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There are basically two ways to mitigate the problem of limited recognition power of the
classical relaying principles. One of them is to improve and extend the measurements available to a
given relay (for example, optical CTs for improvement and substation integration for extension).
The second way is to improve the recognition process itself based on what is already available and
either :
search for the new relaying principles, or
apply several of known principles in one relay to improve the recognition, or
apply correction of the CT and CVT transient error, or
improve a type of fault determination by using of the ANNs classifier, or
use self-organizing algorithms such as ANNs to find out automatically a protection principle.

It always takes certain time to estimate the criteria signals accurately enough to base the
tripping decision on them. Either they are measured fast or accurately. There is no perfect digital
measuring algorithm that solves this well known conflict between the speed and the accuracy.

AI is a subfield of computer science that investigates how the though and action of human
beings can be mimicked by machines . Both the numeric, non-numeric and symbolic computations
are included in the area of AI. The mimicking of intelligence includes not only the ability to make
rational decisions, but also to deal with missing data, adapt to existing situations and improve itself
in the long time horizon based on the accumulated experience. Three major families of AI
techniques are considered to be applied in modern power system protection :
Expert System Techniques (XPS)
Expert systems included a few heuristic rules based on the expert's experience. In such systems,
the knowledge takes the form of so called production rules written using the If... then... syntax
(knowledge base). The system includes also the facts which generally describe the domain and
the state of the problem to be solved (data base). A generic inference engine uses the facts and
the rules to deduce new facts which allow the firing of other rules The knowledge base is a
collection of domain-specific knowledge and the inference system is the logic component for
processing the knowledge base to solve the problem. This process continues until the base of
facts is saturated and a conclusion has been reached (Fig.1).
Fig.1 Fig.1. Simplified block diagram of an XPS

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

The ANNs are very different from expert systems since they do not need a knowledge base to
work. Instead, they have to be trained with numerous actual cases. An ANN is a set of
elementary neurons which are connected together in different architectures organized in layers
what is biologically inspired (Fig.2).

Fig.2 . Typical three-layer architecture of a feed-forward ANN

Fuzzy Logic systems (FL)

With reference to Fig.3 the fuzzy logic approach to protective relaying assumes :
The criteria signals are fuzzified in order to account for dynamic errors of the measuring
The thresholds for the criteria signals are also represented by fuzzy numbers to account for
the lack of precision in dividing the space of the criteria signals between the tripping and
blocking regions.
The fuzzy signals are compared with the fuzzy settings. The comparison result is a fuzzy
logic variable between the Boolean absolute levels of truth and false.
Several relaying criteria are used in parallel. The criteria are aggregated by means of formal
multi-criteria decision-making algorithms that allow the criteria to be weighted according to
their reasoning ability.
The tripping decision depends on multi-criteria evaluation of the status of a protected
element. Additional decision factors may include the amount of available information, or
the expected costs of relay maloperation.

Fig.3. Simplified block diagram of the fuzzy logic approach

A. Application To Power Transformer Protection
Table I. Comparison Of AI Methods In Power System Protection

Fig.4. Simplified block diagram of the considered fuzzy logic relay for power transformers

Fig.5. Fuzzy Logic based relay operation under sample turn-to-turn fault occurring during
energizing of the transformer
Fig.6. The basic configuration of a Neural Network based Relay (NNR) for power

To analyze logic signals produced by comparison of an appropriate settings, instead

of using an output logic circuit, an ANN based classifier is employed. Each criterion is
aptimized individually prior to usage with the objective to minimize the percentage of
missing and false indications as well as the provided average identification time. No sliding
data window is applied - only the most recent samples are fed.

For all considered cases the feed-forward three-layer fully interconnected sigmoidal
ANNs was used. Two basic configurations of a NNR of a three-phase power transformer
was tested: with single ANN for each transformer phase and with ANN observing the three
phases. The actual number of training patterns presented to ANNs count in tens of
thousands - due to the three-phase structure of a protected transformer and the sliding data
window of a NNR. Wide comparative analysis with different NNR structure has been
provided. Majority of the developed NNRs handle well the special testing cases .

B. Application To CT And CVT Correction

Certain construction limitations of the instrument transformers may in some cases
cause maloperation or substantial delay in tripping of the protective relays. One of the
method for correction of CTs saturation consists in application of CTs inverse transfer
function in the form of ANN.

The sliding data widow consisting of the recent and a few historical samples of the
signals, is fed to the ANN. Rescaled samples of the CT current are putted on the input
register: ) iw(n N +1 , ... ) iw(n . ANN output signal ( ) c n Nd i represents corrected CT
current. Result of compensation the secondary CT current is presented in Fig. 8. Secondary
current waveform was obtained from the EMTP simulation of 3-phase fault at the
substation of 400 kV system. It can be seen that the proposed ANN corrector almost
perfectly reproduces the primary current. Current magnitude (Fig. 8b) is estimated
according to the full-period Fourier method.

Fig.7. ANN structure for CT correction

Fig. 8. Plot of phase S currents generated from simulation of 3- phase fault at the substation
(RF=0). Compensation carried out by ANN of 5-5-1 structure (a). Amplitude estimation of
primary, secondary and compensated current (b).
Fig. 9. Results of CVT transients error compensation during phault-to-ground fault at the substation

Very generally, the dynamics of a CVT is determined by two factors:

nonlinear oscillations under saturation of magnetic core of the CVT step-
down transformer,
discharging of the CVT internal energy during short circuits on an associated
transmission line.

C. Application To Fault Type Classification

The proposed neural fault type estimator (NFTE) consists of 4 neural networks: three
recurrent nets for particular phase fault detection and the fourth feedforward one for fault to
ground recognition . The NFTE uses feature vectors formed by V (voltage) and I (current)
trials. The architecture of the NFTE for a faulty phase selection is sketched in Fig.10. The
ANNs are free layer networks with activation functions of both hidden layers of hyperbolic
tangent type and linear functions in output neurons.

The nets work in parallel indicating faulted phases (the nets ANN-Ph - Fig.10) and
eventually fault to ground events (the net ANN-G - not presented in Fig.10). Changes of
outputs of particular ANN-Ph classifiers from -1 to 1 indicate fault detection in scanned
phase and changes of output of fault to ground detector inform about faults as follows: R-G,
S-G, T-G, R-S-G, R-T-G or S-T-G. The decision threshold in both detectors equal to 0 has
been chosen.
Introducing only absolute values of voltage and current samples at the input (Fig.10)
reduces number of different patterns to be analysed. Usage of ANNs with the feedback
connection makes the output signal from ANN-Ph more stable and the decision taken more

D. Conclusions
The paper reviews the AI approaches to power system protection and focuses on the
application of ANN and fuzzy logic techniques.

A number of novel application and concepts have been presented including fuzzy
logic approach to differential transformer protection and ANN application to the
transformer protection, CT and CVT transients correction, and. fault-type classification.
Included examples demonstrate application of the AI methods and their features.

Saha, M.M.2013. Artificial Intelligent Application To Power System Protection. Substation

Automation Division ABB Automation Products AB SE-721 59 Vsters, SWEDEN Department of
Electrical Engineering Wroclaw University of Technology 50-370 Wroclaw, POLAND.