Foundation for Indian Scientific Heritage(R)Suratkal, Karnataka, India. In search of Truth.

The four questions that Prof. Narlikar asks are: 1. What is the scientific content of the Vedas? 2. Can astronomical allusions of the past and the present be used to date ancien t writings or events, as is usually done in support of the scriptural history of the Indian subcontinent? 3. Were any supernovae observed in India during the Siddhantic Period, the golde n period of Indian astronomy? If not then how reliable Indian astronomy would be in spite of the ignorance regarding the rare cosmic phenomena that were recorde d in contemporary China? And 4. Why did scientific activity decline after the Siddhantic Period, if at all th e period may be referred to as scientific? Answers by Arun Kumar Upadhyay-Detailed References are in articles-Common Jain a nd Vedic heritage, Frontiers of Science, Shaka and Samvatsara, book-Sankhya sidd hanta. Summary in slide form is titled astronomy-all on scribd/Arun Upadhyay. (1) Vedas are not text books of science but foundation of all knowledge as state d in Mundakopanishad (1/1). This aspect is explained in Atharva-veda, the origin al in its first sentence-3 sevens envelop the world. One of the meanings is Bism illah (786). There are 7 lokas in space and its image on earth and in human body . All sciences should have minimum 7 basic elements. All political theories assu me 4 basic elements-Land, people, Govt and sovereignty. To make it complete, 3 m ore are added in India-(i) Kosha=revenue surplus, known on economics, but ignore d in political theory even by Marx. (ii) Durga-natural and artificial protection , (iii) Purohita-moral justification-constitution and laws. Similarly, complete theory of body in Ayurveda must have 7 elements. Before hand we assume that Vedas are songs of illiterate people and all numerica l measures were omitted even by Svami Dayananda. When Vedic verses were composed (29100-3100 C), scientific theories were known and were not specifically mentioned. 6 angas were needed to understand Vedas-(1) Shiksha-Personal instruction to explain symbols and structure of knowledge or s ubject, (2) Kalpa-Practical use and verification, (3) Vyakarana-Breaking of soun ds in letter/syllables ad forming words from root verbs, then clause/sentence (c hhanda-pada), (4) Nirukta-definition of words in sciences, (5) Jyotisha-structur e and location/motion/direction of cosmic bodies, their image on earth and man, (6) Chhanda-measures of word as well as basic (ma chhanda) and derived units (ca lled vayah chhanda. Vedas assume interlink between Cosmos, earth and man. But sc ience of each has to be separately studied-that is Jain tradition, parallel to V edas. Superior knowledge of Vedas-(1) Cosmic theory-(a) Solar system size is neither m easured nor defined in modern astronomy. Rigveda (10/189/3) defines it as a zone in which light of sun is more (than background of galaxy). Its extent is 230 x earth size. Each dhama starting from earth is double of previous (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 3/2/2). Puranas (e.g. Vishnu 2/7-8) state Solar system zones in terms of sun diameter. (1) Ratha is body= solar system of 1575 Million sun diameters. Vayu purana (6/12) tells that earth is a dot on teeth of Varaha which is 100 yo jana high and 10 yojana wide. Only in terms of sun diameter, earth is between 10 8-109 sun diameters from sun. Isha-danda is defined as solar wind in Yajurveda f irst verse. Its size is 3000 yojana on each side of sun i.e. up to orbit of Uran us (my3 published articles in 1999, found by NASA in 2007). Wheel is of 1000 yoj ana radius, i.e. up to Saturn orbit. It is grand cycle of earth motion, only pla nets up to Saturn cause perturbation on earth. Katu (place of creation) is plane tary orbit till Neptune, called wheel shaped earth. It is given in earth yojanas (1000 parts of diameter=12.8 km, earth is 1000 petalled lotus in space). Its di ameter is 1000 million yojanas, i.e. radius of about 41 AU. Beyond that, 60000 b alakhilyas of 1 angula (angushtha) =1/96 part of earth as man in space=135 kms d iameter revolve (Rigveda, khila part, puranas). It is Nakshatra of solar system at 60 AU (Surya-siddhanta 12/82)-(article in1999). NASA find in 2007-70000 bodie s of 100+kms at 45-60 AU. Half of wheel earth is of 500 million yojana diameter

is loka (lighted) part, beyond that is aloka (dark) (b) Mahar loka (sphere of width equal to spiral arm near sun, 1000 stars are 100 0 heads of Shesha) is 240, Janah loka (galaxy) is 246, Tapah loka (visible unive rse) is 264 and Satya loka (imaginary Purusha) is 272-all in units of earth. The se measures in Puranas are in Atma yojana (sun diameter) for solar system-Jain j yotisha. For higher lokas, they are in Pramana yojana, successively 500 times bi gger units. (c) All 22 or more modern theories of cosmology depend on assumption that Univer se is uniform, homogeneous and isotropic (steady also in some). They use continu ous equations of Tensor calculus, so ignore any discrete structure. Only Chandra shekhar limit links star size with atomic measures. James Jeans in 1930 had assu med that Universe is homogenous at level of1000 galaxies. But at largest levels also, it is not so as found recently. In 1931, Kurt Godel proved Incompleteness Theorem, but still, Einstein to Weinburg-Salam and Mahesh Yogi also searched elu sive Unified Field theory. (d) Since one theory cannot be complete, we should take 2 or 3 complementary the ories. It is like wave-particle duality. 3 complementary Vedic theories are- Pur usha (Structural), Shree (Field) and Yajna (Change or transformation). (e) Purusha-Starting with man, earth, solar system, galaxy and Universe are succ essively 107 times bigger. 7 smaller worlds are successively 10-5 times smaller. Inner ratio of 5 gross levels are 7, and 7 micro levels are 5. These are powers with base 10, so universe should be 10 dimensional. There is no such conclusion in any branch of modern science-though this is correct observation. (f) Shree-Universe is 10 dimensional. For Physics, 5 dimensions are sufficient-5 basic units of measure are needed. That is Sankhya philosophy and Roman script with 5x5 elements/letters. Then there are 5 levels of Chetana (consciousness), w hich does chayana (ordering). Dimension 6 is Purusha. Its Philosophy is Shaiva w ith 6x6=36 elements. Scripts are Arabic, Latin, Russian and Gurumukhi. Dimension 7 is Rishi (Rassi in Hindi=string)-Link between two objects, 4 fundamental forc es, 2 of symmetry called wings in Shatapatha Brahmana, 1 non-symmetric called ta il of Suparna. Its elements are 7x7 Maruts. Script is called Devanagari, as it i s nagara (chiti =arrangement, city) ot Devas in symbols-33 devas are prana of 33 zones (Dhama of solar system) 3 within earth, 30 outside in solar system. Their symbols are consonants from k to h. Including 16 vowels, 49 letters are 49 Maru ts of 49 zones of galaxy (246 x earth). Dimension 8 is Kala (partitions), formed by 8 Prakriti. Prakriti is combination of 3 Gunas, i.e. 23= 8 types. Elements a re 8x8=64 Kalas. Script is Brahmi, equivalent o Tapah loka in exponential scale. Dimension 9 is randhra=defect. It is linked with partition, so its equivalent i s (8+9)2=289 symbols in Vijnana Vak of Vedas to indicate all sciences. In presen t days, Greek symbols, mathematical operators and Chemical elements etc. have se parate symbols. Vedic script has 36x3 vowels, 36x5 consonants and 1 unclassified Om. Dimension 10 is Rasa or Ananda, primordial original source of Universe. It has infinite elements, but equivalent script has 103-104 letters beyond Vyoma ( Tibet) in China and Japan. (g) Brahma is collection of all matter. There is fluctuation at all points. Visi ble motion of particles or system is Karma, called Action=force x displacement i n Physics. All action is not useful. Any action in cycle, which produces useful work is called Yajna. Useful work means that it continues function of an object or system. In space, the chain of yajna is visible in 5 levels-Svayambhuva (=sel f created, collection of galaxies), Parameshthi (=largest Brick, galaxy), solar system, Chandra mandala (sphere containing moonâ s orbit) and earth. So Human yajna s are in 5 parts in 5 ways. Symbolically there are 5 ka-karas in Sikhism, 5 maha yajna and 5 Namaj daily. At root are 2 invisible states-Nirvishesha is abstract, formless, having 1000 directions of creation (sahasra-balsha). Its image is Sah asrara chakra in man. Duality of observer-observes (Shiva-Shakti, Aham-Idam), or matter/energy is Savishesha-Paratpara. Its image in man is Ajna chakra. Images of 5 visible levels are 5 chakras in backbone nerve-Sushumna. (2) Physical-Ancient primitive age is called copper age whose prospecting, minin g and metallurgy all are more difficult than iron. Prospecting of gold or silver is still trial and error even after all modern techniques. Gold mine of Zimbabw

e have been estimated at least 15000 years old. Kurma incarnation saw co-operati on between Devas and Asuras for mining called Samudra manthana. Mineral bearing rock is convex called Kurma shaped. Titles of all Asuras who had come to help in mining in Chhotanagpur plateau are related to ores and metallurgy. Prospecting itself indicates advanced technology. Actually Satya, treta, dvapara, kali have been translated in Greek as Gold, silver, copper and iron eras. (3) All secrets of Ayurveda and Yoga are still not understood which have been wr itten in very authentic manner. Link between man and space is also conjecture on ly. 2. Dating-There are multiple systems of yugas, years and days. There are 7 yugas out of which 5 are used to indicate historic periods-(1) Ayana chakra-it is cal led manvantara of 26000 years in Brahmanda purana of 71 yugas of roughly 365 yea rs each (360 years in round numbers). (2) Ayanabda yuga or Brahmabda of 24000 ye ars is the actual period of glacial cycles which influence long periods of histo ry. Milankovich theory (1923) explained it as combined effect of rotation of ear th apogee in 1,00,000 years and precession in 26,000 years in reverse direction But it is variable and there is nutation also. In India, long term component of 3,12,000 years of apogee rotation has been added to give a cycle of 24,000 year s with 2 parts of 12000 years each. Avasarpini starts with Satya, Treta, Dvapara , Kali of 4,3,2,1 parts and Utsarpini follows in reverse order of yugas. Kali of day 3 of Brahmbda in Avasapini started on 17-2-3102 BC. Due to that, Brahmagupt a and Bhaskara -2 had to adopt correction in cycle of 24,000 yeas-coming from Pu rana tradition. (3) Kraunch or Dhruva Samvatsara of 9090 Manusha years (8100 sol ar years). (4) Saptarshi vatsara of 3030 manusha years. The same has been called 2700 divya years. Thus Manusha year =12 revolutions of moon=327 days. Divya yea r=solar year of 365.25 days. In astronomy, divya year is of 360 years, and yuga is 43,20,000 years which is grand cycle of planets till Saturn, called wheel of sun, or sahasraksha (1000 x aksha =sun). 1000 yugas are day of Brahma, in light years day-night of Brahma (8.64 billion) is radius of visible universe. Years are of two types-Shaka and Samvatsara. Shakas are calendars started with a particular point by a king- Literally Shaka means cumulative count (of days), w hich is used for mathematical calculation of planetary positions. Samvatsaras ar e of 5 types-mostly tropical year or its multiples. Days are indicated in 5 ways, so calendar is called Panchanga. There are 2 more elements-lagna and planetary positions. The yuga system determines date with err or of about 100 years. It is not possible to determine dates more than 5000 year s old with certainty, by checking astronomical observations as per modern equati ons. Multiple check is needed because long term variation in motions. There are 7 mod els of slowing down of earthâ s axial rotation by NASA. That is to be checked by ac tual observations of past. But, Indian so-called scientists use it to change the observations on recorded dates. 3& 4-Siddhantika period-This is misnomer created by forgeries/destructions of we st Asian civilizations. They tend to destroy everything before their accepted Pr ophet and assume different Gods for other races and convert them to own form. In recorded history, it started with destruction and burning by Greek Alexander of libraries in Persepolis and Alexandria in addition to wiping out entire populat ion. That is termed as creation and greatness in those civilizations. That helpe d in creating fake records that all science was developed in Greece only. Euclid had studied in Alexandria to write Elements (Axiomatic geometry). Appolonius of Perga also went to Egypt, but had to visit India to study Conic sections. But s emi-literates like David Pingree quote their own fake articles to show Greek/Sum erian origin of Indian Astronomy or mathematics. Then Christianity destroyed eve rything prior to their religion all over Europe and wiped out about half the pop ulation of their own country by cruel tortures-continued till Goa inquisitions. Much touted saint Xavier killed 7 women daily by torture for dinner entertainmen t. This is as per Christian records on websites. Islamic empires forced others to read Kalamma or to accept death, but no body in their own empire read Kalama himself which tells that There is nothing but God. All fatwas mean that nothing of rival states or populations is God. Al-Biruni h

as written that all knowledge and study were wiped out wherever Mahmud went in I ndia. That is the reason that there are no records after invasion of Sindh in 71 2 and by Mahmud in 1000 AD. In Nalanda alone, 90 lakh books were burnt in 1204 b y Bakhtiar Khilji. Al-Biruni, Ibn-Batuta, Ferishta have recorded with pride that about 8 crore persons were killed from 1000-1200 AD and 3 crores were sold as s laves. Hindukush meant slaying of Hindus, as half of slaves died there en-route. It is a cruel question to ask why there was no scientific development in such m ass murders, rape and kidnappings. All these histories are on Website of Persian govt. Great research by Bhaskara-II is quoted in 12th century, said to be born in 1114 AD. But Al Biruni has written in 1031 AD about him. Weber also had to note the absurdity of such dating in his book-History of Indian Literature. Wilson and Pa rgiter were 2 main forgerers at start of British Rule. A major landmark of Hist ory in Puranas is Nanda coronation 1500 (1504) years after birth of Parikshita. That was changed by them as 1050, but details showed 1504 years, so they had to manipulate most record. All kings of Malwa were eliminated and period of every e mpire was arbitrarily shortened as if their life were in hands of these forgerer s. George Buhler omitted references of Laukika era from Rajatarangini, chapter 1 an d claimed it his own research that it started in Kali 25 after death of Yudhisht hira-kalairgataih sayaka netra varshaih Yudhisthiradyah Tridivam Prayatah. Aryabhata had written that he was of 23 years when 6 cycles of 60 years passed i n Kaliyuga. Such old chronology was not acceptable to Oxford, so 6 cycles were c hanged to 60. Aryabhataâ s statement was supported by many others also, but unless Oxford forgerers agree, it could not be accepted. Aryabhata-2 in his Mahasiddhan ta (2/1-2) has written that 2 theories were current at time of Mahabharata-Arya mata and Parashara-mata. Bhaskara in his commentary of Aryabhatiya also has writ ten that he had taken algorithms from 4 treatises of Mahabharata era-Purana, Put ana, Maskari and Mudgala. Aryabhata has not claimed any research, he was merely preserving knowledge of Kusumpur (place of University). In 337 Kali, it had not become capital Pataliputra. He had followed older Svayambhuva mata (called Pitam aha also) followed mostly in south India-now projected as place of late Aryan in fluence. Varahamihira and Kalidasa, both in their books on astronomy have stated that they were in period of Vikramaditya of Ujjain. But all these were rejected . It could happen only if they denied their writings in dream of S.B. Dixit (His tory of Indian Astronomy, 1896). After listing 14 Shakas, he abruptly destroyed all his study by telling that there was only one shaka and linked Shalivahana wi th Kanishka 1200 years ago and made him a shaka king instead of Kashmiri as stat ed by Kalhana. Since Vikrama samvat is used all over India till today, his elimi nation was main target of all Oxford followers who had converted another Chandra gupta of Pataliputra as Vikramaditya. Earlier, there use to be pride of knowledg e. It was replaced by pride of ignorance of all Indian calendars among historian s, all Indian literature specially of Sanskrit. Brahmagupta as stated that his t heory is from Vishnu purana, but it is taken as his research in siddhantika peri od. Astronomy of Vishnu purana is by Parashara and that is Parashara mata, menti oned by Aryabhata-2. There are many points which make it obvious that all knowle dge in astronomy texts was of pre-mahabharata origin, thereafter there was no oc casion of research. After1200 AD, in era of mass murders and slavery, even prese rvation of life and books was impossible(1)All astronomy texts indicate size of galaxy, whose real estimate was made onl y after1950. (2) Calculation of true position of planets (elliptical orbits) was always taken as guess work in obedience to remark by Van der Waerden. No attempt was made to give its mathematical explanation. In 1978, D. Ark Somayaji (Dharwad University ) proved that correct ratio of orbits is indicated by Shighra paridhi of planets . Then, in 1999, I proved in mathematical commentary on Siddhanta darpana that t he process correctly describes calculation of 2 elliptical orbits as described b y Seidelâ s method of bisecting the interval. (3) Revolutions in a yuga or Kalpa was always a mystery. 39 revolutions of Satur n apogee in 4.32 billion years is beyond measurement even by telescope. Its calc

ulation also is highly uncertain with present knowledge. (4) All attempt of Brahmagupta and Bhaskara etc was to understand logic of astro nomical methods in use since long, not to devise them. Bija correction in cycle of 24,000 years was totally beyond comprehension. (5) All texts have noted positions of Yamakotipattana (south west tip of New zea land) and Siddhapura (1800 east of Ujjain) where Brahma had constructed Door (py ramid of Mexico) to mark end of east direction (Valmiki Ramayana, Kishkindha kan da,40/54, 64). These were not known from 1 BC to 1200 AD. (6) All texts have written that north pole is in water and south pole is on land mass (confirmed by echo-sounding in 1985). North Pole was reached in 1909 by Ad miral Peary in 1909, but around that time Bal Gangadhara Tilak had written-Arcti c Home in Vedas. I do not know whether it was real research or to show absurdity of Oxford logic of tracing origin of Indians from ocean as it is being done for Tamil in Indian ocean (Kumarika-Khanda). To stop independent research Oriental Institute was set up in Calcutta. Sri R.C. Mazumdar had originally quoted Megasthenes in his Ancient India, page 135 to gi ve strength of army of Andhra kings. But that implied that he had come after And hra period in Gupta era. So, he had to omit that truth in next book co-authored with K.K. Datta and H.C. Raychaudhary. For obedience to Oxford falsehood, he was made general editor of 12 ol series History by so called Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan . Usmania University maintains both contradictory versions-for Andhra glory Cult ure deptt), Megasthenes had come in Gupta period, for history texts he was in M aurya period. Whole of India has to pass exam. under British system, so all stud ents of history honours reading subject of regional language that Gorakhnath had started then for national unification after attack on Sindh in 712 AD. But the same students read in History that it was period of Shankaracharya who was debat ing in Sanskrit and fighting Bauddhas in stead of Islamic invasion and kidnappin g from his birth place Kerala-which was excuse of attack by Mohammed bin Kasim. Destruction of history and philosophy was institutionalized by Boden Chair in Ox ford in 1831 with declared aim of uprooting Vedic culture which Greek/Romans had been doing for past 2500 years. In India, Historical research Institute was set up to file case against Pandit Sundarlal who wrote Indian History as per Indian records-it was not for research but for stopping all independent work. As nothi ng wrong could be found by galaxy of scholars like Vipan Chandra and Romila Thap ar, case dragged from 1920 to 1982 till death of author. Irfan Habib did last de struction when a professor sought grant for publishing translation of Ibn batut a diaries. Claiming that only a muslim can know Arabic, he took grant of Rs. 15 lakhs in his name, but was unable to read it. When proof reader told that it me ntioned Kutub Minar 1500 years before Kutub Uddin, entire manuscript was burnt. Summary was later on published in Hindi/English by National Book Trust. In 1910, Saiyad Ahmed Khan had strongly protested in his book that Kutub Minar is not an Islamic monument, it was ancient Hindu structure. Actually even in India, after Mahabharata era, its feature was not known that its semi-vertical angle was dif ference between true and mean latitude of Delhi. In Pune also, Bhandarkar Orient al research Institute was set up for destroying Vedic knowledge. There were poli tical protests against book on Shivaji, but vedic destruction did not come to no tice. Spear heading was by Bhandarkar who was completely ignorant of Sanskrit an d wrote Vedic concept of Shiva as worship of fallus by illiterates. Naturally, m y article on scientific concept of Rudra was protested in 2002 by Orientalists t hat it was too difficult. I told that it only proves that, Bhandarkar and not th e Rishis were illiterate. Bhandarkar had longest historical tradition-his forefa thers had betrayed king Dahir of Sindh in 712 AD. In2004 conference also, G.U Th itte started making such illiterate comments about Vedas. Immediately Pandit Ghu lam Dastidar of Pune took me away from hall telling that Veda is insulted by tal king among such illiterates-He agreed only with my abstract. Finishing touch to end Sanskrit, was given when Radhakrishnan became President. Earlier he had written books in Oxford plan. In Principal Upanishads, he wrote t hat Atharva veda was first, in Indian Philsophy he wrote that it was last and be trayed complete ignorance of Indian texts in Gita saying that it author was not known. Complete ignorance of calendar was shown in fixing time of Vedas in 1500

BC. When Dr. J.V. Narlikar had delivered his convocation speech in BHU, 3 ordnan ces had been issued to remove all Sanskrit knowing scholars. Pandit Ramvyasa Pan dey, HOD,Jyotish, BHU fought them till Supreme court. Fortunately Chief Justice was M. Hidayatulla who passed stricture on Radhakrishnan for uncivilised words-o ld scholars are to be removed when they fall sick or die for good (1961 AIR 1059 1961 SCR (3) 380). Pandit Bellikoth Rmchandra Sharma of Tirupati could not fig ht. He had refused to sell Samaveda Kauthumi samhita to Harvard even in Rs. 1 cr ore saying that Vedas are not for sale. But after removing him, Radhakrishnan i mmediately sold them to Harvard where they are being published now. When Radhakr ishnan died, Tirupati University dared to honour B.R. Sharma which he refused. A ll foreign publications of Vedic literature is by such thieves only whose names have not been indicated as source. Lastly, all Indian literature is dubbed as fictitious after utmost attempt of fo rgery was done by Oxford. Only Megasthenes is considered reliable who has descri bed 7 castes in India (in stead of 4), one eyed tribe, pregnancy of all Indian g irls at age of 6, gold digging ants (actually it is metallurgy of silver). Next reliable is Indus script which has not been read so far, but Indus (or Sarasvati by patriot group). Whatever plausible thing has been written by Megasthenes, it has been rejected-(1) India had always been self sufficient in food etc, so the y had not captured other countries since last 15000 years (last attack was by Ka rttikeya in 15800 BC on Kraunch Dvipa =N. America) (2) India is only country in world where all people are indigenous. (3) First attack on India was by Bacchus or Dionysus in 6777 BC, April. That tallies with King Bahu, father of Sagara who was killed in Yavana attack supported by Haihaya and Talajangha. Thereafter 154 generation of Indian kings ruled till Gupta period when Alexander attacked. But Indian civilization is started from 1500 BC and Vedic Aryans from outside. (4) There were 2 periods of democracy-120 years=21 republics of Parashurama from 62 97-6177 BC when Kalamba (Kollam) era started. Second was 300 years period which is Malava-Gana from Shudraka (756 BC) to Sri Harsha (456 BC). (5) Megasthenese h imself had been in Palibothri (Prabhadraka=Delhi) on banks of Yamuna which passe d through Mathura in Shurasena, and met Ganga at Prayaga. This is called Patna, 1200 Kms. east. (6) Hercules had made a pillar at Palibothri (Kutub Minar). Sun is Vishnu or Hercules in space which holds the earth. Shadow of pillar by sun is used to determine north direction and latitude-so it is Vishnu dhvaja or pillar of Hercules. North direction is measured by bisecting locus in shape of Kutupa (funnel) at noon time (say 11 AM-1 PM). Bisection is by Mina (fish shaped common part of 2 circles-so it is Kutup-Mina or Kutub Minar. In Arabic also, Kutub-num a means compass.

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