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.

, III

VI
, .
, , 2-
. , ,
, .
, ,

.

,
,
, .

( ),
,
.

, ,
,
.

.
11.1.
,

.



.

.

Ax 2 Bxy Cy 2 Dx Ey F 0 ,

6. 153
. , III

B 2 4 AC 0 , , , ;
B 2 4 AC 0 , , ,
;
B 2 4 AC 0 , .

, (0, 0),
,
B D E
Axx 0 ( xy 0 x0 y) Cyy 0 ( x x0 ) ( y y0 ) F 0 .
2 2 2
, ,
.
.

20.
.


.
,
r1 + r2 = const. .
F1M + F2M = 2a.

= 5.
,
x2 y2
1,
a2 b2
.
a = 5 b = 4.
, (0,0) r
a = b = r, F1 F2, . ,
.

20.1.
20.1.1.
,
, ,
, .

6. 154
. , III

, C(p, q),
,
A(x, y) r.
C Y- X-
B(x, q). ABC ,
BC x p , AB y q
AC r . ,

( x p) 2 ( y q) 2 r 2 .

x 2 y 2 2 px 2qy p 2 q 2 r 2 0 .

C = O, tj. p = q = 0, .

x2 y2 r 2 .

Ax 2 Bxy Cy 2 Dx Ey F 0 .

(
) A = C 0 B = 0, B2 4AC < 0.

, Ax 2 Ay 2 Dx Ey F 0 , A 0
D 2 E 2 4 AF
2 2
D E F D E
x y x y 0 , x
2 2
y .
A A A 2A 2A 4 A2
,
, D 2 E 2 4 AF 0 .
,
D E
B = 0, A = C D 2 E 2 4 AF 0 . , ,
2A 2A
1
r D 2 E 2 4 AF .
2| A|

20.1.2.
3x 2 3 y 2 26 x 32 y 0 .

6. 155
. , III

2 2
13 16 425 13 16 5 17
: x y , . C , r 6,87.
3 3 9 3 3 3


. ,
.
.


, ,
.

20.1.3.
A(2,-2), B(7,3), C(6,0).

:
(2 p) 2 (2 q) 2 r 2
(7 p) 2 (3 q) 2 r 2
(6 p) 2 q 2 r 2 .
,
p q 5 p 3q 11 ,
p = 2 q = 3.
( x 2) 2 ( y 3) 2 25 .

20.1.4.
(3,6) .

: , p = q = r.
(3,6) (3 r ) 2 (6 r ) 2 r 2 ,
. r 2 18r 45 0 r1 = 15, r2 = 3. ,
: ( x 15) 2 ( y 15) 2 225 ( x 3) 2 ( y 3) 2 9 .

20.1.5.
C1(-1,-1) r1 = 4.
C2(2,3) .

: C1T C2T r1 r2

6. 156
. , III

t1 t2 .
(t1,t2 ) = 90, C1C2T .

| C1T |2 | C2T |2 | C1C2 |2 .
,
(
)


| C1C2 |2 r1 r2 .
2 2


2
, (2 1) 2 (3 1) 2 16 r2
2

r2 3 .
( x 2) 2 ( y 3) 2 9 .

20.1.6.
1. x 2 y 2 4 x 8 y 11 0 , x 2 y 2 16 x 12 y 99 0
x 2 y 2 4 y 12 0 .
.
[20]
2. (1,1) x y 4 x 6 y 12 0 .
2 2

.
[(-5,-7)]
3. (6,3). , -
4 ?
[ ( x 6) 2 ( y 3) 2 13 ]
4. (2, 1) (6, 3),
.
[(x 5)2 + y2 = 10]
5. 3x 4y + 12 = 0
.

6. 2x y 8 = 0 x + y 1
= 0, 5.

7. A(2, 7), B(-1, 4).

8. (2, 3) 5.

9. 1(4, 10) 4x + 3y
+ 3 = 0 2(-3, 3).

10. x2 + y2 = 50
1(3, 4) 2(4, 5).

6. 157
. , III

11. 12x +
y +30 = 0, 5x 2y 2 = 0, 2x + 5y 24 = 0.

12. A(1, 6), B(7, -2) .

13. C1(-3, 4) r1 = 2.
, .

14. (x 14)2 + y2 = 64
.

15. C(3, -1) 2x 5y + 18 = 0


6.

20.2.
, , .
y kx l ( x p) 2 ( y q) 2 r 2 ,
.

, ( x p) 2 (kx l q) 2 r 2 ,

(1 k 2 ) x 2 2(kl kq p) x ( p 2 q 2 l 2 r 2 2ql ) 0 .


4 r 2 (1 k 2 ) (kp q l ) 2 .

20.2.1.
i. r 2 (1 k 2 ) (kp q l ) 2 0 , ;
ii. r 2 (1 k 2 ) (kp q l ) 2 0 , ;
iii. r 2 (1 k 2 ) (kp q l ) 2 0 , .

(ii.). .

y kx l
. , C(p, q)
| q kp l |
d . y kx l 0 , d = r.
1 k 2
| a |2 a 2

6. 158
. , III

r 2 (1 k 2 ) (q kp l ) 2 ,

. .

, x 2 y 2 r 2 ,
r 2 (1 k 2 ) l 2 0 .

20.2.2.
C(p, q) r
T(x1, y1)
( x p)( x1 p) ( y q)( y1 q) r 2 .

: y kx l .
y q
CT k CT 1 ,
x1 p
1 x p
k 1 . T(x1, y1) ,
k CT y1 q
x p
y kx1 l , l y1 kx1 l y1 1 x1 . ,
y1 q

x p x p
y 1 x y1 1 x1 , .
y1 q y1 q
( x1 p)( x x1 ) ( y1 q)( y y1 ) 0 .
,
( x p p x1 )( x1 p) ( y q q y1 )( y1 q) 0 ,
( x p)( x1 p) ( y q)( y1 q) ( x1 p) 2 ( y1 q) 2 0 ,
( x1 p) 2 ( y1 q) 2 r 2
( x p)( x1 p) ( y q)( y1 q) r 2 .

20.2.3.
x 2 y 2 r 2 (x1,
y1) xx1 yy1 r 2 .

20.2.4.
x 2 y 2 ax by c 0
2 2
a b 1
x y (a 2 b 2 4c) 2 ,
2 2 4
(x1, y1):

6. 159
. , III

a a b b 1 2
x x1 y y1 (a b 4c) ,
2

2 2 2 2 4
a b
xx1 yy ( x x1 ) ( y y1 ) c 0 .
2 2

P(x0, y0) ?
.

20.2.5.
P(8, 10) (x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 4.

I : T(x1, y1).
( x1 2) 2 ( y1 3) 2 4 , P(8, 10)
(8 2)(x1 2) + (10 3)(y1 3) = 4. ,
64 35 4 23
T1 , T2 , .
17 17 5 5
64 35
( x 2) 2 ( y 3) 3 4 ,
17 17
4 23
( x 2) 2 ( y 3) 3 4 . 15x 8 y 40 0
5 5
3x 4 y 16 0 .

II : . P(8, 10),
y kx l . ,
4(k 2 1) (3 2k 1) 2 . 15x 8 y 40 0
3x 4 y 16 0 .

, .

P(x0, y0)
x 2 y 2 r 2 .

(k) (k)
OP,
.

x y
k C ' 0 , 0 ,
2 2
2 2
x0 y 0
,
2 2

6. 160
. , III

2 2 2 2
x y x y
k x 0 y 0 0 0 , .
2 2 2 2
x y xx0 yy0 0 . k,
2 2

x0 x y 0 y r 2

T1 T2. P
k. P .

, xOy
C(p, q)

( x0 p)( x p) ( y0 q)( y q) r 2

xOy.

( 7.) k
(1) (1) , 1
,
, . T1 T = TT12.
k k.

, 1 1
1 ( !). TK : TT1 = TT1 : TK1, . TK TK1 = (TT1)2.

. k
k . k k = 0 ,
, .
k : (x p)2 + (y q)2 = r2 k : (x
p)2 + (y q)2 = (r)2
(x p)2 + (y q)2 (x p)2 (y q)2 =
r2 (r)2 , . 2x(p p) + 2q(q q) + p2 + q2 r2
(p)2 (q)2 + (r)2 = 0.
p' p
k p ,
q'q
( )
q'q
C(p, q) C(p, q), k c . ,
p'q
.


k k, ( )
.
. .

6. 161
. , III

,
. () ,
.

,
. ,
.

20.2.6.
1. k y = kx + 10 x2 + y2 = 20.

2. 3x 4y + a = 0 x2 + y2
10y = 0.

3. 2 x 2y
= 0 x + 2y = 0.
) .
) .

4. (1, 3) x2 + y2 = 5,
.

5. x2 + y2 = 5 P(-1, 3),
P .

6. 3x y = 1 x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 7 = 0.

7. : k
1 1 T1 T = TT12.

8. .
) x2 + y2 6x + 8y 50 = 0, 2x y + 3 = 0.
) x2 + y2 10x 12y + 36 = 0, 4x 3y + 12 = 0.

9. .
) x2 + y2 + 4x 4y 17 = 0, (2, 5).
) x2 + y2 6x 8y + 17 = 0, (5, 6).

10. .
) 4x 3y = 0, x2 + y2 = 25.
) 3x + 2y = 0, x2 + y2 = 36.

11. .
) x2 + y2 = 16, (8, 0).
) x2 + y2 = 9, (0, 6).

6. 162
. , III

12. :
) , 3x 4y + 8 = 0 3x + 4y + 8 = 0
; ) (1, 1), 7x + y 3 = 0 x + 7y 3 = 0
.

13. x2 + y2 8x 6y + 12 = 0 (10,
7).
[(7,5), (1,1)]
14. p = 2, q = 6, r = 5 4x
+ 3y 101 = 0?
[(6,9), (-2,3)]

15. x 2y 12 = 0
x2 + y2 + 2x + 4y = 0 x2 + y2 14x 10y + 54 = 0.
.
[: ,
.]
16. x2 + y2 + 2y 4 = 0 x2 + y2 8x 6y - 4 = 0.
d = 4 .
[: d.
, . (7,-7), (-6,6)]
17. (-
2,5) (x 3)2 + (y 5)2 = 5.

18. x2 + y2 8x + 12y 12 =
0 3x + 12y 4 = 0.

20.3.
(C1 = C2),
(r1 r2). (C1 C2)
.
i. .
() , . C1C2 < |r1 r2|.
ii. .
() , . C1C2 = |r1 r2|.
iii. . ,
, . |r1 r2| < C1C2 < r1 + r2.
iv. .
, . C1C2 = r1 + r2.
v. .
, . C1C2 > r1 + r2.

i. ii. iii.

6. 163
. , III

C1C2 + r2 + d = r1 C1C2 = r1 r2 r1 r2 < C1C2 < r1 + r2

iv. v.

C1C2 = r1 + r2 C1C2 = r1 + d + r2

20.3.1.
(x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 1 (x + 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9.

: 1. . C1(2,1), r1 = 1 C2(-2,-1), r2 = 3. C1C2 =


( p1 p2 ) 2 (q1 q2 ) 2 = (2 (2)) 2 (1 (1)) 2 = (2 2) 2 (1 1) 2 = 20 , r1
+ r2 = 4 = , C1C2 > r1 + r2, . .

2. . :
x2 + y2 4x 2y + 4 = 0 x2 + y2 + 4x + 2y 4 = 0.
, :
y = -2x + 2.

, .
, .

6. 164
. , III

, ,
:
x2 + y2 4x 2y + 4 = 0 y = -2x + 2.
.
: 5x2 8x + 4 = 0,
4 2i 2 4i
x12 . , y12 .
5 5
, () .

,
. ,
, .

,
(),
(C1 C2), r1 r2
.

, C1C2 ,
,
| C1C2|2 = r12 + r22,
C1 C2 , r1 r2 .

20.3.2.
1. x2 + y2 + 6x +
2y + 5 = 0 (1, -4).

6. 165
. , III

2.
i. x2 + y2 = 5 x2 + y2 8x + 8y + 30 = 0;
ii. x2 + y2 2x 6y + 6 = 0 x2 + y2 10x 8y + 40 = 0;
iii. x2 + y2 8x 18y + 93 = 0 x2 + y2 8x 8y + 23 = 0;
iv. x2 + y2 = 25 2x2 + 2y2 4x 3y 25 = 0.

3. -, (-2, -3),
(x + 7)2 + (y 4)2 = 10 .

4. (2, 2)
x2 + y2 = 4 (x 3)2 + y2 = 1.

5. (-4, 3), (-2, -3)


(x 3)2 + y2 = 16.

6. ( ) :
i. (x + 5)2 + y2 = 10 (x 5)2 + y2 = 40;
ii. x2 + y2 = 45 x2 + y2 20x 25 = 0.

7. :
i. x2 + y2 = 29, (x + 2)2 + (y 5)2 = 58;
ii. (x 3)2 + (y 1)2 = 8, (x 2)2 + (y + 2)2 = 2?

8. ABCD
, A(5,6), B(2,7), C(-3,2), D(-2,-1).

9. x2 + y2 = 10 x2 + y2 6x 6y + 2 = 0
. .

10. (4,0) x2 + y2 = r2
.

k2 .

11. :
i. |x2 + y2 1| + (x 1)2 + (y 1)2 = 1;
ii. |x2 + y2 2| = 2 (x + y);
iii. x2 + y2 = 2 (|x| + |y|).

12. :
i. 1 x2 + y2 16;
ii. x2 + y2 9;
iii. x + y 0;
iv. y2 4 x2, 3x + 2y 3 0;
v. x2 + y2 2 (|x| + |y|).

6. 166
. , III

21.
21.0.1.
(. , )
F , , ,
d ,
e = const. (0 < e < 1),
.

,
|FM| : |MN| = e,
. ,
.

.

21.0.2.
G F d. '
, |FA| = e|AG| |FA| = e|AG|.
'. ,
OG, , .

|AA| = 2a, |AO| = |OA| = a, |AF| = |AO| + |OF| |AG|


= |AO| + |OG| |AO| + |OF| = e(|AO| + |OG|), . a + |OF| = e(|OG| + a).
a |OF| = e(|OG| a).
: |OF| = ae, |OG| = a/e.

6. 167
. , III

, , F(ae, 0),
d: x = a/e. , F(-ae, 0)
d: x = -a/e.

c = ae, ,
c
, e .
a
b a 2 c 2

x2 y2
1.
a2 b2
a b .

, a = 5, e = 4/5, c = 4, F(4, 0),


: x = 25/4. b = 52 4 2 = 3.

21.1.
21.1.1.
(21.0.2.) (, )

x2 y2
1.
a2 b2

a2 b2
: b2 = a2(1 e2), . e .
a
i. (, ) , ,
2
a
|FM| = (x ae) + y , |MN| = x ,
2 2 2 2

e

2
a
( x ae) 2 y 2 e 2 x = a2(1 e2),
e
x2(1 e2) + y2 = a2(1 e2),
x2 y2
1 , .
a 2 a 2 (1 e 2 )
x2 y2
1.
a2 b2
ii. , (, ) ,
x2
y 2 b 2 1 2 .
a

6. 168
. , III

x2
, |FM|2 = (x ae)2 + y2 = (x ae)2 + b 2 1 2 =
a
2 x2
2 2

= (x ae) + a (1 e )1 2
a
= x 2aex + a e + (1 e2)(a2 x2)
2 2 2

2 2 a2
2
a 2 a
= e x 2 x 2 = e x = e2|MN|2,
e e e
(, ) .

, . a b
.

, (, ) ,
(-, ) .

,
(, )
,
(, -) .
,
(, )
,
1(, -), 2(-, -)
3(-, )
.
x2 y2
. 1 a = 4 b = 2.
4 16

(, 0) '(-, 0) , B(0, b) B(0, -b)


x = a, x =
-a, y = b, y = -b. ' () , BB
() . a = |AA|/2
, b = a 1 e 2 = |BB|/2 .

F(-ae, 0)
d: -a/e. F d
.

6. 169
. , III

,

(20.).

21.1.2.

F F 2.

: (, )
, N
d, N
d, |FM| = e|MN| |FM| = e|MN|,
|FM| + |FM| = e(|MN| + |MN|).
, |MN| + |MN| ,
a a
2 . |FM| + |FM| = e 2 2a .
e e

21.1.3.
F1 F2
2, .

: -
. (, ) , F1(-c, 0)
F2(c, 0) , .
|F1M| + |F2M| = 2a, .
( x c) 2 y 2 + ( x c) 2 y 2 = 2.

x 2 2cx c 2 y 2 4a 2 4a ( x c) 2 y 2 x 2 2cx c 2 y 2 ,
4
(*) a ( x c) 2 y 2 a 2 cx , .
c c
x , . r2 | F2 M | a x .
( x c) 2 y 2 a
a a
() , (, )
. ,
, ()
c
a ( x c) 2 y 2 a 2 cx , . r1 a x .
a
( ). , (*)
a2(x2 2cx + c2 + y2) = a4 2a2cx + c2x2, .
a x 2a2cx + a2c2 + a2y2 = a4 2a2cx + c2x2,
2 2

(a2 c2)x2 + a2y2 = a2(a2 c2),


x2 y2
b2x2 + a2y2 = a2b2, 2 2 1 .
a b

6. 170
. , III

, b2 = a2 c2.

21.1.4.
, (, )
c
r a x.
a

: (*).

21.1.5.
1. (a b), ( c a 2 b 2 )
(F12(c, 0)) : ) 25x2 + 169y2 = 4225; ) 24x2 + 30y2 = 720.

c b2
2. ( e ), ( p )
a a
a
( x ): ) 4x2 + 9y2 = 36; ) 9x2 + 5y2 = 225.
e

3. A(6, -3), B(-2, 5), C(3, -6), D( , 0), E(-4, 2 ) G(1,


x2 y2
) : 1.
48 36

4. , : ) M1(3, ) M2( ,
2); ) M1(2,3) M2(4, -1).

5. M(2, y < 0)
5x2 +9y2 = 45.

6. b2x2 + a2y2 = a2b2


.

21.2.
x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1 y = kx + l.
. ,
b2x2 + a2(kx + l)2 = a2b2,
x (a k + b2) + 2kla2x + a2(l2 b2) = 0.
2 2 2

(Ax2 + Bx + C):
D = B2 4AC =
= (2kla2)2 4(a2k2 + b2)a2(l2 b2)
= 4a2b2(k2a2 + b2 l2).

2kla 2 2ab k 2 a 2 b 2 l 2
x12 .
2(a 2 k 2 b 2 )

6. 171
. , III

12 12 y = kx + l.
k2a2 + b2 l2.
i. k2a2 + b2 l2 > 0 , (1, 1) (2, 2)
.
ii. k2a2 + b2 l2 > 0 (1, 1) = (2, 2).
iii. k2a2 + b2 l2 < 0 ,
.
(ii.) , .
(: ):
k2a2 + b2 = l2.

(1, 1)
, .
2kla 2 2ab k 2 a 2 b 2 l 2
x12 k2a2 + b2 = l2.
2(a 2 k 2 b 2 )
kla 2 kla 2 a 2k a 2k
x12 = = , y12 = kx1 + l = l
k 2 a 2 b 2 l2 l l
a2k 2 l 2 a 2 k 2 (a 2 k 2 b 2 ) b 2
= = = .
l l l
a2k b2
, y = kx + l , .
l l
k y .
b2 b2 a2k lx x x b2
y1 l , x1 k 2 1 = 12 l = 12 =
l y1 l a a a y1
b 2 x1 x1b 2 b2
. y x , .
a 2 y1 y1a 2 y1
xx yy
b2x1x + a2y1y = a2b2, 12 12 1 .
a b

(0, 0) x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1.


y = kx + l, y0 = kx0 + l. , k l
k2a2 + b2 = l2.
k l, .

. D1(x1, y1) D2(x2, y2)


. D1 D2 x1x/a2 + y1y/b2 = 1 x2x/a2 + y2y/b2 =
1. ( )
y y1
y y1 2 ( x x1 ) .
x2 x1
D1 D2 (0, 0)
,

6. 172
. , III

x1 x0 y1 y0 x x y 2 y0
2
2 1 2 20 1.
a b a b2
,
x0 y y 2 y1 x b2
( x2 x1 ) 20 ( y 2 y1 ) 0 0 2 .
a 2
b x2 x1 y0 a
x0 b 2
, D1 D2 y y1 ( x x1 ) .
y0 a 2
a2y0 b2x0x + a2y0y = a2y0y1 + b2x0x1,
a2b2. ,
x x y y
b2x0x + a2y0y = a2b2, 0 2 0 2 1 .
a b
, D1 D2 , (0,
0) (D1 D2). (0, 0)
.

, (0, 0)
.
, .

21.2.1.
1. :
) x2/16 + y2/9 = 1 2x y 3 = 0;
) x2/9 + y2/4 = 1 2x + y 10 = 0;
) 4x2 + 5y2 = 24 2x + 5y 12 = 0.

: ) k2a2 + b2 l2 = 2216 + 9 (-3)2 = 64 > 0, ; )


k2a2 + b2 l2 = (-2)29 + 4 102 = -60 < 0, ;
) k2a2 + b2 l2 = (-2/5)26 + 24/5 (12/5)2 = 0, .

2. D(-1, y > 0) 2x2 + 3y2 14 = 0 .


.

: = -1 , 2(-1)2 + 3y2 14 = 0, 12 = 2.
D (-1, 2). (x1, y1)
x1x/a2 + y1y/b2 = 1. , D(-1, 2) -1x/7 + 2y/(14/3)
7
| 7 |
x y mn 3 = 49
= 1, . 1 . P =
7 7/3 2 2 6
.

3. (7, 2/5) 4x2 + 25y2 = 100.

: , . 2/5 = k7 + l.
, k225 + 4 = l2

6. 173
. , III

2
k l. l 7k ,
5
2
2
25k 4 7k , . 150k2 35k 24 = 0.
2

5
8 3 2
k1 k 2 . l 7k k12
15 10 5
10 5 8 10
l1 l 2 . y x ,
3 2 15 3
3 5
y x , 8x 15y 50 = 0, 3x + 10y 25 = 0.
10 2

4. x2/20 + y2/5 = 1 2x
2y 7 = 0.

: k = 1. k2a2
+ b2 = l2 l220 + 5 = l2, . l12 = 5. y = x 5.
: ,
x b2
k 1 2 k = 1. x1 = -4y1.
y1a
, (1, 1) , 1 /20 + 12/5 = 1.
2

D(-4, 1) D(4, -1). ,


4 x 1 y 4 x 1 y
1 1 , . y = x + 5 y = x 5.
20 5 20 5

5. 32 + 92 = 16,
+ 5 = 0.

: y = x + 5 kp = 1, kt
x2 y2
= -1. 1
16 / 3 16 / 9
16 16 8
(1) 2 l 2 , . l12 . 3x + 3y 8 = 0.
3 9 3

6. 4 + 5 25 = 0
4.

: = 4 , = 9/5.
4/5, D(4, 9/5) l = 5,
(16/25)a2 + b2 = 25. D , .
16 81 / 25
2
2
1 . , a2 = 25 b2 = 9,
a b
x2 y2
1 .
25 9

6. 174
. , III

7. 9 + 20 75 = 0 4 5 + 25 = 0
?

9 75 4
: y x y x 5 .
20 20 5
, , 81a + 400b = 22525, 16a2 + 25b2 =
2 2

625, a2 = 25, b2 = 9.

8. (3, 7) 14x2 + 9y2 = 126.

: (P)
, 143 + 97 = 126.
21 (p) 2 + 3 = 6.

= 3
,

9. 2 + 4 + 5 = 0 2/9 +
2//4 = 1. ?

: 40 + 90 =
36. ,

40 = 2, 90 = 4, -36 = 5. , (-
18/5, -16/5).

10. (10, )
42 + 252 = 100.

1
: 4 10 x 25 y 100 16 + 5 = 40.
2

132 64 + 75 = 0
1 = 3, 2 = 25/13,
1 = -8/5, 2 = 24/13.
,
(. ).

11. (4, 12/5) 162 + 252 = 400 .


-
.

: (. ). (t)

6. 175
. , III

12
16 4 x 25
y 400 , . 16 + 15 = 100.
5
16
k t ,
15
15
k n
16
(n) 75 80 108 = 0.

F12(3, 0), -
12
0
(r12) y 0 5 ( x 3) . 12 35 + 36 = 0
4 (3)
12 5 36 = 0, ( ):
12 x 35 36 12 x 5 y 36
0 0.
12 2 (35) 2 12 2 (5) 2
(s)
12 x 35 y 36 12 x 5 y 36
0 , . 75 -80 108 = 0,
37 13
.

12. 252 + 252 = 289 42 + 252 = 100.

: -1 ,
12 = 3,

12 = 8/5.
.


S(3, 8/5). ,
8 289
3 x y
5 25
8
4 3 x 25 y 100 .
5
15
k1
8
3 15

3 10 8 126
k 2 , tg = , = 431342.
10 3 15 125
1
10 8

6. 176
. , III

x2 y2 x2 y2
13. 1 1.
64 12 112 9

: 64k2 + 12 = l2, 112k2 + 9 = l2.


1
-1 , 48k2 3 = 0. k12 ,
4
1
l12 4 . y x 4 .
4

21.2.2.
1. :
) 3 + 2 = 10, 2 + 42 = 20; ) 10 9 75 = 0, 2/36 + 2/25 = 1.
[(4, -1), (2, 2); (24/5, -3)]

2. 52 + 202 = 100
(2, > 0).
[t : x + 4y = 10, n : 4x y = 6]

3. 82 + 92 = 72 .
.
[: (-1, 8/3), (-1, -8/3), (1, -8/3), (1, 8/3), : 54 . .]

4. + 5 12 = 0 42 +
52 = 24.
[2]

5. (10, 4) 162 + 252 = 400.


[D1(0, 4), D2(4, -12/5); t1: y 4 = 0, t2: 16x 15y = 100]

6. 92 + 252 = 225 :
) ; ) 4 + 5 = 0.

7. 2 + 3 25 = 0, 3 8 50 = 0.

8. 2 + 3 = 9 ,
12(2, 0). .

9. 42 + 92 = 36
. .

10. 92 + 162 = 144 -


45. ?

11. (4, -1) +


4 = 10?

6. 177
. , III

12. (2, -1) 2/9 + 2/16 = 1.

13. 2/36 + 2/16 = 1 3 2 12 = 0. .

14. 92 + 642 = 144 42 + 92 = 36.

15. 412 + 412 = 625 92 + 252 = 225.

22.
22.0.1.
(. , ) M
F ,
, d , .


. .

ABC,
C, ,
AC.
,
F. BC
d,
AC,

d F.
|MF| = |MA|.

22.1.
21.1.1.
, d () F .
.

6. 178
. , III

, . F
d D, .
, , F
d. N D-O-N,
n d.
k(F, |ND|) ,
.
T1 T2 .
|FT1| = |T1D1|, D1
.

, n ,
k(F, |FD|) n, P1 P2
. |P1P2|.

(21.0.1.) .

22.1.2.
d : x = - 1 F(1,0).
, |FM| = |MN|,
M(x, y)
N(-1, y)
.
| FM | ( x 1) 2 y 2 | MN || 1 x |
( x 1) 2 y 2 x 1
( x 2 2 x 1) y 2 1 2 x x 2 , .
y2 = 4x.

, d : x = -p/2,
F(p/2, 0),

2
p p
| FM | x y 2 , | MN | x |FM| = |MN|. ,
2 2
y2 = 2px. ,
2
p
x y =
2
M(x, y) y = 2px. |FM| = 2

2
2 2
p p p
x 2 px = x = x = |MN|,
2 2 2
M F d . .

22.1.3.

6. 179
. , III

M(x, y) d : x = F( , 0),
y2 = 2px.

y2 = 2px:
1. ;
2. (0, 0);
3. ;
4. ()
.
, .
(p) ,
(21.1.1.).

,
. 180, -,
y2 = -2px. 90 x2 = 2py.
.

y2 = -4x x2 = 4y

, II
.

22.1.4.
y = x2 + 2x + 3 .

: : y2 = (x2 + 2x
+ 1) + 2 = (x + 1)2 + 2, y = x2
- ( y = (x + 1)2),
- . , y2 = x,
90, .
, .

6. 180
. , III

22.1.5.
1. , :
i. y2 = 5x; ii. y2 = -6x; iii. x2 = 10y; iv. x2 = -y.

2. (21.0.1.) ,
(d) , . (F):
i. d : x = - 2, F(1,0); ii. d : x = 1, F(-2,0); iii. d : y = - 0,5 F(0,1); iv. d : y = 2, F(0,0).

3.
y2 = 2px.
i. y2 = x2 2x 3; ii. y2 = 2x2 + 3x 5;
2 2
iii. y = -x + 4x + 1; iv. y2 = -3x2 6x + 5.

4. -
(1, -1), (-2, 4), (16, 4).
[y = 1/9 x2 14/9 x + 4/9]

5. -
(2, 4), (-3, 1), (-6, -2).
[(y + 5)2 = 9(x + 7)]

6. y = ,
(-4, 2), (6, 9/2).
[157 22 48]

7. y2 = 24x x2 = 3y (24, 3). B O


, ABO .

8. 2x + y 12 = 0 3x y 3 = 0 A y2 = 2px.
ABC, B C
.

22.2.
y2 = 2px y = kx + l,
. ,
(kx l ) 2 2 px , . k 2 x 2 2(kl p) x l 2 0 .
2(kl p) 4(kl p) 2 4k 2 l 2 (kl p) p( p 2kl)
x12 = ,
2k 2
k2
y12 k x12 l . :
i. p 2kl > 0 (xj, yj), j = 1, 2;
ii. p 2kl = 0 (x1, y1) = (x2, y2);
iii. p 2kl < 0 .

6. 181
. , III

22.2.1.
y = kx + l y2 = 2px 2kl = p
2(kl p) p kl
(: ). x1 2
= =
2k k2
2kl kl kl l l
2
= 2 = y1 k l = 2l. , P(l/k, 2l).
k k k k

, P(x1, y1) y2
y y y y2 2 px1 px1 l
= 2px, y1 = 2l, l 1 = 1 1 = 1 = = , x1
2 2 y1 2 y1 2 y1 y1 k
px1
l y p
k = 1 = P(x1, y1)
x1 x1 y1
p p x1
y x , .
y1 y1
yy1 p( x x1 ) .

22.2.2.
y2 = 2px yy1 = p(x + x1) P(x1, y1).
, .

(21.2.1.)
p y
k t , k n 1 , , P(x1, y1)
y1 p
, . :
y
y y1 1 ( x x1 ) .
p

22.2.3.
y2 = 2px T(x0, y0).
.

: 1. . .
y = kx + l, T(x0, y0), y0 = kx0 + l,
2kl = p. k l, .

2. . yy1 = p(x + x1) T(x0, y0), y0y1 = p(x0 + x1).


P(x1, y1) , y12 = 2px1. ,
x1 y1. (x1, y1)
.

22.2.4.

6. 182
. , III

T(x0, y0) y2 = 2px


P1 P2 .

P1(x1, y1) P2(x2, y2) ,


(*) y0y1 = p(x0 + x1), y0y2 = p(x0 + x2).
,
y y1 p
y0(y2 y1) = p(x0 + x2) p(x0 + x1), 2 .
x2 x1 y0
y y1
, P1 P2 y y1 2 ( x x1 ) ,
x2 x1
,

p
y y1 ( x x1 ) .
y0
y0

yy0 y1y0 = px px1, .
yy0 = y1y0 + p(x x1),
(*),
yy0 = p(x0 + x1) + p(x x1) = p(x0 + x).

,
, .
T(x0, y0)
y2 = 2px
yy0 = p(x + x0).

P1P2 y2 = 6x T(-1, 2).


( ) 2y = 3(x 1).

22.2.5.
t P(x1, y1) . P ,
p
. F ,0 ,
2
d.

. yy1 = p(x + x1), y = 0 x = -x1.


, T(-x1, 0).
F |TF| = x1 + p/2, p .
2 2
p p p
| FP | x1 y12 = x1 = x1 ,
2 2 2

6. 183
. , III

p
|TF| = |FP| = x1 .
2
, TFP
, PTF = TPF.
P
d
Q. TFPQ
, =
=
, = (FTP = , FPT =
, TPQ = ).

,
(P)
. (21.2.6.).

TFPQ , FQ PT ( ).
FQ PT N, |NF| = |NQ| ( ). ,
Q (t) ,
(d). .
, .

.
1. . FP P
(-). .

2. . - x1
P.

22.2.6.

,
.

22.2.7.
M ?

, .
, .
.
22.2.8.
1. 2x 3y + 4 = 0 y2 = 4x
.

6. 184
. , III

: , 1(4,4) 2(1,2).
, 2x + y 12 = 0, x + y 3 = 0;
.

2. (7, 7/2) y2 = (7/4)x ()


. -.

: (22.2.1.).
(-4)
8x + 2y 63 = 0. -,
, . 833/32.

3. (-2, -3/2) y2 = 9x.

: , y = -3x + 6.
. 3x + 4y + 12 = 0 3x 2y
+ 3 = 0.

4. (y 4)2 = 20(x 1) T(1,9).

: 1. 1 4 , y2 = 20x
T(0, 13). . 135.

: 2. (y n)2 = 2p(x m) T(x1, y1)


m n .
(y n)(y1 n) = p(x + x1 2m)
, . (1, 9)
.

5. y2 = 4x 2x 3y + 9 = 0.
, -
.

: , 1 = 3.
1. ,
12x + 8y 51 = 0,
, .
39/8 . .

6. y2 = 2x (1,4).

: (1,4) n 4 y1 = y1/1(1 x1), . x1y1 = 4. (x1, y1) P y12 = 2x1.


(2,2), . 2x + y 6 = 0.

7. 3y2 = 10x 5x 12y + 55 = 0. .

6. 185
. , III

: (22.2.4.)
, T(11,4).

8. (x 4)2 + y2 = 256 y2 = 16x ?

: 12(12, 8 ).
(x 4)(12 4) + y8 = 256, y8 = 8(x + 12).
k k
k12 = /3, tg = 1 2 3 , . = 60.
1 k1k 2

9. y2 = 12x 5
.

: F(3,0), (x 3)2 + y2 = 25.


3
r2(k2 + 1) = (q kp l)2 2kl = p k12 l12 = 4,
4
3
y x 4 .
4

22.2.9.
1. 4x 3y 24 = 0 3y2 = 16x .
,
.

: 1(12,8) 2(3,-4), (-
6, 2). (15/2, 2) 2 = 0.

2. x2 = 5y (10, 20).

[xx1 = p(y + y1), . 4x y 20 = 0]

3. y = x2/12 2, 4.
[2x 6y 2 = 0, 2x + 6y +2 = 0, 4x 6y 8 = 0, 4x + 6y +8 = 0]

4. , :
a) (y 2)2 + x = 0 M(-4, 0); ) y2 4x 4y = 0, M(3, -2).
[a) x 4y + 4 = 0; ) x + 2y + 1 = 0]

5. :
) T(6, 8), y2 = 8x; ) T(3/2, -21/4), y2 = 15x.

6. (5, -1) (y 2)2 = 9(2 x).

7. (3, -3) (x 1)2 = 8(y 1).

6. 186
. , III

8. 1(1,2) 2(4,4) y2 = 4x,


.

9. y2 = 2px :
) M(6, 8), y2 = 8x; ) M(-2, -3), y2 = 12x.

10. y2 = 4x y = 3x + 3
45.

11. :
) x2 + y2 = 5, y2 = 4x; ) x2 + y2 4x 6 = 0, y2 = 3x ?

12. y2 = 4x 10x2 + 10y2 = 81.

23.
. ,
, ,
( )
.

.
, ,
. .
( ),
.
, .
( ').
.
(|OA| = a)
( = 4).

6. 187
. , III


. ,
( F F), (, )
, - (|FM| = r |FM| = r) .
(|r r| = 2a) .

, , ()
x2 y2
2 2 1 ,
a b
a = 4 b = 3, c a 2 b 2 = 5,
F12(c, 0), F(5, 0) F(-5, 0).

23.1.
23.1.1.
(. , )
F , ,
, d ,
e = const. (e > 1),
.

,
|FM| : |MN| = e,

6. 188
. , III

. ,
( 21.0.1.).

, K F
d '
|FA| = e|AK| |FA'| = e|A'K|
.


' |AA| = 2a.
OK, OK.

|AO| = |OA| = a |AF| = |OF| |OA| |AK| = |OA| |OK|,


|OF| |OA| = e(|OA| |OK|), .
|OF| a = e(a |OK|).

|OF| + a = e(a + |OK|).
|OF| |OK| |OF| = ae,
a a
| OK | . F(ae, 0), x .
e e

23.1.2.
(, )
x2 y2
1 b 2 a 2 (e 2 1) .
a2 b2

: (, ) ,
2
a
| FM | ( x ae) y | MN | x ,
2 2 2 2

e
2
a
( x ae) y e x ,
2 2 2

e
2 2
x y
2 2 1 . b a e 2 1
a 2
a (e 1)
x2 y2
2 2 1 .
a b

, ,
x2 x2
y 2 b 2 2 | FM |2 = ( x ae) 2 y 2 = ( x ae) 2 b 2 2 1 =
a 1 a
x2
( x ae) a (e 1) 2 1 = x 2 2aex a 2 e 2 (e 2 1)( x 2 a 2 ) =
2 2 2

6. 189
. , III

ax a 2
2
a
e 2 x 2 2 2 = e 2 x = e 2 | MN |2 , (, )
e e e
.

.
i. , /
, (23.1.2.).
.
ii. (-, ). ,
x2 y2
2
1 2
1, x2 a2, . x (-, -a] [a, +).
a b
iii. A(-a, 0) A(a, 0)
-. ' .
' () , '
1
() . a | A' A |
2
1
, b e 2 1 = | BB '| ,
2
B(0, b) B(0, -b).
iv. c a 2 b 2 .
c
v. e .
a
vi. F(ae, 0) F(-ae, 0)
a
d d, . x , (i.) .
e
a
F(-ae, 0) d, . x ,
e
F d.

23.1.3.
.
, M(x, y) , F F
||FM| |FM|| = 2a.

: N M d, N

6. 190
. , III

M d. | FM | e | MN |
| F ' M | e | MN '| , > 0, .
,
| F ' M | | FM | = e(| MN '| | MN |) =
a a
e x x = 2. , x < 0,
e e
,
| FM | | F ' M | 2a . || F ' M | | FM || 2a ,

23.1.4.
(23.1.3.) .


F
. ,
,
F G, G .

,

F. ,
.

.
( 23.1.4.),
(23.1.3.).

23.1.5.
F1 F2 a 0 < a < |F1F2|/2.

x F1 F2
F1F2, .
A1 2
.

F1F2 . k1
|A1T| F1 k2 |A2T| F2.
1 2,
.
.

23.1.6.
, - (, ) :

6. 191
. , III

c c
r1 x a r2 x a .
a a

: F(ae, 0). , , .
r = |FM| = ( x ae) 2 y 2 = ( 2
b2 2
) = ( x ae) 2 x b 2 = ( iv.
2

a
c
v.) = e 2 2aex a 2 = |ex a| = x a . ,
a
.

c c
( 23.1.5.) |r1 r2| = x a x a
a a
= |-2a| = 2a, . 23.1.3.

(. , ) (
) , .
, .

23.1.7.
x2 y2 b
2
2 1 y x .
a b a

y b a2
: 1 2 .
x a x

( ), a2/x2
a2
( 2 0
x
),
1.
y/x

b
b/a. y x
a

|x|, |y| .

a = b, . x2 y2 = a2.
= , .

-, ,

6. 192
. , III

x2 y2
1.
a2 b2
- , - .

23.1.8.
, , ,
9x2 16y2 = 144.

x2 y2
: 1 ,
16 9
a = 4, b = 3. 12(a, 0) = 12(4, 0).
(iv.) c a 2 b 2 = 16 9 = 5, (v.)
c
e = 5/4 = 1,25. F12(c, 0) = F12(5, 0) ,
a
a b
= = 3,2. y x , . = 0,75.
e a
(23. ).

23.1.9.
1
y .
x

: Oxy = -45 Oxy,


( 19.3.1.)
x x cos y sin

y x sin y cos

xy = 1 (x)2 (y)2 = 2, cos(-45) = -sin(-45) = .

6. 193
. , III

a =
b = 12( , 0).

c =
2 e = . F12(2, 0)
, = 1.

.

'
|r1 r2| = ||F1T|
|F2T|| = 2a = 2 .

=
+45, xy = 1.

,
, (), F12(2, 2)
, .

23.1.10.
1. (23.1.1.), ,
:
) F(4, 0), x = 3, e = 1,5; ) F(5, 0), x = 4, e = 1,6; ) F(-3, 0), x = -2, e = 1,2;
) F(-4, 0), x = -3, e = 1,1; ) F(3, 3), x + y = 1, e = 2; ) F(-3, -3), x + y = -1, e = 2.

2. , , , :
) 2 2 = 1; ) 42 92 = 36; ) 252 162 = 400;
) 252 92 = 225; ) -92 + 642 = 36; ) -362 + 252 = 100.

x2 y2
3. ( 2 2 1 )
a b
3 5
: ) y x 64/5; ) y 4.
4 4

x2 y2
4. ( 1 ), :
a2 b2
) M(1, 1) N(2, 3); ) P(1, -2) Q(2, -4).

5. :
) F(3 , 0) 60; ) F(2 , 0) 45.

6. , :
i. , 5;

6. 194
. , III

ii. 6, 4;
iii. 7, 2;
iv. 6,5 2 = 0;
v. 5 4 = 0, F(3, 0).

7. :
) x = 1,2 T(3, 5); ) x = 2,1 T(3, -3).

8. ,
:
x2 y2 x2 y2
) 1; ) 1.
64 25 49 9

23.2.

y = kx + l, b2x2 a2y2 = a2b2.

x2(k2a2 b2)+ 2kla2x + a2(b2 + l2) = 0.
,
kla 2 ab k 2 a 2 b 2 l 2
x12 .
k 2a 2 b2
12 12 y = kx + l. ()
. :
i. k2a2 b2 < l2 ;
ii. k2a2 b2 = l2 ;
iii. k2a2 b2 > l2 .

(: ).

23.2.1.
y = kx + l b2x2 a2y2 = a2b2
k2a2 b2 = l2.

(1, 1)
kla 2 ab k 2 a 2 b 2 l 2
x12 = ( 23.2.1.) =
k 2a2 b2
kla 2 kla 2 ka2
= 2 2 = ( ) = = = .
k a b2 l2 l

6. 195
. , III

ka2 k 2a2 l 2 b2
1 = -ka2/l, 1 = k l = = .
l l l
2 2 2 2 2 2
, y = kx + l b x a y = a b (
ka2 b2
, ).
l l

b2
, k l -. y1
l
b 2
ka 2
lx lx y (ly1 ) x1
l , x1 k 2 1 = 21 1 = =
y1 l a a y1 a 2 y1
b 2 x1
( ly1 = b2, ).
a 2 y1

(1, 1),
b2 x b2
y 2 1 x1 b2x1x a2y1y = a2b2.
a y1 y1
.

23.2.2.
x2 y2 x x y y
2
2 1 (1, 1) 1 2 1 2 1 .
a b a b

(0, 0) .
x0 x y 0 y
2 1 , .
a2 b
x2 y2
(0, 0) 2 2 1 . (0, 0) .
a b

23.2.3.
1. x2 4y2 = 20 2 10 = 0.

: = 2 10 , 32 32 + 84 = 0.
1 = 6 2 = 14/3, 1 = 2 2 = -2/3.
, 1(6, 2) 2(14/3, -2/3),
|C1C2| = 4 /3.

2. = 3 162 252 = 400


. ?

6. 196
. , III

: T12(25/4, 3), 4 3
16 = 0. 3(0, -16/3). 123 625/12
.

3. 5 = 3 , = 8.
?

: = (3/5) , b/a = 3/5. = 8


3
k2a2 b2 = l2 l2a2 b2 = (-8)2. b a , a 2 b 2 64 a = 10, b = 6,
5
2 2
/100 /36 = 1.

4. 162 252 = 400 (1, -4).

: I . 0/2 0/b2 = 1,
/25 + 4/16 = 1. .
122 + 25 625 = 0, 12 25/4 -25/3, 12 = 412/25
+ 4 = 3 16/3. ,
12/a2 y12y/b2 = 1,
4 3 16 = 0 + + 3
= 0.

II .
(1, -4)
= kx + l.

k + l = -4.
, k2a2 b2 = l2,
25k 16 = l . 3k2 k 4 = 0, k12 =
2 2

4 16
4/3 -1, l12 = -16/3 -3. , y x = -
3 3
3, .
.

III . . (1, 1)
, 1612 2512 = 400. (1, -4) 1/2
1/b2 = 1 ( = 1 = -4) 1/25 + 1/4 = 1. ,
I .

5. 32 42 = 72 1 3 + 2 + 1 = 0,
2 . |12|.

: .
3 b2 x 18 x1 3
k p k t 2 1 , , . 1 =
2 a y1 24 y1 2

6. 197
. , III

-21. (1, 1) , 312 412 = 72.


D1(-6, 3) D2(6, -3).
12 13
| pD1 | | pD2 | , D1(-6, 3)
13 13
1.

2, 1.
2 3 + 21 = 0. 2(-45/13, 61/13),
11 13
| M 1 M 2 | .
13

7. (15/4, 3) 162 92 = 144 .


.

: (15/4, 3)
15
16 x 9 3 y 144 , . 20 9
4
48 = 0. F12(5, 0),
r1 r2
30
y0 x (5) , .
15
(5)
4
12 35 + 60 = 0 12 + 5 60 = 0.
(
)

12 x 35 y 60 12 x 35 y 60
0 , .
12 2 (35) 2 12 2 5 2
600 270 1440 = 0,
20 09 48 = 0, .

8. -3 + 20 = 60 92 -162 = 144.
?

: 90 160 -144 = 0.
90 = -3, -160 = 20 -144 = -60,
. = 12/5,
0 = -4/5 0 = -3. , (- , -3).

9. 42 92 = 36 162 + 452 =
720?

: 5 . 362 = 900, .
12 = 5. 12 = 8/3. (5, 8/3)

6. 198
. , III

. (, )
8 8
4 5 x 9 y 36 16 5 x 45 y 720 , . 5 6 = 9 2 + 3 = 18.
3 3
5 2
k h k e ,
6 3
2 5

tg 3 6 = 27 , tg(180 ) 27 , = 1063016.
5 2 8 8
1
6 3

10. 252 + 1002 = 4 2 32 = 1.

x2 y2 x2 y2
: 1 1 .
4 1 1 1
25 25 3
4 1 1
k 2 l 2 k 2 l 2 .
25 25 3
2 1 2 1
k12 l12 , y x .
3 3 3 3

23.2.4.
1. 252 92 = 225 (5, -20/3).
[25x + 12y 45 = 0]

x2 y2
2. (1, -10) 1 . :
8 32
i. (. );
ii. .
[2x + 5y 16 = 0; (-11/3, 14/3), (3, 2), 22 +7 + 48 = 0, 6 16 = 0]

3. 82 162 = -128 2 +
4 5 = 0 .
[x + 2y = 4, 8/ ]

4. 2 = 0 5 6 8 = 0.
[x2 4y2 = 4]

5. 2 22 = 2, = 0.
[y = x 3]

6. 5 6 16 = 0 13 10 48
= 0.
[x2 4y2 = 16]

6. 199
. , III

7. 2 122 = 36 + 2 = 0
45.

8. A(2, 0) B(6, 4). b2x2 8y2 =


8b2 ?

9. 92 + 252 = 225 32 2= 12 .
, .

10. 202 362 = 720


.

11. (1, 11) 252 92 = 225.

12. 8 45 36 = 0 42 92 = 36.
?

13. (-3, 5) 32 2
= 3 .

14. 2 32 = 12

.

6. 200
. , III

VI ........................................................................................... 153
20. ............................................................................................................. 154
20.1. .................................................................................... 154
20.2. ........................................................................................ 158
20.3. ............................................................................................ 163
21. .................................................................................................................. 167
21.1. .......................................................................................... 168
21.2. .............................................................................................. 171
22. .............................................................................................................. 178
22.1. ...................................................................................... 178
22.2. .......................................................................................... 181
23. ............................................................................................................ 187
23.1. .................................................................................... 188
23.2. ....................................................................................... 195

6. 201