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HIKARI Ltd, www.m-hikari.com

Subject to Random Breakdowns, Multiple Vacation

and Restricted Admissibility

G. Ayyappan

Department of Mathematics

Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry, India

ayyappanpec@gmail.com

K. Sathiya

Department of Mathematics

Krishna Engineering College, Puducherry, India

sathiyathiyagumaths@gmail.com

Department of Mathematics

Tagore Arts College, Puducherry, India

Copyright c 2013 G. Ayyappan et al. This is an open access article distributed under

the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,

and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We consider an M [x] /G/1 queue with two types of service subject

to random breakdowns having multiple server vacation, where the cus-

tomers arrive to the system in batches of variable size. We assume that

a single server provides two types of service, type 1 with probability p1

and type 2 with probability p2 with the service times following general

distribution and each arriving customer may choose either type of ser-

vice. The server takes vacation each time the system becomes empty

and the vacation period is assumed to be general. On returning from

vacation if the server finds no customer waiting in the system, then the

server again goes for vacation until he finds at least one customer in the

system. The system may breakdown at random and repair time follow

2600 G. Ayyppan, K. Sathiya and A. Muthu Ganapathy Subramanian

of arriving batches in which not all batches are allowed to join the sys-

tem at all times. The probability generating function for the number

of customers in the queue is found using the supplementary variable

technique. The mean number of customers in the queue and the system

are also found.

down, Restricted admissibility policy, Multiple vacation, Mean queue size

1 Introduction

Queueing systems with vacations have been developed for a wide range ap-

plications in production, communication systems, computer networks and etc.

Vacation queues have been studied by numerous researchers including Doshi

[5], Madan et al. [8], Madan and Anabosi [9]. Borthakur and Choudhury [2]

and Hur and Ahn [6] have studied vacation queues with batch arrivals. Queue

with multiple vacations has been studied by Tian and Zhang [14], Srinivasan

and Maragatha Sundari [11]. Choudhury et al. [4] have studied M/G/1 queue

with two phases of service and Bernoulli vacation schedule under multiple va-

cation policy. Maraghi et al. [10] have studied batch arrival queueing system

with random breakdowns and Bernoulli schedule server vacations having gen-

eral vacation time.

Takine and Sengupta [12], Aissani and Artalejo [1] have studied dierent

queueing systems subject to random breakdowns. Kulkarni and Choi [7] and

Wang et al. [15] have studied retrial queues with system breakdowns and re-

pairs. Thangaraj and Vanitha [13] discussed a M/G/1 queue with two stage

heterogeneous service compulsory server vacation and random breakdowns.

In some queueing systems with batch arrival there is a restriction such

that not all batches are allowed to join the system at all time. Choudhury and

Madan [3] proposed an M [x] /G/1 queueing system with restricted admissibilty

of arriving batches and Bernoulli schedule server vacation.

In this paper we consider the steady state behavior of a queueing system

where breakdowns may occur at random, and once the system breaks down, it

enters a repair process. A single server provides two types of service and each

arriving customer has the option of choosing either type of service. If there

are no customer waiting in the system then the server goes for vacation with

random duration. On returning from vacation, if the server again nds no cus-

tomer waiting in the system, then the server continues to go for vacation until

he nds at least one customer in the system. Here the server takes multiple

M [x] /G/1 Queue with random breakdowns, multiple vacation 2601

vacation. The service time and the vacation time are generally distributed,

while the breakdown and repair times are exponentially distributed.

This paper is organized as follows. The Mathematical description of our

model is given in section 2. Denitions and notations are given in section 3.

Equations governing the model are given in section 4. In section 5 supple-

mentary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in

explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for

the number of customers in the queue. The mean number of customer in the

queue as well as in the system have been found in section 6.

We assume the following to describe the queueing model of our study.

Poisson process and they are provided one by one service on a rst come

- rst served basis. Let ci dt (i = 1, 2, . . .) be the rst order probability

that a batch of i customers arrives at the system during a short interval

of time (t, t + dt], where 0 ci 1 and ci = 1 and > 0 is the arrival

i=1

rate of batches.

The server provides two types of service, type 1 and type 2, with the

service times having general distribution. Let Bi (v) and bi (v) ( i =1, 2)

be the distribution and the density function of the type 1 and type 2

service respectively.

Just before the service of a customer starts he may choose type 1 service

with probability p1 or type 2 service with probability p2 , where p1 +p2 = 1

bution function Bi (s) and density function bi (s). Let i (x)dx be the

conditional probability density of service completion during the interval

(x, x + dx], given that the elapsed time is x, so that

bi (x)

i (x) = , i = 1, 2.

1 Bi (x)

and therefore,

s

i (x)dx

bi (s) = i(s)e 0 , i = 1, 2.

2602 G. Ayyppan, K. Sathiya and A. Muthu Ganapathy Subramanian

If there are no customers waiting in the system then the server goes

for vacation with random duration. On returning from vacation, if the

server again nds no customer waiting in the system, then the server

continues to go for vacation until he nds at least one customer in the

system. Here the server takes multiple vacation.

distribution function V(t) and density function v(t). Let (x)dx be the

conditional probability of a completion of a vacation during the interval

(x, x + dx] given that the elapsed vacation time is x, so that

v(x)

(x) =

1 V (x)

and therefore,

t

(x)dx

v(t) = (t)e 0 .

The system may break down at random, and breakdowns are assumed to

occur according to a Poisson stream with mean breakdown rate > 0.

Further we assume that once the system breaks down, the customer

whose service is interrupted comes back to the head of the queue. Once

the system breaks down, it enters a repair process immediately. The

repair times are exponentially distributed with mean repair rate > 0.

batches are allowed to join the system at all times. Let (0 1) and

(0 1) be the probability that an arriving batch will be allowed

to join the system during the period of servers non-vacation period and

vacation period respectively.

independent of each other.

Let NQ (t) denote the queue size( excluding one in service) at time t. We

introduce the

random variable Y(t) as follows

1 if the server is busy with rst type of service at time t

Y (t) = 2 if the server is busy with second type of service at time t

3 if the server is on vacation at time t

We introduce the supplementary variable as,

M [x] /G/1 Queue with random breakdowns, multiple vacation 2603

0

B1 (t) if Y(t)=1

L(t) = B 0 (t) if Y(t)=2

20

V (t) if Y(t)=3

where

B10 (t) = elapsed service time for the rst type of service at time t,

B20 (t) = elapsed service time for the second type of service at time t,

0

V (t) = elapsed vacation time of the server at time t.

The process {NQ (t), L(t) } is a continuous time Markov process. we dene

the probabilities for i = 1,2.

(i)

Pn (x, t) = P rob{NQ (t) = n, L(t) = Bi0 (t); x < Bi0 (t) x + dx}, x > 0, n 0

Vn (x, t) = P rob{NQ (t) = n, L(t) = V 0 (t); x < V 0 (t) x + dx}, x > 0, n 0

In steady state condition, we have

(i) (i)

Pn (x)dx = lim Pn (x, t)dx, i = 1, 2 x > 0; n 0

t

Vn (x)dx = lim Vn (x, t)dx, x > 0; n 0

t

Rn = lim Rn (t)

t

We dene

(1)

Pn (x, t): Pr {at time t, the server is active providing service and there are

n (n 0) customers in the queue excluding the one customer in the rst

type of service being served and the elapsed service time for this customer is

(1) (1)

x}. Pn (t) = Pn (x, t)dx denotes the probability that at time t there are

0

n customers in the queue excluding one customer in the rst type of service

irrespective of the value of x.

(2)

Pn (x, t): Pr {at time t, the server is active providing service and there are

n (n 0) customers in the queue excluding the one customer in the second

type of service being served and the elapsed service time for this customer is

(2) (2)

x}. Pn (t) = Pn (x, t)dx denotes the probability that at time t there are n

0

customers in the queue excluding one customer in the second type of service

irrespective of the value of x.

Vn (x, t): Pr{ at time t, the server is on vacation with elapsed vacation time x

and there are n (n 0) customers in the queue}. Vn (t) = Vn (x, t)dx denotes

0

the probability that at time t there are n customers in the queue and the server

is on vacation irrespective of the value of x.

Rn (t): Pr{ at time t, the server is inactive due to system breakdown and the

system is under repair, while there are n (n 0) customers in the queue}.

2604 G. Ayyppan, K. Sathiya and A. Muthu Ganapathy Subramanian

The model is then, governed by the following set of dierential- dierence

equations:

d (1) (1) (1)

P0 (x) + [ + 1 (x) + ]P0 (x) = (1 )P0 (x) (1)

dx

d (1) (1) (1)

Pn (x) + [ + 1 (x) + ]Pn(1) (x) = (1 )P(n) (x) + nk=1 Ck Pnk (x), n 1

dx

(2)

P0 (x) + [ + 2 (x) + ]P0 (x) = (1 )P0 (x) (3)

dx

d (2) (2)

Pn (x) + [ + 2 (x) + ]Pn(2) (x) = (1 )Pn(2)(x) + nk=1 Ck Pnk (x), n 1

dx

(4)

d

V0 (x) + [ + (x)]V0 (x) = (1 )V0 (x) (5)

dx

d

Vn (x) + [ + (x)]Vn (x) = (1 )Vn (x) + nk=1 Ck Vnk (x) (6)

dx

( + )R0 = 0 (7)

(1) (2)

( + )Rn = nk=1 Ck Rnk + Pn1 (x)dx + Pn1 (x)dx (8)

0 0

Equations are to be solved subject to the following boundary conditions:

(1) (1)

Pn (0) = p1 (x)Vn+1 (x)dx + p1 1 (x)Pn+1 (x)dx

0 0

(2)

+ p1 2 (x)Pn+1 (x)dx + p1 Rn+1 , n 0 (9)

0

(1)

Pn(2)(0) = p2 (x)Vn+1 (x)dx + p2 1 (x)Pn+1 (x)dx

0 0

(2)

+ p2 2 (x)Pn+1 (x)dx + p2 Rn+1 , n 0 (10)

0

(1)

V0 (0) = (x)V0 (x)dx + 1 (x)P0 (x)dx

0 0

(2)

+ 2 (x)P0 (x)dx + R0 (11)

0

Vn (0) = 0, n 1 (12)

M [x] /G/1 Queue with random breakdowns, multiple vacation 2605

We dene the probability generating functions,

(1)

P (x, z) = z n

Pn(1) (x); P (1)

(z) = Pn(1) (x)dx, |z| 1, x > 0 (13)

n=0 n=0

(2)

P (x, z) = z n

Pn(2) (x); P (2)

(z) = Pn(2) (x)dx, |z| 1, x > 0 (14)

n=0 n=0

V (x, z) = n

z Vn (x); V (z) = Vn (x)dx, |z| 1, x > 0 (15)

n=0 n=0

R(z) = z n Rn ; C(z) = cn z n (16)

n=0 n=1

Now multiplying equation (1), (3) and (5) by suitable powers of z , adding

(2), (4) and (6) and summing over n from 0 to and using the generating

function dened in (13), (14), (15) and (16), we get

d (1)

P (x, z) + [(1 C(z)) + + 1 (x)]P (1) (x, z) = 0 (17)

dx

d (2)

P (x, z) + [(1 C(z)) + + 2 (x)]P (2) (x, z) = 0 (18)

dx

d

V (x, z) + [(1 C(z)) + (x)]V (x, z) = 0 (19)

dx

Integrating equation (17), (18) and (19) with respect to x, we have

2606 G. Ayyppan, K. Sathiya and A. Muthu Ganapathy Subramanian

Now multiplying equation (7) by suitable powers of z and adding equation (8)

summing over n from 0 to and using equation (20) and (21), we get

nz (1)

[(1 c(z)) + ]R(z) = {P (0, z)[1 B1 (R)] + P (2)(0, z)[1 B2 (R)]}

R

(23)

Multiplying equations (9) and (10) by z n and sum over n from 0 to , we get

+ p1 R(z) p1 V0 (0) (24)

+ p2 R(z) p2 V0 (0) (25)

Multiplying equation (12) by z n and adding (11) and summing over n, we get

(27)

(28)

z[1 (p1 B1 (R) + p2 B2 (R))][V (T ) 1]V0 (0)

R(z) = (29)

D(z)

where

z[1 (p1 B1 (R) + p2 B2 (R))] (30)

Rp1 [V (T ) 1][(1 C(z)) + ]V0 (0)

P (1) (0, z) = (31)

D(z)

P (2) (0, z) = (32)

D(z)

M [x] /G/1 Queue with random breakdowns, multiple vacation 2607

P (1)(z) = (33)

D(z)

where B1 (R) = 0 eRx dB1 (x) is the Laplace transform of rst phase of ser-

vice time .

After integrating equation (21) with respect to x, we have

Rp2 [V (T ) 1][(1 C(z)) + ][1 B2 (R)]V0 (0)

P (2)(z) = (34)

D(z)

and B2 (R) = 0 eRx dB2 (x) is the Laplace transform of second phase of

service time.

After integrating equation (22) with respect to x, we have

[1 V (T )]

V (z) = V0 (0) (35)

T

where V (T ) = 0 eT x dV (x) is the Laplace transform of vacation time.

In order to determine P (1) (z), P (2) (z), V(z), R(z) completely, we have yet to

determine the unknown V0 (0) which appears in the numerator of the right

sides of equations (29), (33), (34) and (35). For that purpose, we shall use the

normalizing condition

(1) p1 C (1)(1 B1 ())V (0)

P (1) = V0 (0) (37)

dr

(2) p2 C (1)(1 B2 ())V (0)

P (1) = V0 (0) (38)

dr

C (1)[1 (p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ())]V (0)

R(1) = V0 (0) (39)

dr

V (1) = V (0)V0 (0) (40)

P (1) (1), P (2)(1), V(1), R(1) denote the steady state probabilities that the server

is providing rst type of service, second type of service, server on vacation and

2608 G. Ayyppan, K. Sathiya and A. Muthu Ganapathy Subramanian

server under repair without regard to the number of customers in the queue.

Now using equation (37), (38), (39) and (40) into the normalizing condition

(36) and simplifying, we obtain

V0 (0) = (41)

dr1

dr1 = V (0)[1(p1 B1 ()+p2 B2 ())][C (1)(()+(1))+]V (0)

and hence, the utilization factor of the system is given by

( + )C (1)[1 p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ()]

= (42)

[1 p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ()][C (1)(( ) + (1 )) + ]

where < 1 is the stability condition under which the steady states exits.

Let Pq (z) denote the probability generating function of the queue size irre-

spective of the server state. Then adding equation (29), (33), (34) and (35)

we obtain

N(z) 1 V (T )

Pq (z) = +( )V0 (0) (43)

D(z) T

and D(z) is given in the equation (30). Substituting for V0 (0) from (41) into

(43), we have completely explicitely determined the probability generating

function of the queue size.

size

Let Lq the denote the mean number of customers in the queue under the steady

state. Then we have

d

Lq = Pq (z) at z = 1

dz

Lq = lim V 0 (0) + V0 (0) (44)

z1 2D (1)2 2

M [x] /G/1 Queue with random breakdowns, multiple vacation 2609

where primes and double primes in (44) denote rst and second derivative at

z = 1, respectively. Carrying out the derivative at z = 1 we have

N (1) = C (1)( + )V (0)[1 (p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ())] (45)

N (1) = [1 (p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ())][2 2(C (1))2 ( + )V (0)

V (0)( + )C (1) + 2C (1)( C (1))]

22 (C (1))2 ( + )V (0)[p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ()] (46)

2( + )C (1)[1 + (p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ())]

2C (1))(p1 B1 () + p2 B2 ()) (48)

Then if we substitute the values from (45), (46), (47) and (48) into (44) we

obtain Lq in the closed form. Further we nd the mean system size L using

Littles formula. Thus we have

L = Lq + (49)

where Lq has been found by equation (44) and is obtained from equation

(42).

7 Conclusion

In this paper we have studied an M [x] /G/1 queue with two types of service

subject to breakdown and repair having multiple vacation and restricted ad-

missibility. The probability generating function of the number of customers in

the queue is found using the supplementary variable technique. This model

can be utilized in large scale manufacturing industries and communication net-

works.

Acknowledgements. The authors are thankful to the referees for their valu-

able comments and suggestions which have helped in improving the quality of

this paper.

References

[1] A. Aissani and J.R. Artalejo, On the single server retrial queue subject

to breakdowns, Queueing Systems, 30 (1998), 309 - 321.

2610 G. Ayyppan, K. Sathiya and A. Muthu Ganapathy Subramanian

generalised vacation, Sankhya Ser.B, 59 (1997), 369 - 383.

[3] G. Choudhury and K.C. Madan, A batch arrival Bernoulli vacation queue

with random set up time under restricted admissibility policy, Interna-

tional Journal of Operations Research, USA,2 (2007), 81 - 97.

queue with two phases of service and Bernoulli vacation under multiple

vacation policy, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 31 (2007), 1079 - 1091.

[5] B.T. Doshi, Queueing system with vacation-a survey, Queueing Systems,

1 (1986), 29 - 66.

[6] S. Hur and S. Ahn, Batch arrival queues with vacations and server setup,

Applied Mathematical Modelling, 29 (2005), 1164 - 1181.

[7] V.G. Kulkarni and B.D. Choi, Retrial queues with server subject to break-

downs and repairs, Queueing Systems, 7 (1990), 191 - 209.

[8] K.C. Madan, W. Abu-Dayyeh and M.F. Saleh, An M/G/1 queue with

second optional servive and Bernoulli schedule server vacations, Systems

Science, 28 (2002), 51 - 62.

[9] K.C. Madan and R.F. Anabosi, A single server queue with two types of

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Pakistan Journal of Statistics, 19 (2003), 331 - 342.

[10] F.A. Maraghi, K.C. Madan and K.D. Dowman, Batch arrival queueing

system with random breakdowns and Bernoulli schedule server vacations

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and Management Sciences, 20 (2009), 55-70.

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ence, 6 (2012), 6221-6240.

[12] T. Takine and B. Sengupta, A single server queue with service interrup-

tions, Queueing Systems, 26 (1997), 285-300.

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[14] N. Tian and Z.G. Zhang, The discrete time GI/Geo/1 queue with multiple

vacations, Queueing Systems, 40 (2002), 283-294.

M [x] /G/1 Queue with random breakdowns, multiple vacation 2611

[15] J. Wang, J. Cao and Q. Li, Reliability analysis of the retrial queue with

server breakdowns and repairs, Queueing Systems, 38 (2001), 363-380.

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