the gear teeth in bending and

also the durability i.e of the teeth ( resistance to wearing/bearing/scuffing loads ) .. The

equations below are based on methods used by Buckingham..

Bending

The Lewis formula for spur gears can be applied to helical gears with minor adjustments to

provide an initial conservative estimate of gear strength in bending. This equation should

only be used for first estimates.

= Fb / ( ba. m. Y )

m = Module (mm)

When a gear wheel is rotating the gear teeth come into contact with some degree of

impact. To allow for this a velocity factor is introduced into the equation. This is given by

the Barth equation for milled profile gears.

K v = (6,1 + V ) / 6,1

= K v.Fb / ba. m. Y

The Lewis form factor Y must be determined for the virtual number of teeth z' = z /cos3

The bending stress resulting should be less than the allowable bending stress Sb for the gear

material under consideration. Some sample values are provide on this page ef Gear

Strength Values

Surface Strength

approximately using the simple equation as follows

Fw = K v d p b a Q K / cos2

Q = 2. dg /( dp + dp ) = 2.zg /( zp +zp )

K = Gear Wear Load Factor (MPa) obtained by look up ref Gear Strength Values

addendum = m, dedendum = 1.25m

ber ber ber ber ber

of Y of Y of Y of Y of Y

teet teet teet teet teet

h h h h h

12 17 22 34 75

45 03 31 71 35

13 18 24 38 100

61 09 37 84 47

77 14 46 01 60

15 20 28 50 300

90 22 53 09 72

16 21 30 60

96 28 59 22 k 85

Bevel Gears

Introduction

surface and straight teeth tapering towards an apex

except the teeth are curved. In essence, Zerol Bevel

Gears are Spiral Bevel Gears with a spiral angle of zero.

angle allowing tooth contact to be gradual and smooth

bevel except that the pitch surfaces are hyperboloids

rather than cones. Pinion can be offset above, or

below,the gear centre, thus allowing larger pinion

diameter, and longer life and smoother mesh, with

additional ratios e.g 6:1, 8:1, 10:1

Specifications

BS ISO 10300-1:2001..Calculation of load capacity of bevel gears. Calculation of load

capacity of bevel gears. Introduction and general influence factors

BS ISO 10300-2:2001..Calculation of load capacity of bevel gears. Calculation of surface

durability (pitting)

BS ISO 10300-3:2001..Calculation of load capacity of bevel gears. Calculation of tooth

root strength

These are gears cut from conical blanks and connect intersecting shaft axes. The

connecting shafts are generally at 90o and sometimes one shaft drives a bevel gear which is

mounted on a through shaft resulting in two output shafts. The point of intersection of the

shafts is called the apex and the teeth of the two gears converge at the apex. The design of

bevel gears results in thrust forces away from the apex. With the bearing limitations the

gears have to be carefully designed to ensure that they are not thrown out of alignment as

they are loaded.

Straight bevel gears are used widely in machine drive systems to effect 90o direction

changes. and in differential drives They have the same limitations as spur gears and they

are therefore not used on high duty high speed applications. Straight bevel gears are low

cost units supplied with ratios from 1:2 to 4:1.

Straight Bevel Gear Force equations

Nomenclature

z g = Number of teeth on pinion

= Pressure Angle of Teeth.

p = Pitch Angle (pinion)....= tan-1 (z p / z g )

g = Pitch Angle (gear)....= tan-1 (z g / z p )

P p = Power at Pinion shaft (kW)

n p = Rotational speed of pinion shaft (revs/min)

d p = Pinion Pitch Circle diameter (mm)

Mp = torque on pinion shaft (Nm)

Fs = Separating Force (N)

Fp = Pinion Thrust (N)

Fg = Gear Thrust (N)

The advantage of Zerol bevel gears compared to straight bevel gears is that they operate

with a smooth localised point contact as opposed to a line contact enabling smoother

operation with low vibration levels and higher speeds. Because there is no spiral angle and

no additional developed thrust these gears can be used as direct replacements for straight

bevel gears. These gears normally have a pressure angle of 20 o. The minimum number of

teeth on the pinion is 14. The design of Zerol gears is relatively specialised and they are

manufactured using special "Gleason" machine tools..

These are produced using a spiral gear form which results in a smoother drive suitable for

higher speed higher loaded applications. Again satisfactory performance of this type of

gear is largely dependent upon the rigidity of the bearings and mountings.

= pitch cone angle

= Helix angle

Note: ( + ) if helix angle is as shown and ( -) if helix angle is opposite to that shown

Hypoid gears are best for the applications requiring large speed reductions with non

intersecting shafts and those applications requiring smooth and quiet operation. Hypoid

gears are generally used for automotive applications. The minimum number of teeth for

speed ratios greater than 6 :1 is eight although 6 teeth pinions can be used for ratios below

6:1. Hypoid gears have pressure angles between 19 and 22o. The design of hypoid gears

is relatively specialised and they are manufactured using special "Gleason" machine tools..

Straight Bevel Gear Strength and Durability Equations

Designing bevel gears is normally done in accordance with standards as listed under

specifications above: The notes below relate to approximate methods for estimating gear

strengths. The methods are really only useful for first approximations and/or selection of

stock gears (ref links below). Detailed design of bevel gears should only be completed

using the relevant standards. Books are available providing the necessary guidance.

Software is also available making the process very easy.

The equations are basically modified spur gears equations using a spur gear equivalent

number of teeth z e

Equivalent Number of teeth on pinion = z ep = z p / cos p

The basic lewis formula for spur gear teeth is shown as follows

= F t / ( W. m. Y )

= Tooth Bending stress (MPa)

m = Module (mm)

The Lewis formula is modified to provide the allowable tangential force F b based on the

allowable bending Stress S b

F a = S b.W. m. Y

It is clear that a bevel gear does not have a uniform section or a uniform module and

therefore it is necessary to start an analysis by considering an element dx..

To obtain the allowable torque (M) transmitted by the gears multiply both sides by r xand

integrate the resulting equations as shown below

The module varies along the gear teeth in proportion to the radius from the apex along the

pitch cone.

Thus ..m / m x = L / x where m = module at x = L

Substituting these relationships into the integration equation results..

The face width is considered to be limited to 1/3 of the cone distance when the factor b2 /

(3.L2) = 1/27 is so small compared to the other factors that it can be reasonably ignored .

Then dividing by r to arrive at the Lewis equation for the allowable bending load

The allowable bending load F b must be greater than the dynamic load which is the actual

bending load calculated from the transmitted torque modified by the Barth formula as

identified in the notes on spur gears i.e

FbFt/Kv

K v = 6,1 / (6,1 +V )

Note: This factor is different for different gear conditions i.e K v = ( 3.05 + V )/3.05 for cast

iron, cast profile gears.

d mean is the mean pitch circle diameter (mm)..

n = Rotational speed of gear (rpm)

The gear durability equation is based on the Hertz contact stress equation and its

application to gears.

The allowable tangential wear load F w is calculated as follows

F w = d p. K. Q' / cos p

Q' = 2 z eg /( z ep + z ep )

z eg & z ep are the equivalent number of teeth on the gear and pinion as defined above

K = Wear Load Factor see table Gear table

The allowable load F w must be greater than the dynamic bending load which is the actual

load calculated from the transmitted torque modified by the Barth formula as identified in

the notes on spur gears i.e

FwFt/Kv

Types

[edit] External vs internal gears

Internal gear

An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone.

Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or

cone. For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal

gears do not cause direction reversal.[5]

[edit] Spur

Spur gear

Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk

with the teeth projecting radially, and although they are not straight-sided in form, the edge of

each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can be meshed

together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel shafts.

[edit] Helical

Helical gears

Top: parallel configuration

Bottom: crossed configuration

Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are

not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling

causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in a parallel or

crossed orientations. The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the

most common orientation. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, and in this configuration are

sometimes known as "skew gears".

The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth causing them to run more

smoothly and quietly.[6] With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth first make contact at a

single point at one side of the gear wheel; a moving curve of contact then grows gradually across

the tooth face to a maximum then recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point on the

opposite side. In spur gears teeth suddenly meet at a line contact across their entire width causing

stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. Whereas spur gears are

used for low speed applications and those situations where noise control is not a problem, the use

of helical gears is indicated when the application involves high speeds, large power transmission,

or where noise abatement is important. The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line

velocity exceeds 25 m/s.[7]

A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which needs to be

accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings, and a greater degree of sliding friction between

the meshing teeth, often addressed with additives in the lubricant.

For a 'crossed' or 'skew' configuration the gears must have the same pressure angle and normal

pitch, however the helix angle and handedness can be different. The relationship between the two

shafts is actually defined by the helix angle(s) of the two shafts and the handedness, as defined:[8]

Where is the helix angle for the gear. The crossed configuration is less mechanically sound

because there is only a point contact between the gears, whereas in the parallel configuration

there is a line contact.[8]

Quite commonly helical gears are used with the helix angle of one having the negative of the

helix angle of the other; such a pair might also be referred to as having a right-handed helix and a

left-handed helix of equal angles. The two equal but opposite angles add to zero: the angle

between shafts is zero that is, the shafts are parallel. Where the sum or the difference (as

described in the equations above) is not zero the shafts are crossed. For shafts crossed at right

angles the helix angles are of the same hand because they must add to 90 degrees.

Double helical gears, or herringbone gear, overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by

"single" helical gears by having two sets of teeth that are set in a V shape. Each gear in a double

helical gear can be thought of as two standard mirror image helical gears stacked. This cancels

out the thrust since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction. Double helical gears

are more difficult to manufacture due to their more complicated shape.

For each possible direction of rotation, there are two possible arrangements of two oppositely-

oriented helical gears or gear faces. In one possible orientation, the helical gear faces are oriented

so that the axial force generated by each is in the axial direction away from the center of the

gear; this arrangement is unstable. In the second possible orientation, which is stable, the helical

gear faces are oriented so that each axial force is toward the mid-line of the gear. In both

arrangements, when the gears are aligned correctly, the total (or net) axial force on each gear is

zero. If the gears become misaligned in the axial direction, the unstable arrangement generates a

net force for disassembly of the gear train, while the stable arrangement generates a net

corrective force. If the direction of rotation is reversed, the direction of the axial thrusts is

reversed, a stable configuration becomes unstable, and vice versa.

Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for

different bearings.

[edit] Bevel

Bevel gear

A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off. When two bevel

gears mesh, their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect

at this point, forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle between the

shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees. Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and

shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears.

The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight-cut as with spur gears, or they may be cut in a variety

of other shapes. Spiral bevel gear teeth are curved along the tooth's length and set at an angle,

analogously to the way helical gear teeth are set at an angle compared to spur gear teeth. Zerol

bevel gears have teeth which are curved along their length, but not angled. Spiral bevel gears

have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical gears

do to spur gears. Straight bevel gears are generally used only at speeds below 5 m/s

(1000 ft/min), or, for small gears, 1000 r.p.m.[9]

[edit] Hypoid

Hypoid gear

Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft axes do not intersect. The pitch

surfaces appear conical but, to compensate for the offset shaft, are in fact hyperboloids of

revolution.[10][11] Hypoid gears are almost always designed to operate with shafts at 90 degrees.

Depending on which side the shaft is offset to, relative to the angling of the teeth, contact

between hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother and more gradual than with spiral bevel gear

teeth. Also, the pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than a spiral bevel pinion, with the result

that gear ratios of 60:1 and higher are feasible using a single set of hypoid gears.[12] This style of

gear is most commonly found driving mechanical differentials; which are normally straight cut

bevel gears; in motor vehicle axles.

[edit] Crown

Crown gear

Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of bevel gear whose teeth project at right

angles to the plane of the wheel; in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown. A

crown gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear, although crown gears are

sometimes seen meshing with spur gears. A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with an

escapement such as found in mechanical clocks.

[edit] Worm

Worm gear

Worm gears resemble screws. A worm gear is usually meshed with a spur gear or a helical gear,

which is called the gear, wheel, or worm wheel.

Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to achieve a high torque, low speed gear

ratio. For example, helical gears are normally limited to gear ratios of less than 10:1 while worm-

and-gear sets vary from 10:1 to 500:1.[13] A disadvantage is the potential for considerable sliding

action, leading to low efficiency.[14]

Worm gears can be considered a species of helical gear, but its helix angle is usually somewhat

large (close to 90 degrees) and its body is usually fairly long in the axial direction; and it is these

attributes which give it screw like qualities. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is

made when at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix. If this occurs, it is a

'worm'; if not, it is a 'helical gear'. A worm may have as few as one tooth. If that tooth persists for

several turns around the helix, the worm will appear, superficially, to have more than one tooth,

but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the worm.

The usual screw nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called single thread or single start;

a worm with more than one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start. The helix angle of a

worm is not usually specified. Instead, the lead angle, which is equal to 90 degrees minus the

helix angle, is given.

In a worm-and-gear set, the worm can always drive the gear. However, if the gear attempts to

drive the worm, it may or may not succeed. Particularly if the lead angle is small, the gear's teeth

may simply lock against the worm's teeth, because the force component circumferential to the

worm is not sufficient to overcome friction. Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are called self

locking, which can be used to advantage, as for instance when it is desired to set the position of a

mechanism by turning the worm and then have the mechanism hold that position. An example is

the machine head found on some types of stringed instruments.

If the gear in a worm-and-gear set is an ordinary helical gear only a single point of contact will

be achieved.[15] If medium to high power transmission is desired, the tooth shape of the gear is

modified to achieve more intimate contact by making both gears partially envelop each other.

This is done by making both concave and joining them at a saddle point; this is called a cone-

drive.[16]

Worm gears can be right or left-handed following the long established practice for screw threads.

[5]

[edit] Non-circular

Non-circular gears

Non-circular gears are designed for special purposes. While a regular gear is optimized to

transmit torque to another engaged member with minimum noise and wear and maximum

efficiency, a non-circular gear's main objective might be ratio variations, axle displacement

oscillations and more. Common applications include textile machines, potentiometers and

continuously variable transmissions.

Rack and pinion gearing

A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large

radius of curvature. Torque can be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with a pinion: the

pinion turns; the rack moves in a straight line. Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to

convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s). Racks also

feature in the theory of gear geometry, where, for instance, the tooth shape of an interchangeable

set of gears may be specified for the rack (infinite radius), and the tooth shapes for gears of

particular actual radii then derived from that. The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack

railway.

[edit] Epicyclic

Epicyclic gearing

In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes moves. Examples are sun and planet gearing

(see below) and mechanical differentials.

Sun (yellow) and planet (red) gearing

Sun and planet gearing was a method of converting reciprocating motion into rotary motion in

steam engines. It was famously used by James Watt on his early steam engines in order to get

around the patent on the crank.

The Sun is yellow, the planet red, the reciprocating arm is blue, the flywheel is green and the

driveshaft is grey.

A harmonic drive is a specialized gearing mechanism often used in industrial motion control,

robotics and aerospace for its advantages over traditional gearing systems, including lack of

backlash, compactness and high gear ratios.

Cage gear in Pantigo Windmill, Long Island

A cage gear, also called a lantern gear or lantern pinion has cylindrical rods for teeth, parallel to

the axle and arranged in a circle around it, much as the bars on a round bird cage or lantern. The

assembly is held together by disks at either end into which the tooth rods and axle are set.

DRILL NOMENCLATURE

Axis: The imaginary straight line which forms the longitudinal center line of the drill

Back Taper: A slight decrease in diameter from front to back in the body of the drill

Body: The portion of the drill extending from the shank or neck to the outer corners of

the cutting lips

Body Diameter Clearance: That portion of the land that has been cut away so it will

not rub against the walls of the hole

Built-Up Edge: An adhering deposit of nascent material on the cutting lip or the point

of the drill

Cam Relief: The relief from the cutting edge to the back of the land, produced by a

cam actuated cutting tool or grinding wheel on a relieving machine

Chip Breaker: Nicks or Grooves designed to reduce the size of chips; they may be

steps or grooves in the cutting lip or in the leading face of the land at or adjacent to

the cutting lips

Chip Packing: The failure of chips to pass through the flute during cutting action

Chipping: The breakdown of a cutting lip or margin by loss of fragments broken away

during the cutting action

Chisel Edge: The edge at the end of the web that connects the cutting lips

Chisel Edge Angle: The angle included between the chisel edge and the cutting lip, as

viewed from the end of the drill

Clearance: The space provided to eliminate undesirable contact between the drill and

the workpiece

Clearance Diameter: The diameter over the the cut away portion of the drill lands

Crankshaft or Deep Hole Drills: Drills designed for drilling oil holes in crankshafts,

connecting rods and similar deep holes; they are generally made with heavy webs and

higher helix angles than normal

Cutter Sweep: The section formed by the tool used to generate the flute in leaving the

flute

Double Margin Drill: A drill whose body diameter clearance is produced to leave

more than one margin on each land and is normally made with margins on the leading

edge and on the heel of the land

Drift: A flat tapered bar for forcing a taper shank out of its socket

Drift Slot: A slot through a socket at the small end of the tapered hole to recieve a drift

for forcing a taper shank out of its socket

Drill Diameter: The diameter over the margins of the drill measured at the point

Exposed Length: The distance the large of a shank projects from the drive socket or

large end of the taper ring gage

External Center: The conical point on the shank end of the drill, and the point end on

some sizes of core drills

Flat Drill: A drill whose flutes are produced by two parallel or tapered flats

Flat (Spade) Drill: A removable cutting drill tip usually attached to a special holder

designed for this purpose; generally used for drilling or enlarging cored holes

Flutes: Helical or straight grooves cut or formed in the body of the drill to provide

cutting lips, to permit removal of chips, and to allow cutting fluid to reach the cutting

lips

Flute Length: The length from the outer corners of the cutting lips to the extreme back

end of the flutes; it includes the sweep of the tool used to generate the flutes and,

therefore, does not indicate the usable length of the flutes

Gage Line: The axial position on a taper where the diameter is equal to the basic large

end diameter of the specified taper

Galling: An adhering deposit of nascent work material on the margin adjacent to the

leading edge at and near the point of a drill

Guide: A cylindrical portion, following the cutting portion of the flutes, acting as a

guide to keep the drill in proper alignment; the guide portion may be fluted, grooved,

or solid

Gun Drill: Special purpose straight flute drills with one or more flutes used for deep

hole drilling; they are usually provided with coolant passages through the body; they

may be either solid or tipped

Half-Round Drill: A drill with a transverse cross-section of approximately half a circle

and having one cutting lip

Heel: The trainling edge of the land

Helical Flutes: Flutes which are formed in a helical path around the axis

Helix Angle: The angle made by the leading edge of the land with a plane containing

the axis of the drill

Land: The peripheral portion of the body between adjacent flutes

Land Width: The distance between the leading edge and the heel of the land measured

at a right angle to the leading edge

Lead: The axial advance of a leading edge of the land in one turn around the

circumference

Lips: The cutting edges of a two flute drill extending from the chisel edge to the

periphery

Lip Relief: The axial relief on the drill point

Lip Relief Angle: The axial relief angle at the outer corner of the lip; it is measured by

projection into a plane tangent to the periphery at the outer corner of the lip

Margin: The cylindrical portion of the land which is not cut away to provide clearance

Multiple-Margin Drill: A drill whose body diameter clearance is produced to leave

more than one margin in each land

Neck: The section of reduced diameter between the body and the shank of a drill Oil

Grooves: Longitudinal straight or helical grooves in the shank, or grooves in the lands

of a drill to carry cutting fluid to the cutting lips Oil Holes or Tubes: Holes through

the lands or web of a drill for passage of cutting fluid to the cutting lips

Overall Length: The length from the extreme end of the shank to the outer corners of

the cutting lips; it does not include the conical shank end often used on straight shank

drills, nor does it include the conical cutting point used on both straight and taper

shank drills

Periphery: The outside circumference of a drill

Peripheral Rake Angle: The angle between the leading edge of the land and an axial

plane at the drill point

Pilot: A cylindrical portion of the drill body preceding the cutting lips; it may be solid,

grooved, or fluted

Point: The cutting end of a drill, made up of the ends of the lands and the web; in form

it it resembles a cone, but departs from a true cone to furnish clearance behind the

cutting lips

Point Angle: THe angle included between the cutting lips projected upon a plane

parallel to the drill axis and parallel to the two cutting lips

Relative Lip Height: The difference in indicator reading on the cutting lip of the drill;

it is measured at a right angle to the cutting lip at a specific distance from the axis of

the tool

Relief: The result of the removal of tool material behind or adjacent to the cutting lip

and leading edge of the land to provide clearance and prevent rubbing (heel drag)

Shank: The part of the drill by which it is held and driven

Sleeve: A tapered shell designed to fit into a specified socket and to receive a taper

shank smaller than the socket

Socket: The tapered hole in a spindle, adaptor, or sleeve, designed to receive, hold,

and drive a tapered shank

Step Drill: A multiple diameter drill with one set of drill lands which are ground to

different diameters

Straight Flutes: Flutes which form lands lying in an axial plane

Subland Drill: A type of multiple diameter drill which has independent sets of lands in

the same body section for each diameter

Tang: The flattened end of a taper shank, intended to fit into a driving slot in a socket

Tang Drive: Two opposite parallel driving flats on the extreme end of a straight shank

Taper Drill: A drill with part or all of its cutting flute length ground with a specific

taper to produce tapered holes; they are used for drilling the original hole or enlarging

an existing hole

Taper Square Shank: A taper shank whose cross section is square

Web: The central portion of the body that joins the lands; the extreme end of the web

forms the chisel edge on a two-flute drill

Web Thickness: The thickness of the web at the point, unless another specific

locationis indicated

Web Thinning: The operation of reducing the web thickness at the point to reduce

drilling thrust

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