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Introduction - definition and meaning of terms used in illumination

engineering - classification of light sources - incandescent lamps, sodium
vapour lamps, mercury vapour lamps, fluorescent lamps design of
illumination systems - indoor lighting schemes - factory lighting halls -
outdoor lighting schemes - flood lighting - street lighting - energy saving
lamps, LED.
Light is a form of electromagnetic energy radiated from a body which is
capable of being perceived by the human eye.

The speed of all EM waves is 3108 m/s in free space.

The velocity of the waves depends on wavelength and frequency

Since wave lengths of light are very short, smaller unit of length called
Angstrom () 1 Angstrom = 10-10 m
A list of colours with wavelength
Colours Wavelength in
Violet 4100
Blue 4700
Green 5500
Yellow 5800
Red 6000
Orange 6100

Requirements of good lighting system:

1. Adequate illumination of suitable colour on the working surfaces.
2. Good maintenance
3. Avoidance of hard shadows
4. Avoid glare
Important definitions related to illumination
Plane angle ():
A plane angle is subtended at a point and is enclosed by two straight
line lying in the same plane. Its magnitude is given by
Solid angle ():
A solid angle is the angle generated by the surface passing through
the point in space and the periphery of the area.
The largest solid angle at a point due to a sphere at the centre, and is equal to
4 stredians
The radiant energy from a hot body which produces the visual sensation
upon the human eye.
Luminous flux (F):
The total quantity of light energy emitted per second from a luminous
body is called luminous flux. The unit is lumen.
Luminous intensity I:
Luminous intensity in a given direction is the luminous flux emitted
by the source per unit solid angle
I lumens / stredian

Lumen: It is the unit of luminous flux and is defined as the amount of
luminous flux given out in a space represented by one unit solid angle.
Candle power:
It is defined as the number of lumens emitted by a source in a unit
solid angle in a given direction. It is denoted as C.P

It is the luminous flux received by a surface per unit area. It is
denoted by E and is measured in lumens per square metre.
E lumens / m 2
Mean horizontal candle power (MHCP):
It is defined as the mean of candle power in all direction in the
horizontal plane containing the source of light.
Mean spherical candle power (MSCP):
It is defined as the mean of candle power in all direction in the all
plane from the source of light.

Mean hemi-spherical candle power (MSHP:

It is defined as the mean of all candle power in all direction above or
below the horizontal plane from the source of light.
Reduction factor:
Re ductionfactor
Lamp efficiency:
It is defined as the ratio of the luminous flux to the power input. It is
expressed in lumens per watt.

Space-height ratio:
It is defined as the ratio of horizontal distance between adjacent lamps
and height of their mountings

Utilisation factor:
The ratio of total lumens reaching the working plane to the total
lumens given out by the lamp is called utilisation factor.

Maintenance factor:
It is the ratio of illumination under normal working conditions to the
illumination when the things are perfectly clean.
Depreciation factor.
It is the reverse of maintenance factor.

Waste light factor:

Whenever a surface is illuminated by a number of sources of light, there is
always a certain amount of waste light on account of overlapping and falling of light
outside at the edges of the surface.

Absorption factor:
The ratio of total lumens available after absorption to the total lumens
emitted by the source of light is called absorption factor.

Beam factor:
The ratio of lumens in the beam of a projector to the lumens given out by
lamp is called beam factor.

Reflection factor:
The ratio of reflected light to the incident light is called reflection factor.

It is defined as the brightness within the field of vision.
Laws of illumination

The illumination E of a surface depends upon the following laws

Illumination E is directly proportional to luminous intensity I of the source.
Inverse square law:
This law states that the Illumination (E) of a surface is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between the source and surface.
E 2
Lamberts cosine law.
According to this law, E is directly proportional to the cosine of the
angle made by the normal to the illuminated surface with the direction of the
incident flux.
Illumination at any point on the plane surface due to light source
suspended at height h from the surface
Polar Curves
The luminous intensity in most lamps or sources of light is not the same in all
directions, because of unsymmetrical shape.

The luminous intensity in all the directions can be represented by polar curves.

(i) Horizontal polar curve

(ii) Vertical polar curve

Horizontal polar curve:

If the luminous intensity i.e, candle power is measured in a horizontal
plane about vertical axis and a curve is plotted between the candle power
and the angular position, a horizontal polar curve is obtained.

Vertical polar curve:

If a candle power is measured at angular position in a vertical plane, a
polar curve in vertical plane called vertical polar curve,
Polar curves are used for determining the following:
1. M.H.C.P and M.S.C.P
2. Actual illumination of a surface by employing the candle power in that
particular direction as read from the vertical polar curve in illumination
The candle power of a source in any direction is measured by comparison with
standard or substandard source employing photometer bench and some form of

The photometer head or screen is moved in between the two fixed sources
until the illumination on both sides of the screen is same.
Classification of light sources
The different methods of producing light by electricity may be divided into the
following three groups
1. By temperature incandescence:
Example: Incandescent tungsten filament lamps
2. By establishing an arc between two carbon electrodes:
Example: Carbon arc lamp, flame arc lamp, magnetic arc lamp.
3. Discharge lamp:
Example: Fluorescent lamp, mercury vapour lamp, sodium vapour
lamp, neon gas lamp
Incandescent lamp

Materials used for incandescent lamp:

Carbon, tantalum, tungsten
Ideal material has some requirement.
1. High melting point
2. Low vapour pressure
3. High resistivity
4. Low temperature coefficient
5. Ductility
6. Sufficient mechanical strength
Arc lamps
These lamps are used in searchlights, projection lamps, other special purpose
lamp those in flash cameras.

The various form of arc lamp:

1. Carbon arc lamp
2. Flame arc lamp
3. Magnetic arc lamp

A resistance is used to stabilize the arc.

The voltage drop across the arc is about 60 V.
Discharge Lamps:
An electric current is passed through a gas or vapour which renders it
The colours of light produced depends on the nature of gas or vapour.
1. Neon discharge fields orange -red light
2. Mercury discharge light is always bluish
3. Sodium vapour light is orange-yellow

The discharge lamps are superior to metal filament lamps, however, they have
the following demerits:
1. High initial cost
2. Poor power factor
3. Starting being somewhat difficult, requires starters/ transformers in
different cases.
4. Time is needed to attain full brilliancy
5. Stroboscopic effect
6. Suitable for a particular position.
Sodium vapour lamp:
* This type of lamp is low intensity, so the length of this lamp is large.
* Two oxide coated electrodes are sealed with the ends.
* Tube contains a little sodium and neon gas
* Capacitor is connected to improve power factor
* Before starting the sodium is in the form of solid, deposited on the sides of
the tube walls. The lamp gets warmed sodium is vapourised and it radiated
yellow light
* 10-15 minutes, the lamp starts giving full light.
* High voltage (380 V for 40 W and 450 V for 100 W) is required to start the
lamp, these voltage are obtained from high reactance transformer
* Starting pink after 10-15 minutes light yellow
High pressure mercury vapour lamp:
* Two bulbs an arc tube containing the electric discharge and outer bulb
which protects the arc tube from changes in temperature.
* Arc-tube contains mercury and argon gas
* An auxiliary electrode connected through a high resistance about 50k
* The choke is provided to limit the current to a safe value. This choke lowers
the power factor, so capacitor is connected across the supply.

Lamp efficiency is 30-40


Industrial lighting, railway

yards, ports, work areas,
shopping centres etc.
Neon lamp:
* The electrodes are in the form of iron shells and are coated on the
* Colour of light is red. Helium gas is used instead of neon, pinkish
white light is obtained.
* Efficiency of neon lamp lies between 15-40 lumens/watt.
* Neon tubes are used for the purpose of advertising.
Fluorescent lamp:
* Fluorescent lamp has a great advantages over other light sources in many
* The tubes can be obtained in a variety of lengths, with illumination in a
variety of colours.
* Efficiency is about 40 lumens/watt.
* Low pressure mercury vapour lamp.
* Long tube coated inside with phosphor. Tube contains a small amount of
mercury and a small quantity of argon gas at a pressure of
2.5 mm.
* Choke provides a voltage impulse for starting the lamp.
Stroboscopic effect:

* Flickering effect produced by the lamp is due to periodic fluctuations

in the light output of a lamp caused by the cyclic variations of the
current on A.C. Circuits.
* This phenomenon creates multiple-image appearance of moving
objects and make the movement appear jerky.
* The frequency of flickering is twice that of the supply frequency.

The stroboscopic effect can be minimized by:

1. By using three lamps on the separate phases of a 3 phase supply.
2. By using twin lamps on a single phase supply, one of the chokes
having a capacitor in series with it and the lamp.
3. Operating the lamp from a high frequency supply.
Fluorecent lamp with DC supply
Lighting Schemes:
A good lighting scheme results in an attractive and commanding
presence of objects and enhances the architectural style of the interior of a

Direct Lighting:
* It is commonly used type of lighting schemes.
* 90 % of total light flux is made to fall directly on the working
* Mainly used in industrial and general outdoor lighting
Semi-direct Lighting:
* 60 to 90 % of the total light flux is made to fall downwards directly
with the help of semi-direct reflector
* Best suited in room with high ceiling

Indirect Lighting:
* 90 % of total light flux is thrown upwards to the ceiling . In such as
system ceiling act as the light source.
* Glare is minimized.

General diffusion lighting:

* Lamps are made with diffusing glass are used to give equal
illumination in all directions.
Design of lighting Scheme:
Characteristics of good lighting scheme:
1. It should provide adequate illumination.
2. It should provide light distribution all over the working plane
as uniform as possible.
3. It should avoid glare and hard shadows.
4. It should provide light of suitable colour.

Factors to be considered for designing the lighting scheme:

1. Intensity of illumination.
2. Selection of luminaries
3. Size of the room.
4. Mounting height and spacing of fittings
5. Conditions of use.
Factors to be considered for designing the lighting scheme:
1. Intensity of illumination.
2. Selection of luminaires:
Light fitting which distributes, filters or transforms the light given by a lamp or

3. Size of the room:

The lumen output of the sources is not fully utilized at the work place. Part of light is
lost in fittings.
This is taken into account by a factor known as utilisation factor.

Coefficient of utilization depends on the following factors:

1. Lumen output of the fitting.
2. Size and shape of the room.
3. Reflection factors of walls and ceiling
4. Height of the ceiling
5. Arrangement of the fitting etc.

4.Mounting height and spacing of fittings

5.Conditions of use.
Methods of lighting Calculations:
1. Watt per square metre method.
2. Lumens or light flux method.
3. Point to point or Inverse square law method
1. Watt per square metre method.
This method is very handy for rough calculation
Watt per square metre of area to be illuminated according to the
illumination standard

2. Lumen or light flux method.

Total lumens received on working plane= No of lamps Wattage of
each lamp efficiency of each lamp coefficient of utilisation
Maintenance factor
3. Inverse square law method:
The illumination at any point within the range of the lamp can be
calculated from the inverse square law.
If two or more than two lamps are illuminating the same working plane ,
the illumination due to each can be calculated and added.
Calculation of illumination:
The following formula can be used to calculate the illumination.
Design of Street lighting
The following main objectives:

1. To make the traffic and obstructions on the road clearly visible in order
to promote safety and convenience.
2. To enhance the community value of the street.
3. To make the street more attractive.

Two general principles are employed in the design of street lighting

1. Diffusion principle
2. Specular reflection principle
1. Diffusion principle

2. Specular reflection principle

Factory Lighting
Adequate amount of light in industry produces the following good effects
1. The productivity of labour is increased.
2. The quality of work is improved.
3. Number of work stoppages are reduced.
4. Accidents are reduced.

The following main objectives:

1. Adequate illumination.
2. Good distribution of light.
3. Simple and easy cleaned fitting.
4. Avoid glare.

General consideration:
1. The usual scheme is to mount a number of lamps at a sufficient height so
that uniform distribution of light can be obtained.
2. If fairly intense illumination is required. Local lighting can be provided by
means of adjustable fittings attached to the machine.
3. It is desirable to provide auxilary lighting system supplied by battery
Reflectors for industrial purposes must be simple in design and easily cleaned.
The following types of fittings:
1. Industrial lighting fittings.
2. Standard reflectors.
3. Diffussing fittings.
4. Concentrating reflectors.
5. Enclosed diffusing fittings
6. Angle reflectors.
Flood Lighting
The flooding of large surfaces with light from powerful projectors is called
flood lighting. It may be employed for following purposes.
1. To enhance the beauty of ancient monuments by night.
2. To illuminate advertisement boards and show cases.
3. To illuminate railway yards, sport stadium, car parks, construction sites, etc

Flood lights can be placed on the other buildings nearby or on suitable posts at
a distance of not more than 60 metres.

Light should fall nearly perpendicular to the building.

Floor lights should be so located that contours and features of the building are
well defined.

The projectors should not be visible to the passer by. In some cases projectors
may be housed in ornamental stands.

Narrow beam projectors. Beyond 70 m, beam spread 12-25o

Medium angle projector 30-70 m, beam spread 25-40o
Wide angle projectors- less than 30 m , beam spread 40-90o