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Environmental Engineering -II September 28, 2016

`EXPERIMENT # 1

PH Measurement of Waste Water


Table of Contents
1.1 OBJECTIVE............................................................................................................................. 3
1.2 APPARATUS ........................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 RELATED THEORY ............................................................................................................... 3
1.3.1 INTRODUCTION OF pH ............................................................................................. 3
1.3.2 IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING pH ....................................................................... 3
1.3.3 pH SCALE .................................................................................................................... 4
1.3.4 BEHAVIOUR OF SCALE ............................................................................................ 4
1.3.5 PHENOMENON OF pH OF WATER SOURCE CHANGE ...................................... 4
1.3.6 BUFFERS..................................................................................................................... 4
1.3.7 NEED OF BUFFER ..................................................................................................... 5
1.3.8 MEASUREMENT OF pH ............................................................................................ 5
1.3.9 DYES ............................................................................................................................ 5
1.3.10 pH INDICATORS ......................................................................................................... 5
1.3.11 pH METER ................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.12 CALIBRATION OF pH METER .................................................................................. 5
1.4 HEALTH EFFECTS ................................................................................................................ 6
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF pH .......................................................................................................... 6
1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE ..................................................................................... 7
1.6.1 WATER SUPPLY......................................................................................................... 7
1.6.2 WASTEWATER TREATMENT ................................................................................... 7
1.6.3 CHEMICAL PROCESSES .......................................................................................... 7
1.6.4 EFFECTIVE DISINFECTION ..................................................................................... 7
1.7 PROTECTION OF LIFE OF FRESHWATER ....................................................................... 7
1.7.1 PROBLEMS AND IMPACTS OF ACIDIC WATER ................................................... 7
1.7.2 IN DRINKING WATER ................................................................................................ 7
1.7.3 IN WASTEWATER ...................................................................................................... 8
1.7.4 MISCELLANEOUS ...................................................................................................... 8
1.8 ACID RAIN............................................................................................................................... 8
1.9 PROCEDURE ......................................................................................................................... 8
1.9.1 CALIBRATION OF pH METER .................................................................................. 8

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1.9.2 DETERMINATION OF THE pH OF SAMPLE ........................................................... 9


1.10 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS: ........................................................................... 9
1.11 COMMENTS:........................................................................................................................... 9
1.12 REFERENCE: ....................................................................................................................... 10

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1.1 OBJECTIVE
This experiment is performed for the measurement of pH of waste water by pH meter.
Also by this we can determine the pH of sample which shows the acidic and basic
nature of sample.

1.2 APPARATUS
Samples
pH meter

1.3 RELATED THEORY


1.3.1 INTRODUCTION OF pH
The pH value of a water source is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity.

The pH level is a measurement of the activity of the hydrogen atom, because the
hydrogen activity is a good representation of the acidity or alkalinity of the water.

pH is a term used to express the intensity of an acid or alkaline condition of a solution.


It is a way of expressing the hydrogen ion concentration. It is important in every phase
of Environmental engineering practice.

PH has been defined as:

pH= -LogH+=Log1/H+

The concept of pH was developed in 1909 by the Danish chemist. The letters stand
for pondus Hydro genii, which means potential hydrogen.

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration.

in water.

pH=-log[H+]

1.3.2 IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING pH


It is important to monitor the pH of drinking water for several reasons.

When a water source has a low pH, it is likely that there are other harmful
contaminants in the water.
pH is also easy to measure and if something is happening to a water, such as
if pollution, chances, pH levels will change so keeping track of those changes
can act as an early warning signal that something is happening to the water.

For these reasons, it is important to monitor the pH levels, so that if they change,
action can be taken immediately.

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1.3.3 pH SCALE

The pH scale, as shown below, ranges from 0 to 14, with pH

7.0 being neutral.


Water with a low pH is said to be acidic [0-6]
Water with a high pH is basic [8-14], or alkaline.

Pure water would have a pH of 7.0, but water sources and precipitation tends to be
slightly acidic, due to contaminants that are in the water.

1.3.4 BEHAVIOUR OF SCALE


The pH scale is logarithmic,
which means that each step
on the pH scale represents
a ten-fold change in acidity.
For example, a water body
with a pH of 5.0 is ten times
more acidic than water with
a pH of 6.0. And water with
a pH of 4.0 is 100 times
more acidic than water with
a pH of 6.0.

pH Scale

1.3.5 PHENOMENON OF pH OF WATER SOURCE CHANGE


Surface water typically has a pH value between 6.5 and 8.5 and groundwater
tends to have a pH between 6.0 and 8.5.
The pH of a water source can vary naturally.
Some types of rock and soil, such as limestone, can neutralize acid more
effectively than other types of rock and soil, such as granite.
Or, when there are a large number of plants growing in a lake or river, they
release carbon dioxide when they die and decompose. When the carbon
dioxide mixes with the water, a weak carbonic acid is formed; this can then
cause the pH of the water body to decrease.
1.3.6 BUFFERS

Buffer is a solution that has a high ability to absorb acid or base without changing pH.

e.g. ammonia buffer solution.

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1.3.7 NEED OF BUFFER

Many lab tests require samples to be adjusted to a particular pH by adding a buffer.


Likewise, media used to grow microbes usually need to be adjusted to a certain pH
range. Buffers can be made quite precisely for calibrating pH measurements.

1.3.8 MEASUREMENT OF pH

We measure pH using indicator dyes, pH test strips, or a pH meter.

1.3.9 DYES

Dyes are organic compounds with absorbances in the visible range. Some of these,
such as methyl orange or phenolphthalein, will shift their conformation slightly in the
presence or absence of hydrogen ions.

1.3.10 pH INDICATORS

pH indicator strips are strips of paper or other material on which dyes have been fixed.
When wetted, these will show a particular colour corresponding to the pH of the
solution. A colour chart is used to read the strip.

1.3.11 pH METER

A chemical cell consisting of an acid-permeable glass


membrane separating two solutions will develop a voltage
related to the difference between the hydrogen ion
activities in the two solutions.

1.3.12 CALIBRATION OF pH METER

The pH meters in use in the freshman lab have digital output and three
adjustments.
Start by setting the temperature at room temperature, usually about 25 C, by
pressing the C key and adjusting the Temperature knob.
Dip the electrode in the buffer solution of known pH (pH 4.0 buffer).
Switch on the power supply and take the reading. Standardize the instrument
using the calibrating knob.
After cleaning, again dip the electrodes in the buffer solution of pH 7. Note the
reading. If it is 7, the instrument is calibrated. If not, correct the value and is

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manipulated so that the reading in the dial comes to 7.0. Do the same with 10
PH solution.
The reading on the dial indicates the pH of the solution
Be patient with this setting and allow the signal to settle in before your final
adjustment.

1.4 HEALTH EFFECTS


Most living organisms can only survive within a narrow pH range. If the pH of
their body or their environment fluctuates too much the organism can die.
For example, blood is normally slightly basic, with a pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.
If our body's pH deviates slightly from this range, we will start to feel sick. If our
blood pH falls below 6.8 or above 7.8, our body cells will stop functioning and
death will occur. If pH goes below 7.35, you have a condition called acidosis.
Acidosis is caused by an overabundance of acid in the blood or a build-up of
carbon dioxide in the blood. Carbon dioxide can build up in the blood when
lung function is poor or breathing is slow. When the pH goes above 7.45 you
will have a condition called alkalosis.
The pH of stomach fluid, which contains hydrochloric acid, is between 1.0 and
3.5, with a mean of approximately 2.0, and there is a range of commonly
encountered foods that are also of low pH.
The growth of microorganism depends upon pH.
Food, medicines are also pH sensitive i.e. they are stable and can be use or
preserve under specific pH.
Many chemical reactions are initiate under a specific pH. Also, buffers are
produced at the specific pH (9-10). Even our toothpaste has a specific pH (8-9)
i.e. same as our buckle cavity pH (basic)
The more acidic the blood, the more compromised the body becomes. If pH
slips too far to the acidic side a condition referred to as acidosis; cells can
develop a toxic overload and become debilitated.
Our bodies function optimally when the blood pH is in a very narrow range of
7.35 to 7.45.
Bones, are especially susceptible to drops in pH level because they are rich in
calcium. In an acidic environment, bone tissue dissolves. This process destroys
the bones.
As the body becomes even more acidic, immunity and energy levels also suffer.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF pH
The pH of water must be close to neutral (pH 7) for fish or other aquatic
organisms to survive.
Similarly, the pH of water in the pore spaces of soil must be close to 7. The soil
pH may also affect the availability to plants of nutrients in the soil.
Water with a low pH (below about 6.5) is corrosive to metal surfaces (e.g.,
copper pipes, steel tanks).

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1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE


1.6.1 WATER SUPPLY
In the field of water supply pH is a factor that is considered in coagulation, disinfection,
water softening and corrosion control. The optimum pH will vary in different supplies
according to the composition of the water and the nature of the construction materials
used in the distribution system, but is often in the range 6.59.5. Extreme pH values
can result from accidental spills, treatment breakdowns and insufficiently cured
cement mortar pipe linings.

1.6.2 WASTEWATER TREATMENT


In sewage and industrial waste water treatment employing biological processes, PH
must be controlled within range favourable to the particular organism involved.

1.6.3 CHEMICAL PROCESSES


Chemical processes used to coagulate sewage or industrial wastes, dewater sludges
or oxidized certain substances, requires that pH must be controlled within the narrow
limit.

1.6.4 EFFECTIVE DISINFECTION


For effective disinfection with chlorine, the pH should preferably be less than 8.0. The
pH of the water entering the distribution system must be controlled to minimize the
corrosion of water mains and pipes in household water systems. Failure to do so can
result in the contamination of drinking-water and in adverse effects on its taste, odour
and appearance.

1.7 PROTECTION OF LIFE OF FRESHWATER


A pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 appears to provide protection for the life of
freshwater fish and bottom dwelling invertebrates.

1.7.1 PROBLEMS AND IMPACTS OF ACIDIC WATER


Water with a pH that is less than 6.5 can leach metal ions, including iron,
manganese, copper, lead and zinc from plumbing fixtures and pipes. This,
in return, can be quite dangerous.

1.7.2 IN DRINKING WATER


When water has a low pH, it is often referred to as "soft water." Soft water is
more acidic.
When water has high levels of pH, it is considered to be "hard water. And it is
associated with scaling.
Major portion of earths water is not drinkable due to pH.

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1.7.3 IN WASTEWATER
On the other end of the pH scale, water that has a pH greater than 8.0 can
be difficult to disinfect. The World Health Organization recommends that the
pH of the water be less than 8.0, because basic water does not allow for
effective chlorination.

1.7.4 MISCELLANEOUS
Foods have expiry date, to maintain their pH buffers are added.
Bacteria which are important in all living aspects can only grow in certain
pH.
Acid rain has effect on specific pH.
Effective Coagulation can only be done by specific pH, and hence
purification improves.

1.8 ACID RAIN


The main effective component is acid rain i.e. related to pH.

The rain having pH 5.6-7 is known as acid rain. Acid rain is a human-related
phenomenon. Since our industries are so fond of burning fossil fuels (coal and oil)
they tend to release a lot of sulphur into the air. (Volcanoes are a natural source of
sulphur gases.) This sulphur combines with the oxygen already present in the air to
form sulphur oxides. Also, since we like to drive big fancy cars rather than ride bikes
or walk, we cause the formation of nitrogen oxides (NO or NO2 or NO3, etc.) in air
from burning gasoline. Most of these acid gases are then blown into the sky where
they mix with the clouds and cause rain (or snow, sleet, fog, mist or hail) to become
more acidic.

1.9 PROCEDURE
The procedure of the experiment consists of three parts:
Calibration of pH meter
Determination of the pH of sample

1.9.1 CALIBRATION OF pH METER


First of all, for the calibration of instrument take different buffer solutions. The process
of calibration is follow:
Start by setting the temperature at room temperature, usually about 25 C, by
pressing the C key and adjusting the Temperature knob.
Dip the electrode in the buffer solution of known pH (pH 4.0 buffer).
Switch on the power supply and take the reading. Standardize the instrument
using the calibrating knob.
After cleaning, again dip the electrodes in the buffer solution of pH 7. Note the
reading. If it is 7, the instrument is calibrated. If not, correct the value and is
manipulated so that the reading in the dial comes to 7.0.
The reading on the dial indicates the pH of the solution

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1.9.2 DETERMINATION OF THE pH OF SAMPLE

A sample (wastewater) whose pH is to be found is taken in a beaker and the


temperature knob is adjusted such that the temperature of solution is same as
that in dial.
The electrode is washed with distilled water and reused with the sample and
then it is dipped in the sample. Measure the pH of sample and note it in the
results.

1.10 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:

Sample Name Source pH of Sample Temperature C

1.11 COMMENTS:

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1.12 REFERENCE:
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/phcurves.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titration curve
www.ffcr.or.jp/zaidan/ffcrhome.nsf/.../$FILE/B30.pdf
www.scribd.com/doc/8750552/pH-and-Its-Importance
www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/effectsph.html
www.wikihow.com ... Subjects Science Chemistry

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