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COURSENOTES

Per
macul
tur
eDes
ignCer
tif
icat
e(PDC)Cour
se

CHAPTERTHREE METHODSOFDESI
GN
OBSERVI
NGBEFOREWEDESI
GN manycomponent
saspos
sibl
e,f
rom l
arge
s
truct
uresl
i
kehous
esandgl
ass
hous
est
o
I
nthi
schapt
er,
webegi
ntoi
nvol
veour
sel
vesi
n
ani
mal
sandt
hei
rhabi
tatneedst
ofoodf
ores
ts
act
ual
des
ignpr
oces
ses
.Youl
ear
ntoanal
yzewhat
andpas
tur
es,
onevent
othi
ngsl
i
kel
abor
,sk
il
ls
,
component
sshoul
dgoi
ntoades
ign,
how nat
ural
andi
ncome.
From t
hisl
i
st,
wecanbegi
nto
s
yst
emscanands
houl
dbei
ncl
uded,
andwher
e
devel
opus
eful
connect
sforanef
fi
ci
entdes
ign.
t
hes
ethi
ngsar
ebes
tpos
iti
onedont
hes
iteasa
Then,
wemus
tact
.
hol
i
sti
cal
l
yengagedenvi
ronment
.Youbecome
awar
ethenat
ural
evol
uti
ont
hathappensont
he Ons
iteobs
ervat
ioni
sak
eyt
ool
.Des
igni
ngcan
t

wayt
omat
ure,
stabl
esys
tems
,aswel
lasmet
hods al
lhappenatt
hedes
k.Wehavet
ovi
si
tsi
tes
us
edt
orepl
i
cat
ethi
sevol
uti
on,
albei
tmor
equi
ckl
y, ands
eewhati
sther
eandhow t
hel
ands
cape
wi
thi
nourdes
ignedl
ands
capes
.In
Met
hodsof behaves
.How doesr
ainaf
fecti
t?Or
,wi
l
dli
fe?
Des
ign
,wemovef
rom t
heconcept
ual
to Wecanobs
ervet
hemat
ical
l
ypayi
ngat
tent
ion
cons
truct
iveas
pect
sofper
macul
tur
e. t
oweeds
,soi
l
,meas
urement
s,ours
ens
est
oget
at
ruerf
eel
i
ngf
ort
hes
ite.
Then,
wecanas
ses
s
Des
ign,
though,
begi
nswi
thanal
ysi
s.Wel
i
stt
he
ourobs
ervat
ionwi
thoutj
udgmentandbegi
n
component
stobei
ncl
udedi
nours
yst
em,
not
ing
t
odeci
phert
hemeani
ngt
hroughf
urt
her
whati
sal
readyt
her
e,andwecons
iderhow t
obes
t
r
esear
ch.
Wecandi
scoverwhatconnect
ions
putt
hem t
oget
her
.Wet
hinkl
argel
yaboutt
he
ar
eal
readywor
kingi
nourf
avorandut
il
iz
e
connect
ionsbet
weencomponent
ssot
hatour
t
hem,
li
nki
ngcomponent
stoex
tendedus
eful
ar
rangement
scr
eat
emut
ual
l
ybenef
ici
al
pat
ter
ns.
Thr
oughobs
ervat
ion,
wedevel
opa
envi
ronment
sforhumans
,ani
mal
s,pl
ant
s,and
des
igns
trat
egy.
evenbui
l
dings
.Todos
o,wehavet
ocons
ideras
Then,
whatwel
ear
ncanbecaut
ious
lyappl
i
ed t
hroughconf
usi
ngs
ituat
ions
,butwear
enever
t
oourdes
ign.
Wear
ewor
kingt
omi
mict
he r
eal
l
ysur
ehow ades
ignwi
l
lwor
kunt
ilweput
nat
ural
sys
temst
hatar
ewor
kingar
oundus
. i
tinact
ion.
Wehavet
othi
nkabouthow pl
ant
sar
e
ar
ranged,
suchast
hel
ayer
soff
ores
t:canopy
t
rees
,under
stor
ytr
ees
,shr
ubs
,her
baceous
pl
ant
s,cl
i
mber
s,gr
oundcover
s,andbul
bous
pl
ant
s.Weengagewi
thwat
erf
lowsandt
hei
r
ef
fectont
heear
th,
real
i
zinghow t
hatmi
ght
ex
tendpr
oduct
ivel
yinourdes
ign.
Wei
nvi
te
ani
mal
sbyl
ear
ningwhathabi
tat
sthey
r
equi
re.
Oncewek
now t
her
ulesbywhi
ch
nat
urei
swor
king,
wecans
electt
hes
peci
es
wewantt
ofi
l
leachni
chewi
thi
nours
yst
em, Mapsandt
echnol
ogyar
eagr
eatt
ool
for
mi
nimi
zi
ngunwant
eds
peci
esand des
igni
ng.
Wit
hGoogl
eEar
th,
Googl
eMaps
,
max
imi
zi
ngheal
thypr
oduct
ivi
ty. andLi
dars
urveys
,it
spos
sibl
etof
indout
gener
all
ywher
econt
ourl
i
nesar
e,andwi
th
EXPERI
MENTATI
ONLEADSTO EFFI
CIENCY
s
mar
tphones
,wecant
akes
itephot
os,
keep
Wi
thwhatwehavel
ear
nedt
hroughs
ite r
ecor
ds,
uses
urveyapps
,ands
oon.
anal
ysi
s,obs
ervat
ionandr
esear
ch,
wecan However
,mapsdon
tshow ever
ythi
ng.
begi
ntoex
plor
etheopt
ionst
hatwehave Not
hingr
epl
acesbei
ngons
ite,
wher
eiti
s
f
ordes
ign.
Wes
houl
dsequenceopt
ions pos
sibl
etonot
iceanot
her
wis
eunaccount
ed
bef
oremak
ingdeci
si
ons
,st
art
ingwi
tha f
orani
mal
habi
tatorpi
ckuponas
pott
hat
pot
ent
ial
proj
ect
sandbr
anchi
ngoutwi
thi
n get
ssubs
tant
ial
wind/
fros
t/s
hade.
Theyal
so
t
heent
iredes
ignt
oins
uret
hatt
hes
yst
em don
taccountf
orcul
tur
alorf
inanci
al
hasaccount
edal
ltheneedsofwhati
sbei
ng r
est
rai
ntst
hatmi
ghtbeades
ignf
act
or.
pr
oduced.
Des
ignsr
equi
remor
ethanj
usta However
,theyar
eaus
eful
meansf
orpl
anni
ng
s
ite,
butr
athert
heyi
ncl
udel
i
fes
tyl
echanges
, t
hemai
nfr
ames
truct
uresandear
thwor
ksof
r
esour
ces
,andf
inal
l
yadapt
ati
on.
Ourpl
ans des
ign,
from whi
chi
deasf
oracces
srout
es,
ar
ethes
ens
ibl
est
art
ingpoi
ntandgui
des bui
l
dings
,fences
,ands
oons
tar
ttot
akes
hape.
RANDOM ASSEMBLI
ES
Then,
wit
hourcomponentl
i
sts
andopt
ionsandmaps
,wecan
(
andmus
t)pl
aywi
thour
ar
rangementoft
hings
.Random
as
sembl
esex
plor
ewhatwoul
d
happenwi
thdi
ff
erent
pr
epos
iti
ons(
on,
in,
above,
bel
ow,
bet
ween,
bes
ide,
etc.
)bet
ween
t
wocomponent
s.Forex
ampl
e,
gl
ass
hous
escanbeat
tached
t
ohous
es,
whi
chwi
l
lcr
eat
eheat
.
Per
hapst
hisi
stoomuchheati
n
t
hes
ummer
,soweputat
rel
l
is
overt
hegl
ass
hous
ewi
thadeci
duousvi
neoni
tto Las
tly,
wemus
tcons
iderf
low whenwear
e
pr
ovi
des
hadei
nsummer
timeandal
l
ow s
uni
n des
igni
ng,
andwedot
hisbycr
eat
ingf
low
t
hewi
nter
,whenmor
ewar
mthi
sneeded.
Ifwe di
agr
ams
.Di
ff
erentj
obs
cook
ing,
plant
ing,
al
l
ow our
sel
vest
obeopent
oandpondert
he bui
l
dingr
equi
redi
ff
erents
paces
,tool
sand
pos
sibi
l
iti
es,
wecanmoveawayf
rom convent
ion r
esour
ces
,andt
heycr
eat
edi
ff
erentt
ypesof
andhopef
ull
ymor
eint
oef
fi
ci
ency. was
tepr
oduct
s.Par
tofawel
l
-concei
veddes
ign
i
sfi
ndi
ngwayst
omi
nimi
zeourmovement
sfor
OPTI
ONS&DECI
SIONS
get
tingj
obsdone.
Forex
ampl
e,i
fwewer
eto
wantt
opotpl
ant
s,we
dneedmat
eri
als
seeds
,
pot
s,s
oil
andt
ool
sat
rowel
,ameas
uri
ng
devi
ce,
ands
pacet
omak
epot
tingmi
xnott
o
ment
ionacces
stowat
erandawor
ktabl
e.A
gooddes
ignwoul
dhaveal
loft
hes
ethi
ngsput
conveni
ent
lyt
oget
hers
othatwear
en
twas
ting
ener
gywal
ki
ngt
oandf
rot
ogett
hingsdone.
.
Flow canappl
ytohar
ves
tingveget
abl
esor
was
hingdi
shesandcanni
ngpr
eser
ves
.
EVERYTHI
NGI
NITSPLACENATURALLY

Per
macul
tur
edes
ignhasagener
al
mas
terpl
an,
asys
tem ofz
oni
ngi
n
whi
chener
gyi
sconcent
rat
edi
nthe
mi
ddl
eanddi
sper
sest
hef
urt
herout
i
tmoves
.Zone0i
sus
ual
l
yal
ocal
l
y
s
our
cedhome,
des
ignedt
out
il
iz
e
nat
ural
component
ss
un,
wind,
pl
ant
st
omoder
atet
hecl
i
mat
eto
cr
eat
eacomf
ort
abl
epl
acet
orel
ax.
Zone1i
sthehi
ghl
ytr
aff
ick
edar
ea
ar
oundourhome,
aboutt
o acr
e,
andi
tsgar
densar
ever
ycont
rol
l
edand
pr
oducemor
efoodpers
quar
efoot
t
hananywher
eel
s Zone2onet
e. otwo
acr
ess
uroundsZone1
r ,andher
esys
temsbegi
n
t
oincl
udemor
enat
ural
proces
s,movi
ngi
ntof
ood l
argel
ywi
l
dfor
est
,of
tengear
edt
owar
ds
f
ores
ts,
mai
ncr
opgar
dens
,ands
mal
l
-scal
eani
mal s
omet
hingl
i
kef
ungi
orl
umber
. Zone5,
Then,
s
yst
ems
. om Zone3on,
Fr sys
temsand ex
tendi
ngoutendl
ess
ly,
iswi
l
der
nes
s,l
eftt
olear
n
component
sgetmuchl
arger
,wi
than f
rom.
as
sor
tmentofgr
azi
ngpas
tur
es(
andani
mal
s),
Zonesar
eof
tendepi
ctedbyconcent
ricci
rcl
es,
l
argewi
ndbr
eak
s,maj
orwoodl
ots
,andhar
dy
buti
nreal
i
ty,
theyar
enots
hapeds
oper
fect
lyand
t
rees
.Zone4i
sal
oos
elymanageds
yst
em of
act
ual
l
yyi
eldt
hei
rshapest
oener
gys
ect
ors
.
Sect
orsi
ncl
udet
hingsl
i
ket
hemi
dwi
nterand
mi
dsummers
unpat
hs.
Theycoul
dbewher
ewi
nds
ent
erorwher
efi
remayt
hreat
enorwher
e
unpl
eas
ants
mel
l
s/s
ight
smi
ghtbe.
Theycoul
d
bear
easpr
onet
ofl
oodsorf
ros
t.Wedes
ignwi
th
t
hes
esect
orsaccount
edf
or,
usi
ngourel
ement
sto
ei
theracceptorbl
ockt
heener
gy.
Eachel
ementi
n
t
hiswayper
for
msmul
ti
plef
unct
ions
suppl
yinga
cr
op,
block
ingheavywi
nds
,pr
ovi
dings
hade,
et
c.and,
equal
l
yso,
eachf
unct
ioni
sbei
ng
per
for
medbymul
ti
pleel
ement
ssot
hati
faf
ir
e
br
eak
spas
tthedr
ivewayi
tst
opsatt
hemoi
st
s
wal
esys
tem orf
res
hgr
eener
ythes
wal
e
s
uppor
ts.
Thi
sent
irez
oni
ngs
yst
em,
cent
ral
to haveal
readybeendamagedbypeopl
e.Thi
sis
per
macul
tur
edes
ign,
concent
rat
esar
ound par
tofhow wemi
nimi
zeouri
mpact
:Wes
ett
le
peopl
e.I
thel
psusr
educeourdes
truct
ionof i
npl
acest
hathaveal
readybeens
ett
led.
wi
l
der
nes
s,aswel
lasbes
tewar
dsofr
evi
tal
i
zing
nat
ural
sys
tems
.Zone1andZone2ar
echi
efl
y
gui
dedbyus
,buti
nthez
onesbeyondt
hat
,we
des
igns
othatnat
urecanf
lour
ishwi
thoutbei
ng
ex
ploi
ted.
Eveni
nourcont
rol
l
eds
yst
ems
,we
haveonl
yenabl
ednat
uret
odowhat
itdoes
,but
wei
nter
actandhar
ves
twi
thi
nthes
espaces
.
Thus
,rat
hert
handes
troyi
ngex
ist
ingnat
ural
s
yst
emst
ocr
eat
eourhomes
,wes
houl
dbe
car
eful
tous
eourdes
ignst
orepai
rar
east
hat

ZONE0:
thecent
reofhumanact
ivi
ty,
for ZONE3:
cont
ainsunpr
unedandunmul
ched
ex
ampl
e,t
hehous
e. or
char
d,l
argerpas
tur
esorr
angesf
ormeatani
mal
s
orf
lock
s&hass
elf
-for
ages
yst
ems
,wi
nd&f
ir
e
ZONE1
:cl
oset
othehous
e,i
sthemos
t
br
eak
set
c.
cont
rol
l
edandi
ntens
ivel
y-us
edanddes
igned
ar
eacont
aini
ngt
hehomeork
itchengar
den, ZONE4:
iss
emi
-managedands
emi
-wi
l
dus
edf
or
gr
eenhous
e,s
mal
lani
mal
s,wood-
pil
e, gat
her
ing,
har
dyf
oods
,unpr
unedt
rees
,&
compos
t,et
c. wi
l
dli
fe&f
ores
tmanagement
.

ZONE2:
hast
ypi
cal
l
ylar
gers
hrubs
,smal
l ZONE5:
isunmanagedwi
l
der
nes
swher
ewe
f
rui
tandmi
xedor
char
d,wi
ndbr
eak
s, obs
erve&l
ear
n.
poul
try,
ponds
,ter
races
,mai
ncr
ops
,et
c.
Thi
szonei
swel
l
-mai
ntai
nedanddens
ly
pl
ant
ed.
ARRANGI
NGTHI
NGSBEFORETHEY
RETHERE

I
nit
iat
ingaper
macul
tur
edes
igni
sonl
ythebegi
nni
ngofa
pr
oces
s.Per
macul
tur
esys
tems
,es
peci
all
yint
hef
irs
tfew year
s,
r
equi
recont
inuouss
mal
ladapt
ati
onsi
nor
dert
oimpr
ovet
he
des
ign
sef
fi
ci
ency.
Whi
l
ewehaves
pentampl
eti
mepl
anni
ng,
pos
iti
oni
ngourcomponent
scar
eful
l
y,not
ingourener
gy
s
ect
orsandr
espect
ingnat
ural
funct
ions
,wes
til
lmus
taccept
f
eedback
how t
hes
yst
em per
for
msi
nor
dert
oimpr
ovei
t.
Per
macul
tur
edeal
swi
thcompl
exnat
ural
sys
tems
,whi
ch
behaveonl
ypar
tial
l
ypr
edi
ctabl
y,s
owehavet
oobs
erveour
s
yst
emsandk
eept
hem movi
ngi
napos
iti
vedi
rect
ion.

Wi
thapr
oper
tydes
ign,
wehavet
oas
ses
sands
ummar
izet
he
hol
i
sti
clands
cape.
Wehavet
ost
udyt
hes
oil
anddeci
pherwhat
cr
opswi
l
lgr
ow i
nit
.Wehavet
ocomeupwi
thear
thwor
ks,
and
wehavet
oknow how t
het
otal
i
tyoft
hel
andwi
l
lbeus
ed.
Des
ignsi
nvol
vemanydi
sci
pli
nes
.Theycaus
ebi
ologi
cal
changes
,
l
ands
capechanges
,andl
i
fes
tyl
echangesf
ort
hos
ewhoar
e
oper
ati
ngwi
thi
nthes
yst
em.
Ades
igns
ummar
yshoul
d
i
ncl
udepl
antl
i
sts
,managementi
nst
ruct
ions
,avai
l
abl
e
r
esour
ces
,speci
alss
kil
l
s,ex
ist
ingf
eat
ures
,andes
peci
all
y
acces
srout
est
hewayt
oef
fi
ci
encyt
hroughoutt
he
pr
oper
ty.

Per
macul
tur
egar
dendes
ignsf
eat
uregui
l
ds,
congr
egat
ionsof
pl
ant
s,ani
mal
s,andel
ement
sthatpr
ovi
deas
sis
tancef
orone
anot
her
.Of
tengui
l
dscent
eronacent
ral
element
,suchasa
l
argef
rui
ttr
ee.
Thi
sfr
uitt
reecoul
dbenef
itf
rom
mi
ner
al-
mini
ngpl
ant
s,pes
t-r
epel
l
ingpl
ant
s,gr
oundcover
s
t
opr
otectt
hes
oil
,ni
trogen-
fix
ingpl
ant
sforf
ert
il
iz
ati
on,
and
per
hapspl
ant
stobl
ockf
ros
tors
uni
ntheear
lydays
.Lat
er
on,
ani
mal
element
smi
ghtcomei
ntot
hes
yst
em,
tos
crat
ch
andf
ert
il
iz
ethes
oil
(chi
ckens
)orf
eedons
nai
l
sands
lugs
(
duck
s)orpol
l
inat
ethecr
ops(
beesandbut
ter
fli
es)
.Wecan
eveni
nst
all
feat
ures
,sayapondoraper
ch,
toat
tractwi
l
d
ani
mal
stot
hes
yst
em.
Wehavet
obeawar
eoft
hes
e
el
ement
s(t
hedi
ff
eri
ngs
peci
es)
,thei
rconnect
ions
,andhow
t
obes
tpos
iti
ont
hem i
nthedes
ign.
WORKI
NGWI
THTI
MEONOURSI
DE endeavor
sofener
gyandf
inanci
ali
nves
tment
.

Obs
ervat
ionst
ell
ust
hatnat
ural
succes
sionsof
ten Aswebegi
nourdes
igns
,wemus
taccumul
ateas
l
eadt
ofor
est
s.Mat
ures
yst
emshavemi
xedt
rees muchi
nfor
mat
ionaspos
sibl
e.Wes
houl
dknow
andunder
stor
ytr
ess
,shr
ubsandcl
i
mbi
ngpl
ant
s, aboutourcl
i
ent
s,t
hei
rsk
il
ls
,fi
nanci
alr
esour
ces
,
her
baceouspant
s,gr
oundcover
s,ani
mal
s,et
c. andt
imecons
trai
nts
.Wes
houl
dknow what
Becaus
ewek
now t
hes
tepst
owar
dss
tabi
l
ity,
we ear
thwor
kswi
l
lchanget
hel
ands
capeandt
o
candes
igni
ntoours
yst
emsal
loft
heel
ement
sto whatendf
orourf
ores
t,cr
op,
andani
mal
sys
tems
.
goqui
ckl
yfr
om degener
ateds
pacest
opr
oduct
ive, Wes
houl
dknow par
ticul
archal
l
engeswemi
ght
s
ust
ainabl
eecol
ogi
es.
Wecanmovef
rom f
ast
- f
ace:
eros
ion,
fir
e,wi
nd,
fros
t,pr
edat
ors
,pes
ts,
etc.
gr
owi
nggr
oundcover
sint
oper
enni
alcover
swi
th Wes
houl
dal
sohaveagr
asponwhatr
esour
ces
pl
ent
yofs
hor
t-t
erm,
nit
rogen-
fix
ingt
reest
opr
ovi
de ar
eavai
l
abl
elocal
l
y,whatpl
ant
sar
eal
ready
bot
hfer
til
i
zat
ionor
gani
cbi
omas
stof
eedmor
e s
ucces
sful
int
hear
ea,
andwhatl
ocal
ski
l
lsmi
ght
per
manentpi
ecesofourmat
ures
yst
em,
suchas beus
eful
.Onl
ywi
thal
loft
hisi
nfor
mat
ion,
dowe
f
rui
tandnutt
rees
.Incompl
etes
yst
ems
,weedsar
e t
henbegi
ntoappr
oachourdes
ign,
whi
chwe
notapr
obl
em s
owes
tri
vet
oachi
evet
hisf
rom t
he i
mpl
ementt
hroughs
mal
ltr
ial
sandper
for
mance
s
tar
tbyf
il
li
ngal
ltheni
cheswi
thpl
ant
swewant
. f
eedback
,andwecanus
ethatf
eedbackt
o
ex
tendi
ntol
argers
yst
ems
.
Es
tabl
i
shi
ngas
yst
em l
i
ket
hisi
smuchdi
ff
erent
t
hanmai
ntai
ningone.
Tos
tar
t,wehavet
oknow Wi
thi
naf
ew year
s,wecanex
pectt
hingst
obei
n
whatpl
ant
swewant
,wher
etof
indt
hem,
how or
der
.Soi
l
sshoul
dbeheal
thyandf
ull
ofl
i
fe.
mucht
heycos
t,andwhatt
odowi
tht
hem.
We Bui
l
dings
,ener
gys
yst
ems
,andwat
ercat
chment
s
needt
oaccountf
oracces
spat
hs,
shel
ter
s,anur
ser
y, s
houl
dbei
nful
lfl
ow.
Ther
eshoul
dbepr
oduct
son
ener
gy,
fences
,soi
l
,andt
hei
ntegr
ati
onofpeopl
e. t
hego,
hopef
ull
ywi
thacr
oport
wof
ulf
il
li
ng
St
art
ingwi
tht
hes
mal
l
erz
ones
,Zone1and2,
hel
ps s
peci
alt
y,ni
chemar
ket
s.Thepeopl
eint
hes
yst
em
uss
uppl
yfoodqui
ckl
y,andt
heygui
deust
hrought
o s
houl
dbehappywi
thi
t,l
i
vingar
ewar
dingand
t
heappr
opr
iat
est
eps
how nat
urei
swor
kingbes
t vi
brantl
i
fes
tyl
e.Thes
yst
em s
houl
dbeof
fer
ingan
f
orus
int
obr
oaderpr
oduct
ion.
InZone1and2,
we educat
ionoppor
tuni
tyt
othel
ocal
communi
ty,
a
havehugel
ydi
ver
sedes
igns(
25+pl
anneds
peci
es)
, nur
ser
yfort
heons
itepl
ant
s,andapr
imeex
ampl
e
wher
east
hel
arger
,out
erz
oneswi
l
lfocusont
enor ofl
i
vings
ust
ainabl
y,i
nawaybenef
ici
alt
obot
h
l
essf
ormar
ketpr
oduct
ion.
Wet
rial
thi
ngsi
nsmal
l
, humank
indandt
heenvi
ronmentuponwhi
chwe
cor
rect
abl
ewaysbef
oremovi
ngont
osuchbi
g al
lrel
y.

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