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PRELIMINARY SIZING PROCEDURES

Sizing formulas are needed for the calculation of the parameters in the cost correlations.

HEAT EXCHANGERS CONDENSERS AND REBOILERS

Only the area is needed. It can be obtained from

Q= U A Tml

where Q (heat transferred) and Tml (mean logarithmic temperature difference) can be
obtained from the material and energy balances (simulation). The total heat transfer
coefficient U, however, is unknown at this point because the heat exchanger has not been
designed yet (no number and length of tubes as well as shell size has been picked). So use
estimates. Consult Perry.

COMPRESSORS

Only the brake horsepower (BHP) is needed. It can be obtained from

BHP= W / m

The total work already accounts for adiabatic efficiency. This value is now affected by
the mechanical efficiency m. Use m=0.8.

DRUMS

Separator drums provide a volume for phase separation. Liquid droplets have to settle
from the vapor and bubbles have to rise from the liquid. A vertical drum has a height
composed of

1) The height of liquid LL


2) The height of vapor LV
3) Additional height for demisters (drop separation devices). 1-2 ft

Following Wankat (Equilibrium Staged Separations, page 68):

a) Calculate the permissible vapor velocity:

L V
u perm K drum ft/sec
V
Kdrum is given by:

K drum Exp{ A B ln Flv C (ln Flv ) 2 D(ln Flv )3 E (ln Flv ) 4 }


WL V
Flv
WV L

(Looks like a fitting of a log-log plot!) (Flowrates are in mass units, not mole)

A 1.87748, B 0.81458, C 0.18707, D 0.014523, E 0.001015

b) Calculate the cross sectional area:

WV
A
u perm V

from which you can obtain the Diameter.

c) Calculate the required height by using an aspect ratio (L/D) of 4.

COLUMNS

You need diameter and height. For height assume that the tray separation is 2 ft. Add 5
feet on the bottom and 5 feet on the top. First pick a vapor velocity as 0.6 of the
maximum flooding velocity

L V
Vm ( ft / s ) 0.3
V
From the internal vapor flowrate and the velocity we obtain the area. Allow a 12% of the
total area taken by the downcomers.