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1.4 , x ,
F = F (x) .
,
r r r r
F = F (r ) = F ( x, y, z ) ; ,

r r r r
F = F (r ) = F ( x, y, z ) ;
.

m
r r r r r
F = F (r ) = F ( x, y, z ) , r = x i + y j + z k
. .

t = 0 ,
r r
r0 = x0 i + y 0 j + z 0 k u 0 .

r
du r
m =F. (3.1)
dt

( ) (3.1)
r
u
r
du r r r
m u = F u . (3.2)
dt

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(3.2)

d 1 2
r r
mu = F u , (3.3)
dt 2

r
1 1 r r d 1 r r du r
mu 2 = mu u mu u = m u .
2 2 dt 2 dt

1
T = mu 2
2
(3.3)

dT r r
= F u , (3.4)
dt
r r
F u . ,
:
r r r
3.1: F = F (r ) ,

.

(3.4) dt

dT r drr
dt = F dt , (3.5)
dt dt

r r
dT = F dr . (3.6)

, :
r r r
3.2: F = F (r ) ,

.

, (3.6) :

1 r r
d mu 2 = F dr . (3.7)
2

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,
. .
r r
u 0 u
r r
r0 r .
r
u rr r r
1 2
u d 2 mu = rr F (r ) dr , (3.8)
0 0

r
r r
1 1 r
mu 2 mu 02 = F dr , (3.9)
2 2 r
r0

:
r
r r
1 r 1
mu 2 F dr = mu 02 = , (3.10)
2 r
r0
2

1 / 2, m, u 0 . :

r
r r r
F dr (3.11)
r
r0


r
V (r ) (3.12)
r
r ; , (3.10)
r r r
F = F (r ) .
, .
r
V (r ) = V ( x, y, z ) , x, y, z ,
. , x, y, z ,
. (3.11)
r r
r0 r .
,
, (3.11) .
, (3.12),
, (3.11). (3.11)
r
(3.12) (3.11) r ,
r r
r0 r
.

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r r r
F = F (r )

r
r
r
r r
r r
V (r ) F dr . (3.13)
r
r0

r r r
F = F (r )
(3.10)
T + V = = E (3.14)

E .
r r r
F = F (r ) .
r r r
3.3: F = F (r )

.

,
r
r0
r
r0
r r r r
V (r0 ) F (r ) dr = 0 . (3.15)
r
r0


r r
r0 , r1 . (3.10) :
r r
r1
1 r r r r r r r 1
mu 2 F (r ) dr F (r ) dr = mu 02 (3.16)
2 r
r0
r
r1
2

r r
r r1
1 r r 1 r r r
mu 2 F (r ) dr = mu 02 + F (r ) dr = . (3.17)
2 r
r1
2 r
r0

(3.17)
.


r
r r
r r r
V (r ) F (r ) dr (3.18)
r
r1

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r
r1
1 r r r
E = mu 0 + F (r ) dr =
2
(3.19)
2 r
r0

T + V = = E , (3.20)

E V .
(3.13) (3.18)

r r V ( x, y, z ) V ( x, y, z ) V ( x, y, z )
F (r ) = i j k V ( x, y, z ) , (3.21)
x y z

/ x x
/ y , / z .

,
.

: ,
.

.

3.1

,

r
F = f (r )r , (3.22)

r r r
r = r / r = r / r .
. (. 3.3
3.5).

3.4: .

:
r r
r1 r2 .

r r
r2
r r r2 r 2
r

W = F dr = f (r )r dr = f (r ) dr = , (3.23)
r r
r1 r1 r1

r
dr = r dr ,
r
dr r . (3.22)
r r
r1 r2

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r 1
r 2 .

r r R
3.1: F (r ) = F0 r , F0 = 1 Nt,
r
r r r
R = 1 m , r r = r / r = r / r
. ,
r
F .
xy . .
;

: . r = 1 m,
1 Nt. r = 2 m, 1/2 Nt. r = 3 m,
1/3 Nt .


, .

r r
3.2: F (r ) = ( F0 x / x0 ) j ,
F0 = 1 Nt, x0 = 1 m j y .
r
, F .
xy .
y z ,
x .

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A) .
;
B)
(1, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) xy .

: (1, y ) , + 1 . (2, y ) ,
+ 2 . (1, y ) , 1 .

B A

C D

) ,
, .


,
.

B) : W AB = 0 , .
WBC = 1 2 = 2 Joule,
. WCD = 0 WDA = 2 Joule.
W = 4 Joule 0 .

:
. (3.21),

V ( x, y, z ) .
(3.13) . .

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r r
3.1: F (r ) = k r r , k = 1 Nt/m
r r r
, r r = r / r = r / r
r
. , F
. xy .
A) .
;
B)
(0, 0, 0) (1, 1, 1).

: ) r = 0 r = 3 m.
W = 3 / 2 J.

r r
3.2: F (r ) = ( F0 y / y 0 )i ,
F0 = 1 Nt, y 0 = 1 m i x .
r
, F .
xy .
x z ,
y .
A) .
;
B)
(1, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) xy .

: ) W = 4 J.

r r Mm
3.3: F (r ) = G 2 r ,
r
( m ) ( M ),
. ,
GMm . , r
r
, r = r / r
.
r
, F .
xy .
)
;
)
(0, 0, 1) (2, 0, 0).

: ) r = 1 m r = 2 m.
W = 1 / 2 J.

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r r
3.4: F (r ) = ( F0 x 2 / x02 ) j ,
F0 = 1 Nt, x0 = 1 m j y .
r
, F .
xy .
y z ,
x .
A) .
;
B)
(3, 3) (3, 3) (3, 3) (3, 3) (3, 3) xy .
) .

: ) W = 0 .

r r Qq
3.5: F (r ) = k 2 r ,
r
q Q ,
. , kQq
. , r
r
q r = r / r .
r
, F .
xy .
)
;
)
(1, 2, 3) (3, 2, 1).

: ) r = 14 m r = 14 m.
W = 0.

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