You are on page 1of 5

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 4 Issue: 6 606 610


____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
A Study of Swelling Pressure of Soil along Left Bank Canal of BARGI Dam

Rohit Kumar Singh Rakesh Grover A.K. Singhai


M.E.(Geotech) Scholar, Associate Prof.,Dept. Of Civil Associate Prof. Dept. of Civil
Jabalpur Engineering Engineering Engineering,
College,Gokalpur,Jabalpur(M.P.) Jabalpur Engineering Jabalpur Engineering
Email Id:- College,Gokalpur,Jabalpur(M.P.) College,Gokalpur, Jabalpur, India
singhrohitkumar1989@gmail.com Email Id:- Email id:-
rakesh.grover11@gmail.com aksgec@gmail.com

Abstract: -An expansive soil attracts and accumulates water a pressure known as swelling or expansion pressure builds up in the soil and it is
exerted on the overlying materials and structures if they are any. On the other hand, tests to determine index properties are quite simple and less
expensive. A correlation for the quick analysis of swell pressure of soil from the graph generated between different soil engineering parameters
such as (OMC, MDD, PI, ACTIVITY OF SOIL and RL) and SWELLING PRESSURE1( inKPa). In this study, an attempt is made to correlate
swell pressure with reduced depth of the location along the left bank canal.

Keywords:-Swelling Pressure1, Plasticity Index2,Activity3


__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION II. METHODOLOGY

As canals are having increase in demands for land. Due to The relationship between the index properties and swelling
this we need to study and analyze the soil engineering characteristic of expansive soils is examined. The earlier
parameters on which dams are going to be constructed. We studies showed that an increase in dry density and plasticity
have to check for unsuitable grounds such as soft and index of the soil cause an increase in swell pressure, while a
expansive soils before any start of a civil project. The decrease in natural moisture content cause an increase in
swelling pressure of an expansive soil is not a unique swell pressure. The process of swelling and shrinking is a
property but is influenced by a number of factors such as cyclic behavior and continues for many years. Thus, when
initial density and water content, a method of compaction, the expansive soils are present behind hydraulic structures,
soil structure, availability of water, electrolyte concentration traditional lateral earth pressures cannot be used to estimate
in the water, confining surcharge and specimen size. The total pressures acting on the retaining structure. In this
higher the initial dry density the greater is the swelling study, a new proposed method developed to predict potential
pressure. The drier the soil before the start of expansion the swell pressures and to use in the design of canals. A
higher will be swelling pressure. Swelling Pressure is parametric study performed to study the effect of swell
necessary for estimation of heave and for safe and economic pressures on the canals constructed on expansive soils. The
design of Canal linings. The objective of this study is to parametric study results show that based on the soil
assess the degree of association between Swelling Pressure propertiesthe expansive soils can significantly affect the
and each of the influencing parameters namely Liquid limit design of hydraulic structures. More importantly, ignoring
(LL), Plasticity Index (PI) and Maximum Dry Density the effect of expansive soils on retaining walls would result
(MDD), Optimum moisture content (OMC). The basic fact in under design and unsafe structures. In addition, it was
that both Atterberg limits and Engineering properties are comparing between the proposed swell pressure method and
dependent upon composition of the soil. The study area is the constant swell pressure method, the different between
soil of left bank canal of Bargi dam. Test reports data those methods, the previous method (constant swell pressure
collected from Q/C office of Rani Avanti Bai Lodhi Sagar method) did not consider the changing in plasticity index
Pariyojana Bargi Hills, Jabalpur are analyzed for its grain and the moisture content. On the other hand, the proposed
size distribution, Atterbergs limit, Standard Proctor method takes in the account the changing in each of
Compaction, swelling pressure can bedetermined by using plasticity index and the moisture content that play important
one-consolidometer test. roles in the swell pressure.So in order to know the swelling
pressure (KPa) of the soil adjacent to the L.B.C. of Rani
Avanti Bai Lodhi Sagar Pariyojana we need know about
various soil parameters and procedure i.e., going to be used.

606
IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169
Volume: 4 Issue: 6 606 610
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The various soil parameters used to set relation with [2] PI: The plasticity index (PI) is a measure of
swelling pressure are been explained below: the plasticity of a soil. The plasticity index is the size of the
[1] OMC: The Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) is range of water contents where the soil exhibits plastic
themoisture content that leads to the maximum soil density properties. The PI is the difference between the liquid limit
under the particular test conditions. It is a function of the and the plastic limit (PI = LL-PL).
soil type, and may be determined by the Modified or
Standard Proctor density tests.

Classification Plasticity index (%) Liquid limit (%)


Non-expansive 0-6 0-25
Low < 25 25-50
Marginal 25-35 50-60
High > 35 > 60

LL : The liquid limit is the water content at which a soil is [3]MDD: The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory
practically in liquid state but has infinitesimal resistance method of experimentally determining the optimal moisture
against flow which can be measured by any standardized content at which a given soil type will become most dense
procedure. With reference to one such standard procedure and achieve its maximum dry density.
the liquid limit is defined as the water content at which a
groove cut in a pat of soil by a grooving tool of standard [4]ACTIVITY: The amount of retained water or state of
dimensions will flow together for a distance of13 mm under water in soil mass depends upon available clay mineral in
the impact of 25 blows in a standard liquid limit device. soil. Activity of a soil assesses capacity of soil to hold water.
Obviously this term is applicable for clayey soil.

Where base elevation which is used as reference to reckon heights


P.I = plasticity index (%) or depths of other important places.
C = the percentage clay size finer than 0.002 mm III. RESULT
[5] RL: TheReduced Level in surveying refers to equating Relations and equationsbetweenswelling pressure and
elevations of survey points with reference to a common various soil engineering properties (such as
assumed datum. It is a vertical distance between survey RL,MDD,ACTIVITY,P.I. and OMC).
point and adopted datum plane. Thus it is considered as the

607
IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169
Volume: 4 Issue: 6 606 610
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
In the first step we set up a relationshipbetween swelling Equation generated is given as
pressures (Kpa) vs reduced level (KM).
y = 0.0203x-7.7195 , where y = swelling pressure

R2=0.1624 R2= coefficient of correlation

0.2
0.18
SWELLING PRESSURE KPa

0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08 SP
0.06 y = -0.253x + 0.651 Linear (SP)
R = 0.708
0.04
0.02
0
1.85 1.9 1.95 2 2.05 2.1 2.15 2.2
MDD g/cc

In the above equation we can get thedifferent values of y In the second step we will set up relationship between
i.e., swelling pressure in Kpa by for different values of x. swelling pressure and maximum dry density(g/cc).
Equation generated is given as
y=-0.2539x+0.6513 where y= swelling pressure

R2=0.7087 R2=coefficient of correlation

0.2
0.18
SWELLING PRESSURE KPa

0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08 y = 0.020x - 7.719 SP
R = 0.162
0.06 Linear (SP)
0.04
0.02
0
385 385.5 386 386.5 387
RL IN KM

From the above equation we can find different values of In the third step we will set up a relationship between
swelling pressure for different values of x. swellingpressure vs activity of soil.
Equation generated is given as

y= -0.007x+0.1595 where y= swelling pressure


608
IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169
Volume: 4 Issue: 6 606 610
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
R2=0.3326 R2=coefficient of correlation

0.2
0.18
SWELLING PRESSURE KPa

0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08 SP
0.06 y = -0.007x + 0.159 Linear (SP)
0.04 R = 0.332
0.02
0
0 2 4 6 8
ACTIVITY

From the above relationship we can find different values of In the fourth step we will set up a relationship between
swelling pressure for different values of x. swelling pressure vs plasticity index.
We can also comment that as the plasticity index increases Equation generated is given as
swelling pressure increases.
y=0.014x-0.0797 where y= swelling pressure
R2=0.6059 R2=coefficient of correlation

0.2
0.18
SWELLING PRESSURE KPa

0.16
0.14
0.12
y = 0.014x - 0.079
0.1
R = 0.605
0.08 SP
0.06 Linear (SP)
0.04
0.02
0
0 5 10 15 20
PI

From the above equation we can find different values of In the fifth step we will set up a relationship between
swelling pressure for different values of x. swelling pressure andoptimum moisture content.
We can also comment that as the plasticity index increases Equation is given as
swelling pressure increases.

y=0.015x-0.0428 where y= swelling pressure


R2=0.7448 2
R =coefficient of correlation

609
IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169
Volume: 4 Issue: 6 606 610
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

0.2
0.18 y = 0.015x - 0.042
SWELLING PRESSURE KPa

0.16 R = 0.744
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08 SP
0.06 Linear (SP)
0.04
0.02
0
0 5 10 15
OMC %

From the above equation we get different values of swelling compacted high plasticity clays, Engineering Geology
pressure for different values of x. Journal, 104-3, 200210.
We can also say that as omc increases swelling pressure also [5] Holtz, W. G. and Gibbs, H. J; 1956. Engineering properties
of swelling clays, Transaction ASCE, 121, 641677.
increases.
[6] Huang and Wu; 2007. Stability analysis of unsaturated
IV. CONCLUSION
expansive soil slope, Earth ScienceFrontiers 14-6, 129133.
The above relationships between SWELLING PRESSURE
[7] Murthy V.N.S.; Soil Mechanics and Foundation
vs various soil engineering properties (such as Engineering: CBS Publication.
RL,MDD,PI,ACTIVITY and OMC). It will help us to find [8] Okagbue; 1990. Expansive soils in Engineering
out the swelling pressure against various values of x Construction: a review of practices, Mining andGeology
.Equations are generated for different values of y with help Journal, 2, 123129.
of graphs and coefficient of correlation i.e., R2 is also [9] Punmia B.C.; Soil Mechanics and Fondation Engineering:
generated. Above relation will be used to calculate swelling Laxmi Publications.
pressure along L.B.C. of Rani AvantiBai Lodhi Sagar [10] Sridharan, A., Gurtug, Y; 2003. Swelling behaviour of
Pariyojana. Graphsshowing the variation of swelling compacted fine-grained soils, Engineering Geology
Journal, 72, 9-18.
pressure with respect to various soil engineering properties.
[11] Shi, B., Jiang, H., Liu, Z., and Fang, H.Y;
2002.Engineering and geological characteristics of swelling
REFRENCES soils in China, Engineering Geology Journal, Volume 67,
[1] Chen, F. H; 1975. Foundation on swelling soils, 6371.
Development on Geotechnical Engineering Elsevier [12] Singh Alam; Modern Geotechnical Engineering: 3rd edition:
Scientific Co, Amsterdam, 150-158. CBS Publication.
[2] Das Braja Mohan; Principles of Geotechnical Engineering: [13] Singh Alam; Soil Engineering:Theory & Practice
7edition: Cengage Learning Publishers. vol1:Fundamental and General Principles,4e:CBS
[3] Ene and Okagbuea; 2009. Some basic geotechnical Publication.
properties of expansive soil modified using pyroclastic [14] Xu, Yongfu. Bearing Capacity of Unsaturated Expansive
dust, Engineering Geology Journal, 107, 61-65. Soils. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 22:611-
[4] Ferber, V., Auriol, J.C., Cui, Y. J. and Magnan, J. P; 2009. 625, (2004).
On the swelling potential of

610
IJRITCC | June 2016, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________