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‘Aces Oriental Acme Sitaram Han Tomas XLVI (3), 267-274 (1988) KARAMANIA, ‘THE ANTI-OTTOMAN CHRISTIAN DIPLOMACY AND THE NON-EXISTING HUNGARIAN-KARAMANID DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF 1428, ‘akon KoosroN @udepes) Karama, one of the Turkish principalities in Asia Minor that assumed great ‘power after the decline of the Seldjuk Sultanate of Anatolia, ranked among the fiercest enemies ofthe Otomans as early a the fourteenth century. Consequeat ly, it was a potenil ally of those Christian states threatened by the Ottoman ‘tive iowards Europe. The Karemanids were reluctant to accept the Ottoman a Shir verions and sized every opp wo Ineae the tees a the expense of the fledgling Otoman Empire. In spite of the successive peace lteatis and family ies between the Otomans and the Keramanids the Oviomans could never fel safe during any of their European campaigns, and always had to reckon with the Karamanids’ breach of the peace teaty as well as with the possitility of a Karamanid attack against Otoman terior in Anatolia In his indignation over the Karamanids successive revolts, Sultan Ba- yerid I (1389-1402) suppressed another Karamanid revolt against his rule in 1389. He had Alaeddin Karaman Beg executed and occupied the greater part of arama, Thus, the principality of Karaman was temporarily eliminated. Ts ‘common knowledge thatthe Karemanids and some other Anatolian principalities ‘e-esuablished thei former sovereignty during the fratricidal years after Timur’s (1336-1405) victory at Ankara in Fly 1402 and the death of Sultan Bayezid Tin “Marck 1403.! From then on in European diplomat records we more and more frequently come across the Karamanids, thei two outstanding rulers, Mehmed Beg 4.1423) and his son, Tadjeddin Torah Beg (1464). ‘yzantum, Venice, King Sleamand an the Karamanie ‘The impressive military victories of the Ottomans, a well as their expansion in ‘Anatoia and Rumil, frightened Byzantium. As’early as the mid-1300s, the ‘Otomens’ rise in power made Byzantine rulers seek support in European | Forth evens st: BA. Zahra, Sey gli in Rumi and the Otomsn ‘hicks, Der nam 0: (983) 268-286, C Inte, The oman Binge 120-1481, naa 1990.5573, 18200 5 ai get 366, Epes Ib V Pps, to tuna, condned megane xh st ote Hnguse King Liss Ge ae EE ES i ZSiRTE Gt amin end Ven Asin poate and cle elation nese bern a én de Ve ocean Romane as Remus, Dcwmoe pire Ira Romo & 2 1M6-140, Bree x0 «.AcosTon 1416. However, source at our disposal suggest that the above ctlined Venetisn Initiatives were ar of «int ant-Ooman diclomatc and ralitary campaign KARAMANIA.THE ANTL-OTTOMAN DIPLOMACY mm “The nom-xting Hungaram-Karamankd diploma eatons of 1428, ‘ans In August 1429 the Venetian Senate was i ‘man, ie, Tovahim Beg, vas showing wilingness m4 i 1. He also persuaded tah Rak, the Pr Ph so of Tims he eof Toca nd he Ont hake Son Hang. Tos HLM (27-74 FE anes, Ts oma msn pedo re e's ba nee nn ee KARAMANIA, ‘THE ANTILOTTOMAN CHRISTIAN DIPLOMACY [AND THE NON-EXISTING HUNGARIAN-KARAMANID ‘DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF 1428 ‘Byzaniom, Voice, King Sigmund and the Karamanids “Te impressive malty victories ofthe Ottomans, swell aster expanon in ‘Reet and Rumi, fightened Byzaniium. As early as the mig-13005 the Peete je im power made Byzantine rulers seek suppor in European 1 fore evns eB A. Zahn, Sloman ein Rail an be Oxon "Cnt The Oona Empire 130-18, aba